regionName id content
Afghanistan Background Afghanistan's recent history is characterized by war and civil unrest. The Soviet Union invaded in 1979, but was forced to withdraw 10 years later by anti-Communist mujahidin forces supplied and trained by the US, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and others. Fighting subsequently continued among the various mujahidin factions, giving rise to a state of warlordism that eventually spawned the Taliban. Backed by foreign sponsors, the Taliban developed as a political force and eventually seized power. The Taliban were able to capture most of the country, aside from Northern Alliance strongholds primarily in the northeast, until US and allied military action in support of the opposition following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks forced the group's downfall. In late 2001, major leaders from the Afghan opposition groups and diaspora met in Bonn, Germany, and agreed on a plan for the formulation of a new government structure that resulted in the inauguration of Hamid KARZAI as Chairman of the Afghan Interim Authority (AIA) on 22 December 2001. The AIA held a nationwide Loya Jirga (Grand Assembly) in June 2002, and KARZAI was elected President by secret ballot of the Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan (TISA). The Transitional Authority has an 18-month mandate to hold a nationwide Loya Jirga to adopt a constitution and a 24-month mandate to hold nationwide elections. In December 2002, the TISA marked the one-year anniversary of the fall of the Taliban. In addition to occasionally violent political jockeying and ongoing military action to root out remaining terrorists and Taliban elements, the country suffers from enormous poverty, a crumbling infrastructure, and widespread land mines.
Afghanistan Location Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran
Afghanistan Geographic coordinates 33 00 N, 65 00 E
Afghanistan Map references Asia
Afghanistan Area total: 647,500 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 647,500 sq km
Afghanistan Area - comparative slightly smaller than Texas
Afghanistan Land boundaries total: 5,529 km border countries: China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km, Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km
Afghanistan Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Afghanistan Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Afghanistan Climate arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers
Afghanistan Terrain mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest
Afghanistan Elevation extremes lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m highest point: Nowshak 7,485 m
Afghanistan Natural resources natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, chromite, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones
Afghanistan Land use arable land: 12.13% permanent crops: 0.22% other: 87.65% (1998 est.)
Afghanistan Irrigated land 23,860 sq km (1998 est.)
Afghanistan Natural hazards damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; flooding; droughts
Afghanistan Environment - current issues limited natural fresh water resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building materials); desertification; air and water pollution
Afghanistan Environment - international agreements party to: Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation
Afghanistan Geography - note landlocked; the Hindu Kush mountains that run northeast to southwest divide the northern provinces from the rest of the country; the highest peaks are in the northern Vakhan (Wakhan Corridor)
Afghanistan Population 28,717,213 (July 2003 est.)
Afghanistan Age structure 0-14 years: 41.8% (male 6,123,971; female 5,868,013) 15-64 years: 55.4% (male 8,240,743; female 7,671,242) 65 years and over: 2.8% (male 427,710; female 385,534) (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Median age total: 18.9 years male: 19.1 years female: 18.7 years (2002)
Afghanistan Population growth rate 3.38% note: this rate does not take into consideration the recent war and its continuing impact (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Birth rate 40.63 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Death rate 17.15 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Net migration rate 10.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.11 male(s)/female total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Infant mortality rate total: 142.48 deaths/1,000 live births female: 138.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 145.99 deaths/1,000 live births
Afghanistan Life expectancy at birth total population: 46.97 years male: 47.67 years female: 46.23 years (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Total fertility rate 5.64 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Afghanistan HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.01% (2001 est.)
Afghanistan HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
Afghanistan HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Afghanistan Nationality noun: Afghan(s) adjective: Afghan
Afghanistan Ethnic groups Pashtun 44%, Tajik 25%, Hazara 10%, minor ethnic groups (Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others) 13%, Uzbek 8%
Afghanistan Religions Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1%
Afghanistan Languages Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism
Afghanistan Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write female: 21% (1999 est.) total population: 36% male: 51%
Afghanistan People - note large numbers of Afghan refugees create burdens on neighboring states
Afghanistan Country name conventional long form: Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan conventional short form: Afghanistan local short form: Afghanestan former: Republic of Afghanistan local long form: Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan
Afghanistan Government type transitional
Afghanistan Capital Kabul
Afghanistan Administrative divisions 32 provinces (velayat, singular - velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Khowst, Konar, Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Nurestan, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, and Zabol
Afghanistan Independence 19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs)
Afghanistan National holiday Independence Day, 19 August (1919)
Afghanistan Constitution the Bonn Agreement called for a Loya Jirga (Grand Council) to be convened within 18 months of the establishment of the Transitional Authority to draft a new constitution for the country; the basis for the next constitution is the 1964 Constitution, according to the Bonn Agreement
Afghanistan Legal system the Bonn Agreement calls for a judicial commission to rebuild the justice system in accordance with Islamic principles, international standards, the rule of law, and Afghan legal traditions
Afghanistan Suffrage NA; previously males 15-50 years of age
Afghanistan Executive branch note: following the Taliban's refusal to hand over Usama bin LADIN to the US for his suspected involvement in the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in the US, a US-led international coalition was formed; after several weeks of aerial bombardment by coalition forces and military action on the ground, including Afghan opposition forces, the Taliban was ousted from power on 17 November 2001; in December 2001, a number of prominent Afghans met under UN auspices in Bonn, Germany, to decide on a plan for governing the country; as a result, the Afghan Interim Authority (AIA) - made up of 30 members, headed by a chairman - was inaugurated on 22 December 2001 with a six-month mandate to be followed by a two-year Transitional Authority (TA), after which elections are to be held; the structure of the follow-on TA was announced on 10 June 2002, when the Loya Jirga (Grand Assembly) convened establishing the Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan (TISA), which has 18 months to hold a Loya Jirga to adopt a constitution and 24 months to hold nationwide elections chief of state: President of the TISA, Hamid KARZAI (since 10 June 2002); note - presently the president and head of government head of government: President of the TISA, Hamid KARZAI (since 10 June 2002); note - presently the president and head of government cabinet: the 30-member TISA elections: nationwide elections are to be held by June 2004, according to the Bonn Agreement
Afghanistan Legislative branch nonfunctioning as of June 1993
Afghanistan Judicial branch the Bonn Agreement called for the establishment of a Supreme Court; there is also a Minister of Justice
Afghanistan Political parties and leaders NA; note - political parties in Afghanistan are in flux and many prominent players have plans to create new parties; the Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan (TISA) is headed by President Hamid KARZAI; the TISA is a coalition government formed of leaders from across the Afghan political spectrum; there are also several political factions not holding positions in the Transitional government that are forming new groups and parties in the hopes of participating in 2004 elections
Afghanistan Political pressure groups and leaders NA; note - ministries formed under the Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan (TISA) include former influential Afghans, diaspora members, and former political leaders
Afghanistan International organization participation AsDB, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GUUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO
Afghanistan Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: ambassador Seyyed Tayeb JAWAD chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 FAX: 202-483-6487 consulate(s) general: New York telephone: 202-483-6410
Afghanistan Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Robert Patrick John FINN; note - embassy in Kabul reopened 16 December 2001, following closure in January 1989 embassy: Great Masood Road, Kabul mailing address: 6180 Kabul Place, Dulles, VA 20189-6180 telephone: [93] (2) 290002, 290005, 290154 FAX: 00932290153
Afghanistan Flag description three equal vertical bands of black (hoist), red, and green, with a gold emblem centered on the red band; the emblem features a temple-like structure encircled by a wreath on the left and right and by a bold Islamic inscription above
Afghanistan Economy - overview Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked country, highly dependent on foreign aid, farming and livestock raising (sheep and goats), and trade with neighboring countries. Economic considerations have played second fiddle to political and military upheavals during more than two decades of war, including the nearly 10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended 15 February 1989). During that conflict, one-third of the population fled the country, with Pakistan and Iran sheltering a combined peak of 4 to 6 million refugees. Gross domestic product has fallen substantially over the past 20 years because of the loss of labor and capital and the disruption of trade and transport; severe drought added to the nation's difficulties in 1998-2002. The majority of the population continues to suffer from insufficient food, clothing, housing, and medical care, and a dearth of jobs, problems exacerbated by political uncertainties and the general level of lawlessness. International efforts to rebuild Afghanistan were addressed at the Tokyo Donors Conference for Afghan Reconstruction in January 2002, when $4.5 billion was pledged, $1.7 billion for 2002. Of that approximately $900 million was directed to humanitarian aid - food, clothing, and shelter - and another $90 million for the Afghan Transitional Authority. Further World Bank and other aid came in 2003. Priority areas for reconstruction include upgrading education, health, and sanitation facilities; providing income generating opportunities; enhancing administrative and security arrangements, especially in regional areas; developing the agricultural sector; rebuilding transportation, energy, and telecommunication infrastructure; and reabsorbing 2 million returning refugees. The replacement of the opium trade - which may account for one-third of GDP - and the search for oil and gas resources in the northern region are two major long-term issues.
Afghanistan GDP purchasing power parity - $19 billion (2002 est.)
Afghanistan GDP - real growth rate NA%
Afghanistan GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $700 (2002 est.)
Afghanistan GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 60% industry: 20% services: 20% (1990 est.)
Afghanistan Population below poverty line NA%
Afghanistan Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Afghanistan Inflation rate (consumer prices) NA%
Afghanistan Labor force 10 million (2000 est.)
Afghanistan Labor force - by occupation agriculture 80%, industry 10%, services 10% (1990 est.)
Afghanistan Unemployment rate NA%
Afghanistan Budget revenues: $200 million expenditures: $550 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2003 plan est.)
Afghanistan Industries small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, coal, copper
Afghanistan Industrial production growth rate NA%
Afghanistan Electricity - production 334.8 million kWh (2001)
Afghanistan Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 36.3% hydro: 63.7% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Afghanistan Electricity - consumption 511.4 million kWh (2001)
Afghanistan Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Afghanistan Electricity - imports 200 million kWh (2001)
Afghanistan Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Afghanistan Oil - consumption 3,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Afghanistan Oil - exports NA (2001)
Afghanistan Oil - imports NA (2001)
Afghanistan Oil - proved reserves 0 bbl (37257)
Afghanistan Natural gas - production 220 million cu m (2001 est.)
Afghanistan Natural gas - consumption 220 million cu m (2001 est.)
Afghanistan Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Afghanistan Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Afghanistan Natural gas - proved reserves 49.98 billion cu m (37257)
Afghanistan Agriculture - products opium, wheat, fruits, nuts, wool, mutton, sheepskins, lambskins
Afghanistan Exports $1.2 billion (not including illicit exports) (2001 est.)
Afghanistan Exports - commodities opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems
Afghanistan Exports - partners Pakistan 26.8%, India 26.5%, Finland 5.8%, Germany 5.1%, UAE 4.4%, Belgium 4.3%, Russia 4.2%, US 4.2% (2002)
Afghanistan Imports $1.3 billion (2001 est.)
Afghanistan Imports - commodities capital goods, food, textiles, petroleum products
Afghanistan Imports - partners Pakistan 25.1%, South Korea 14.4%, Japan 9.4%, US 9%, Kenya 5.8%, Germany 5.4% (2002)
Afghanistan Debt - external NA (1996 est.)
Afghanistan Economic aid - recipient international pledges made by more than 60 countries and international financial institutions at the Tokyo Donors Conference for Afghan reconstruction in January 2002 reached $4.5 billion through 2006, with $1.8 billion allocated for 2002; another $1.7 billion was pledged for 2003.
Afghanistan Currency afghani (AFA)
Afghanistan Currency code AFA
Afghanistan Exchange rates afghanis per US dollar - 3,000 (October-December 2002), 3,000 (2001), 3,000 (2000), 3,000 (1999), 3,000 (1998), note: before 2002 the market rate varied widely from the official rate; in 2002 the afghani was revalued and the currency stabilized
Afghanistan Fiscal year 21 March - 20 March
Afghanistan Telephones - main lines in use 29,000 (1998)
Afghanistan Telephones - mobile cellular NA
Afghanistan Telephone system general assessment: very limited telephone and telegraph service domestic: in 1997, telecommunications links were established between Mazar-e Sharif, Herat, Kandahar, Jalalabad, and Kabul through satellite and microwave systems international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) linked only to Iran and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); commercial satellite telephone center in Ghazni
Afghanistan Radio broadcast stations AM 7 (6 are inactive; the active station is in Kabul), FM 1, shortwave 1 (broadcasts in Pashtu, Afghan Persian (Dari), Urdu, and English) (1999)
Afghanistan Television broadcast stations at least 10 (one government-run central television station in Kabul and regional stations in nine of the 32 provinces; the regional stations operate on a reduced schedule; also, in 1997, there was a station in Mazar-e Sharif reaching four northern Afghanistan provinces) (1998)
Afghanistan Internet country code .af
Afghanistan Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Afghanistan Internet users NA
Afghanistan Railways total: 24.6 km broad gauge: 9.6 km 1.524-m gauge from Gushgy (Turkmenistan) to Towraghondi; 15 km 1.524-m gauge from Termiz (Uzbekistan) to Kheyrabad transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya (2001)
Afghanistan Highways total: 21,000 km paved: 2,793 km unpaved: 18,207 km (1999 est.)
Afghanistan Waterways 1,200 km note: chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to 500 DWT (2001)
Afghanistan Pipelines gas 651 km (2003)
Afghanistan Ports and harbors Kheyrabad, Shir Khan
Afghanistan Airports 47 (2002)
Afghanistan Airports - with paved runways total: 10 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 under 914 m: 1 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
Afghanistan Airports - with unpaved runways total: 37 under 914 m: 11 (2002) 914 to 1,523 m: 4 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
Afghanistan Heliports 5 (2002)
Afghanistan Military branches NA; note - the December 2001 Bonn Agreement called for all militia forces to come under the authority of the central government, but regional leaders have continued to retain their militias and the formation of a nation army will be a gradual process; Afghanistan's forces continue to be factionalized, largely along ethnic lines
Afghanistan Military manpower - military age 22 years of age (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 7,160,603 (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 3,837,646 (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 275,223 (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Military expenditures - dollar figure $525.2 million (FY02)
Afghanistan Military expenditures - percent of GDP 7.7% (FY02)
Afghanistan Disputes - international thousands of Afghan refugees still reside in Iran and Pakistan; isolating terrain and close ties among Pashtuns in Pakistan make cross-border activities difficult to control; prolonged regional drought strains water-sharing arrangements for Amu Darya and Helmand River states
Afghanistan Illicit drugs world's largest producer of opium; cultivation of opium poppy - used to make heroin - expanded to 30,750 hectares in 2002, despite eradication; potential opium production of 1,278 metric tons; source of hashish; many narcotics-processing labs throughout the country; drug trade source of instability and some government groups profit from the trade; 80-90% of the heroin consumed in Europe comes from Afghan opium; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through the hawala system
Albania Background Between 1990 and 1992 Albania ended 46 years of xenophobic Communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The transition has proven difficult as corrupt governments have tried to deal with high unemployment, a dilapidated infrastructure, widespread gangsterism, and disruptive political opponents. International observers judged legislative elections in 2001 to be acceptable and a step toward democratic development, but identified serious deficiencies that should be addressed through reforms in the Albanian electoral code.
Albania Location Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea, between Greece and Serbia and Montenegro
Albania Geographic coordinates 41 00 N, 20 00 E
Albania Map references Europe
Albania Area total: 28,748 sq km water: 1,350 sq km land: 27,398 sq km
Albania Area - comparative slightly smaller than Maryland
Albania Land boundaries total: 720 km border countries: Greece 282 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km
Albania Coastline 362 km
Albania Maritime claims continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation territorial sea: 12 NM
Albania Climate mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter
Albania Terrain mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast
Albania Elevation extremes lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m highest point: Maja e Korabit (Golem Korab) 2,753 m
Albania Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, timber, nickel, hydropower
Albania Land use arable land: 21.09% permanent crops: 4.45% other: 74.46% (1998 est.)
Albania Irrigated land 3,400 sq km (1998 est.)
Albania Natural hazards destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along southwestern coast; floods; drought
Albania Environment - current issues deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and domestic effluents
Albania Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Albania Geography - note strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)
Albania Population 3,582,205 (July 2003 est.)
Albania Age structure 0-14 years: 28.1% (male 520,714; female 486,911) 15-64 years: 64.6% (male 1,115,887; female 1,196,477) 65 years and over: 7.3% (male 115,754; female 146,462) (2003 est.)
Albania Median age total: 26.5 years male: 24.8 years female: 28.1 years (2002)
Albania Population growth rate 1.03% (2003 est.)
Albania Birth rate 18.2 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Albania Death rate 6.48 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Albania Net migration rate -1.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Albania Sex ratio at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Albania Infant mortality rate total: 37.28 deaths/1,000 live births female: 34.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 39.68 deaths/1,000 live births
Albania Life expectancy at birth total population: 72.37 years male: 69.53 years female: 75.42 years (2003 est.)
Albania Total fertility rate 2.22 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Albania HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate NA
Albania HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
Albania HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Albania Nationality noun: Albanian(s) adjective: Albanian
Albania Ethnic groups Albanian 95%, Greek 3%, other 2% (Vlach, Gypsy, Serb, and Bulgarian) (1989 est.) note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from 1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)
Albania Religions Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10% note: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice
Albania Languages Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek
Albania Literacy definition: age 9 and over can read and write total population: 86.5% male: 93.3% female: 79.5% (2003 est.)
Albania Country name conventional long form: Republic of Albania conventional short form: Albania local short form: Shqiperia former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania local long form: Republika e Shqiperise
Albania Government type emerging democracy
Albania Capital Tirana
Albania Administrative divisions 12 counties (qarqe, singular - qark); Qarku i Beratit, Qarku i Dibres, Qarku i Durresit, Qarku i Elbasanit, Qarku i Fierit, Qarku i Gjirokastres, Qarku i Korces, Qarku i Kukesit, Qarku i Lezhes, Qarku i Shkodres, Qarku i Tiranes, Qarku i Vlores
Albania Independence 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)
Albania National holiday Independence Day, 28 November (1912)
Albania Constitution a constitution was adopted by popular referendum on 28 November 1998; note - the opposition Democratic Party boycotted the vote
Albania Legal system has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Albania Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Albania Executive branch chief of state: President of the Republic Alfred MOISIU (since 24 July 2002) head of government: Prime Minister Fatos NANO (since 31 July 2002) cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and approved by the president elections: president elected by the People's Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 24 June 2002 (next to be held NA June 2007); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Alfred MOISIU elected president; People's Assembly vote by number - total votes 116, for 97, against 19
Albania Legislative branch unicameral People's Assembly or Kuvendi Popullor (140 seats; 100 are elected by direct popular vote and 40 by proportional vote for four-year terms) elections: last held 24 June 2001 with subsequent rounds on 8 July, 22 July, 29 July, 19 August 2001 (next to be held NA June 2005) election results: percent of vote by party - PS 41.5%, PD and coalition allies 36.8%, NDP 5.2%, PSD 3.6%, PBDNJ 2.6%, PASH 2.6%, PAD 2.5%; seats by party - PS 73, PD and coalition allies 46, NDP 6, PSD 4, PBDNJ 3, PASH 3, PAD 3, independents 2
Albania Judicial branch Supreme Court (chairman is elected by the People's Assembly for a four-year term)
Albania Political parties and leaders Agrarian Party of Albania or PASH [Lufter XHUVELI]; Christian Democratic Party or PDK [Zef BUSHATI]; Communist Party of Albania or PKSH [Hysni MILLOSHI]; Democratic Alliance or PAD [Nerltan CEKA]; Democratic Party or PD [Sali BERISHA]; Legality Movement Party or PLL [Guri DUROLLARI]; National Front Party (Balli Kombetar) or PBK [Abaz ERMENJI]; Party of National Unity or PUK [Idajet BEQUIRI]; Republican Party or PR [Fatmir MEDIU]; Social Democracy or DS [Paskal MILO]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Skender GJINUSHI]; Socialist Party or PS (formerly the Albanian Party of Labor) [Fatos NANO]; Union for Human Rights Party or PBDNJ [Vasil MELO]
Albania Political pressure groups and leaders Omonia [Vangjel DULES]
Albania International organization participation ACCT, BSEC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Albania Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Fatos TARIFA FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342 telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942 chancery: 2100 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Albania Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador James F. JEFFREY embassy: Rruga Elbasanit, Labinoti #103, Tirana mailing address: U. S. Department of State, 9510 Tirana Place, Washington, DC 20521-9510 telephone: [355] (4) 247285 FAX: [355] (4) 232222
Albania Flag description red with a black two-headed eagle in the center
Albania Economy - overview Poor and backward by European standards, Albania is making the difficult transition to a more modern open-market economy. The government has taken measures to curb violent crime and to spur economic activity and trade. The economy is bolstered by remittances from abroad of $400-$600 million annually, mostly from Greece and Italy; this helps offset the sizable trade deficit. Agriculture, which accounts for half of GDP, is held back because of frequent drought and the need to modernize equipment and consolidate small plots of land. Severe energy shortages are forcing small firms out of business, increasing unemployment, scaring off foreign investors, and spurring inflation. The government plans to boost energy imports to relieve the shortages. In addition, the government is moving to improve the poor national road network, a long-standing barrier to sustained economic growth.
Albania GDP purchasing power parity - $15.69 billion (2002 est.)
Albania GDP - real growth rate 7.3% (2002 est.)
Albania GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $4,400 (2002 est.)
Albania GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 49% industry: 27% services: 24% (2002 est.)
Albania Population below poverty line 30% (2001 est.)
Albania Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Albania Inflation rate (consumer prices) 6% (2002 est.)
Albania Labor force 1.283 million (not including 352,000 emigrant workers and 261,000 domestically unemployed) (2000 est.)
Albania Labor force - by occupation agriculture 50%, industry and services 50%
Albania Unemployment rate 17% officially; may be as high as 30% (2001 est.)
Albania Budget revenues: $697 million expenditures: $1.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $368 million (2002 est.)
Albania Industries food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower
Albania Industrial production growth rate 9% (2000 est.)
Albania Electricity - production 5.289 billion kWh (2001)
Albania Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 2.9% hydro: 97.1% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Albania Electricity - consumption 5.898 billion kWh (2001)
Albania Electricity - exports 221 million kWh (2001)
Albania Electricity - imports 1.2 billion kWh (2001)
Albania Oil - production 5,952 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Albania Oil - consumption 22,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Albania Oil - exports NA (2001)
Albania Oil - imports NA (2001)
Albania Oil - proved reserves 185.5 million bbl (37257)
Albania Natural gas - production 30 million cu m (2001 est.)
Albania Natural gas - consumption 30 million cu m (2001 est.)
Albania Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Albania Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Albania Natural gas - proved reserves 3.316 billion cu m (37257)
Albania Agriculture - products wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beets, grapes; meat, dairy products
Albania Exports $340 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Albania Exports - commodities textiles and footwear; asphalt, metals and metallic ores, crude oil; vegetables, fruits, tobacco
Albania Exports - partners Italy 76.6%, Germany 5.6%, Greece 2.7% (2002)
Albania Imports $1.5 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Albania Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, chemicals
Albania Imports - partners Italy 39.4%, Greece 24.5%, Turkey 6%, Germany 5% (2002)
Albania Debt - external $784 million (2000)
Albania Economic aid - recipient ODA: $315 million (top donors were Italy, EU, Germany) (2000 est.)
Albania Currency lek (ALL)
Albania Currency code ALL
Albania Exchange rates leke per US dollar - NA (2002), 143.49 (2001), 143.71 (2000), 137.69 (1999), 150.63 (1998)
Albania Fiscal year calendar year
Albania Telephones - main lines in use 120,000 (2001)
Albania Telephones - mobile cellular 250,000 (2001)
Albania Telephone system general assessment: Albania has the poorest telephone service in Europe with fewer than two telephones per 100 inhabitants; it is doubtful that every village has telephone service domestic: obsolete wire system; no longer provides a telephone for every village; in 1992, following the fall of the Communist government, peasants cut the wire to about 1,000 villages and used it to build fences international: inadequate; international traffic carried by microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece
Albania Radio broadcast stations AM 13, FM 4, shortwave 2 (2001)
Albania Television broadcast stations 3 (plus 58 repeaters) (2001)
Albania Internet country code .al
Albania Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 10 (2001)
Albania Internet users 12,000 (2001)
Albania Railways total: 447 km standard gauge: 447 km 1.435-m gauge (2002)
Albania Highways total: 18,000 km paved: 5,400 km unpaved: 12,600 km (2000)
Albania Waterways 43 km note: includes Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and Lake Prespa (1990)
Albania Pipelines gas 339 km; oil 207 km (2003)
Albania Ports and harbors Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore
Albania Merchant marine total: 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 21,954 GRT/34,412 DWT ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 11, roll on/roll off 1, includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Croatia 1, Honduras 1 (2002 est.)
Albania Airports 12 (2002)
Albania Airports - with paved runways total: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)
Albania Airports - with unpaved runways total: 8 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m: 4 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 over 3,047 m: 1
Albania Heliports 1 (2002)
Albania Military branches Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior Ministry Troops, Border Guards
Albania Military manpower - military age 19 years of age (2003 est.)
Albania Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 906,168 (2003 est.)
Albania Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 742,837 (2003 est.)
Albania Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 36,985 (2003 est.)
Albania Military expenditures - dollar figure $56.5 million (FY02)
Albania Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.49% (FY02)
Albania Disputes - international the Albanian Government calls for the protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians outside its borders in the Kosovo region of Serbia and Montenegro, and in the northern Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, while continuing to seek regional cooperation; some outside ethnic Albanian groups voice union with Albania
Albania Illicit drugs increasingly active transshipment point for Southwest Asian opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting the Balkan route and - to a far lesser extent - cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; limited opium and growing cannabis production; ethnic Albanian narcotrafficking organizations active and rapidly expanding in Europe; vulnerable to money laundering associated with regional trafficking in narcotics, arms, contraband, and illegal aliens
Algeria Background After a century of rule by France, Algeria became independent in 1962. The surprising first round success of the fundamentalist FIS (Islamic Salvation Front) party in the December 1991 balloting caused the army to intervene, crack down on the FIS, and postpone the subsequent elections. The fundamentalist response has resulted in a continuous low-grade civil conflict with the secular state apparatus, which nonetheless has allowed elections featuring pro-government and moderate religious-based parties. The FIS's armed wing, the Islamic Salvation Army, disbanded in January 2000 and many armed militants of other groups surrendered under an amnesty program designed to promote national reconciliation. Nevertheless, small numbers of armed militants persist in confronting government forces and carrying out isolated attacks on villages and other types of terrorist attacks. Other concerns include Berber unrest, large-scale unemployment, a shortage of housing, and the need to diversify the petroleum-based economy.
Algeria Location Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia
Algeria Geographic coordinates 28 00 N, 3 00 E
Algeria Map references Africa
Algeria Area total: 2,381,740 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 2,381,740 sq km
Algeria Area - comparative slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas
Algeria Land boundaries total: 6,343 km border countries: Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km, Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km
Algeria Coastline 998 km
Algeria Maritime claims exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
Algeria Climate arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer
Algeria Terrain mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain
Algeria Elevation extremes lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m highest point: Tahat 3,003 m
Algeria Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc
Algeria Land use arable land: 3.21% permanent crops: 0.21% other: 96.58% (1998 est.)
Algeria Irrigated land 5,600 sq km (1998 est.)
Algeria Natural hazards mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides and floods in rainy season
Algeria Environment - current issues soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water
Algeria Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban
Algeria Geography - note second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)
Algeria Population 32,818,500 (July 2003 est.)
Algeria Age structure 0-14 years: 32.8% (male 5,485,197; female 5,285,434) 15-64 years: 63% (male 10,460,475; female 10,224,389) 65 years and over: 4.2% (male 624,839; female 738,166) (2003 est.)
Algeria Median age total: 22.5 years male: 22.3 years female: 22.6 years (2002)
Algeria Population growth rate 1.65% (2003 est.)
Algeria Birth rate 21.94 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Algeria Death rate 5.09 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Algeria Net migration rate -0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Algeria Sex ratio at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Algeria Infant mortality rate total: 37.74 deaths/1,000 live births female: 35.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 40.34 deaths/1,000 live births
Algeria Life expectancy at birth total population: 70.54 years male: 69.14 years female: 72.01 years (2003 est.)
Algeria Total fertility rate 2.55 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Algeria HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.1% - note: no country specific models provided (2001 est.)
Algeria HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
Algeria HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Algeria Nationality noun: Algerian(s) adjective: Algerian
Algeria Ethnic groups Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%
Algeria Religions Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%
Algeria Languages Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects
Algeria Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 70% male: 78.8% female: 61% (2003 est.)
Algeria Country name conventional long form: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria conventional short form: Algeria local short form: Al Jaza'ir local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Sha'biyah
Algeria Government type republic
Algeria Capital Algiers
Algeria Administrative divisions 48 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen
Algeria Independence 5 July 1962 (from France)
Algeria National holiday Revolution Day, 1 November (1954)
Algeria Constitution 19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised 3 November 1988, 23 February 1989, and 28 November 1996
Algeria Legal system socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Algeria Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Algeria Executive branch chief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999) head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed OUYAHIA (since 9 May 2003) cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 15 April 1999 (next to be held NA April 2004); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA elected president; percent of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA over 70%; note - his six opposing candidates withdrew on the eve of the election citing electoral fraud
Algeria Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of the National People's Assembly or Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani (389 seats - changed from 380 seats in the 2002 elections; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Council of Nations (144 seats; one-third of the members appointed by the president, two-thirds elected by indirect vote; members serve six-year terms; the constitution requires half the council to be renewed every three years) elections: National People's Assembly - last held 30 May 2002 (next to be held NA 2007); Council of Nations - last held 30 December 2000 (next to be held NA 2003) election results: National People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - FLN 199, RND 48, MRN 43, MSP 38, PT 21, FNA 8, Nahda 1, PRA 1, MEN 1, independents 29; Council of Nations - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RND 79, FLN 12, FFS 4, MSP 1 (remaining 48 seats appointed by the president, party breakdown NA)
Algeria Judicial branch Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Algeria Political parties and leaders Algerian National Front or FNA [Moussa TOUATI]; Democratic National Rally or RND [Ahmed OUYAHIA, chairman]; Islamic Salvation Front or FIS (outlawed April 1992) [Ali BELHADJ and Dr. Abassi MADANI, Rabeh KEBIR (self-exile in Germany)]; Society of Peace Movement or MSP [Boujerra SOLTANI]; National Entente Movement or MEN [Ali BOUKHAZNA]; National Liberation Front or FLN [Ali BENFLIS, secretary general]; National Reform Movement or MRN [Abdellah DJABALLAH]; National Renewal Party or PRA [leader NA]; Progressive Republican Party [Khadir DRISS]; Rally for Culture and Democracy or RCD [Said SAADI, secretary general]; Renaissance Movement or EnNahda Movement [Lahbib ADAMI]; Social Liberal Party or PSL [Ahmed KHELIL]; Socialist Forces Front or FFS [Hocine Ait AHMED, secretary general (self-exile in Switzerland)]; Union for Democracy and Liberty [Mouley BOUKHALAFA]; Workers Party or PT [Louisa HANOUN] note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted in March 1997
Algeria Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Algeria International organization participation ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Algeria Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Idriss JAZAIRY chancery: 2137 Wyoming Ave NW, Washington, DC 20008 FAX: [1] (202) 667-2174 telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800
Algeria Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Richard W. ERDMAN (as of 10 July 2003) embassy: 4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers mailing address: B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers telephone: [213] (21) 691-425/255/186 FAX: [213] (21) 69-39-79
Algeria Flag description two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white; a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent centered over the two-color boundary; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)
Algeria Economy - overview The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 60% of budget revenues, 30% of GDP, and over 95% of export earnings. Algeria has the fifth-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the second-largest gas exporter; it ranks 14th in oil reserves. Algeria's financial and economic indicators improved during the mid-1990s, in part because of policy reforms supported by the IMF and debt rescheduling from the Paris Club. Algeria's finances in 2000-03 benefited from substantial trade surpluses, record foreign exchange reserves, and reductions in foreign debt. Real GDP has risen due to higher oil output and increased government spending. The government's continued efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector, however, has had little success in reducing high unemployment and improving living standards.
Algeria GDP purchasing power parity - $173.8 billion (2002 est.)
Algeria GDP - real growth rate 3.3% (2002 est.)
Algeria GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $5,400 (2002 est.)
Algeria GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 8% industry: 60% services: 32% (2002 est.)
Algeria Population below poverty line 23% (1999 est.)
Algeria Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.8% highest 10%: 26.8% (1995)
Algeria Distribution of family income - Gini index 35.3 (1995)
Algeria Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3% (2002 est.)
Algeria Labor force 9.4 million (2001 est.)
Algeria Labor force - by occupation government 29%, agriculture 25%, construction and public works 15%, industry 11%, other 20% (1996 est.)
Algeria Unemployment rate 31% (2002 est.)
Algeria Budget revenues: $20.3 billion expenditures: $18.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.8 billion (2001 est.)
Algeria Industries petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing
Algeria Industrial production growth rate 6% (2001 est.)
Algeria Electricity - production 24.69 billion kWh (2001)
Algeria Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 99.7% hydro: 0.3% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Algeria Electricity - consumption 22.9 billion kWh (2001)
Algeria Electricity - exports 340 million kWh (2001)
Algeria Electricity - imports 275 million kWh (2001)
Algeria Oil - production 1.52 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Algeria Oil - consumption 209,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Algeria Oil - exports NA (2001)
Algeria Oil - imports NA (2001)
Algeria Oil - proved reserves 13.1 billion bbl (37257)
Algeria Natural gas - production 80.3 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Algeria Natural gas - consumption 22.32 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Algeria Natural gas - exports 57.98 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Algeria Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Algeria Natural gas - proved reserves 4.739 trillion cu m (37257)
Algeria Agriculture - products wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle
Algeria Exports $19.5 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Algeria Exports - commodities petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97%
Algeria Exports - partners Italy 18.9%, Spain 13.1%, France 13%, US 12.1%, Netherlands 6%, Brazil 5.9%, Canada 5.7%, Turkey 5.3%, Belgium 5.1% (2002)
Algeria Imports $10.6 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Algeria Imports - commodities capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods
Algeria Imports - partners France 31%, Italy 10%, US 8.3%, Germany 6.6%, Spain 5.9%, Turkey 4.2% (2002)
Algeria Debt - external $21.6 billion (2002 est.)
Algeria Economic aid - recipient $162 million (2000 est.)
Algeria Currency Algerian dinar (DZD)
Algeria Currency code DZD
Algeria Exchange rates Algerian dinars per US dollar - 79.68 (2002), 77.22 (2001), 75.26 (2000), 66.57 (1999), 58.74 (1998)
Algeria Fiscal year calendar year
Algeria Telephones - main lines in use 2.3 million (1998)
Algeria Telephones - mobile cellular 33,500 (1999)
Algeria Telephone system general assessment: telephone density in Algeria is very low, not exceeding five telephones per 100 persons; the number of fixed main lines increased in the last few years to a little more than 2,000,000, but only about two-thirds of these have subscribers; much of the infrastructure is outdated and inefficient domestic: good service in north but sparse in south; domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations (20 additional domestic earth stations are planned) international: 5 submarine cables; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat (1998)
Algeria Radio broadcast stations AM 25, FM 1, shortwave 8 (1999)
Algeria Television broadcast stations 46 (plus 216 repeaters) (1995)
Algeria Internet country code .dz
Algeria Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 2 (2000)
Algeria Internet users 180,000 (2001)
Algeria Railways total: 3,973 km standard gauge: 2,888 km 1.435-m gauge (283 km electrified) narrow gauge: 1,085 km 1.055-m gauge (2002)
Algeria Highways total: 104,000 km paved: 71,656 km (including 640 km of expressways) unpaved: 32,344 km (1999)
Algeria Waterways none
Algeria Pipelines condensate 1,344 km; gas 87,347 km; liquid petroleum gas 2,213 km; oil 6,496 km (2003)
Algeria Ports and harbors Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Beni Saf, Dellys, Djendjene, Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda, Tenes
Algeria Merchant marine total: 69 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 884,032 GRT/1,010,777 DWT ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 23, chemical tanker 6, liquefied gas 10, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 12, short-sea passenger 4, specialized tanker 1, includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: United Arab Emirates 2 (2002 est.)
Algeria Airports 136 (2002)
Algeria Airports - with paved runways total: 54 over 3,047 m: 9 2,438 to 3,047 m: 27 914 to 1,523 m: 5 under 914 m: 1 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
Algeria Airports - with unpaved runways total: 82 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 23 under 914 m: 19 (2002) 914 to 1,523 m: 38
Algeria Heliports 1 (2002)
Algeria Military branches People's National Army (ANP), Algerian National Navy (ANN), Air Force, Territorial Air Defense, National Gendarmerie
Algeria Military manpower - military age 19 years of age (2003 est.)
Algeria Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 9,243,884 (2003 est.)
Algeria Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 5,646,418 (2003 est.)
Algeria Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 412,545 (2003 est.)
Algeria Military expenditures - dollar figure $1.87 billion (FY99)
Algeria Military expenditures - percent of GDP 4.1% (FY99)
Algeria Disputes - international Libya claims about 32,000 sq km in a dormant dispute still reflected on its maps in southeastern Algeria; armed bandits based in Mali attack southern Algerian towns; border with Morocco remains closed over mutual claims of harboring militants, arms smuggling; Algeria supports the exiled Sahrawi Polisario Front and rejects Moroccan administration of Western Sahara
American Samoa Background Settled as early as 1000 B.C., Samoa was "discovered" by European explorers in the 18th century. International rivalries in the latter half of the 19th century were settled by an 1899 treaty in which Germany and the US divided the Samoan archipelago. The US formally occupied its portion - a smaller group of eastern islands with the excellent harbor of Pago Pago - the following year.
American Samoa Location Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about half way between Hawaii and New Zealand
American Samoa Geographic coordinates 14 20 S, 170 00 W
American Samoa Map references Oceania
American Samoa Area total: 199 sq km note: includes Rose Island and Swains Island water: 0 sq km land: 199 sq km
American Samoa Area - comparative slightly larger than Washington, DC
American Samoa Land boundaries 0 km
American Samoa Coastline 116 km
American Samoa Maritime claims exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
American Samoa Climate tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual rainfall averages about 3 m; rainy season from November to April, dry season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation
American Samoa Terrain five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains, two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)
American Samoa Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Lata 966 m
American Samoa Natural resources pumice, pumicite
American Samoa Land use arable land: 5% permanent crops: 10% other: 85% (1998 est.)
American Samoa Irrigated land NA sq km
American Samoa Natural hazards typhoons common from December to March
American Samoa Environment - current issues limited natural fresh water resources; the water division of the government has spent substantial funds in the past few years to improve water catchments and pipelines
American Samoa Geography - note Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic location in the South Pacific Ocean
American Samoa Population 70,260 (July 2003 est.)
American Samoa Age structure 0-14 years: 37.5% (male 13,557; female 12,818) 15-64 years: 57% (male 19,712; female 20,346) 65 years and over: 5.4% (male 2,081; female 1,746) (2003 est.)
American Samoa Median age total: 21.6 years male: 21.1 years female: 22.2 years (2002)
American Samoa Population growth rate 2.22% (2003 est.)
American Samoa Birth rate 23.26 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
American Samoa Death rate 4.38 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
American Samoa Net migration rate 3.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
American Samoa Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.19 male(s)/female total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
American Samoa Infant mortality rate total: 9.82 deaths/1,000 live births female: 7.93 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 11.61 deaths/1,000 live births
American Samoa Life expectancy at birth total population: 75.75 years male: 71.35 years female: 80.41 years (2003 est.)
American Samoa Total fertility rate 3.3 children born/woman (2003 est.)
American Samoa HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate NA%
American Samoa HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
American Samoa HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
American Samoa Nationality noun: American Samoan(s) adjective: American Samoan
American Samoa Ethnic groups Samoan (Polynesian) 89%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 4%, other 5%
American Samoa Religions Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%, Protestant and other 30%
American Samoa Languages Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian languages), English note: most people are bilingual
American Samoa Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 97% male: 98% female: 97% (1980 est.)
American Samoa Country name conventional long form: Territory of American Samoa conventional short form: American Samoa abbreviation: AS
American Samoa Dependency status unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US; administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, US Department of the Interior
American Samoa Government type NA
American Samoa Capital Pago Pago
American Samoa Administrative divisions none (territory of the US); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are three districts and two islands* at the second order; Eastern, Manu'a, Rose Island*, Swains Island*, Western
American Samoa Independence none (territory of the US)
American Samoa National holiday Flag Day, 17 April (1900)
American Samoa Constitution ratified 1966, in effect 1967
American Samoa Legal system NA
American Samoa Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
American Samoa Executive branch chief of state: President George W. BUSH of the US (since 20 January 2001) and Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 January 2001) election results: Tauese P. SUNIA reelected governor; percent of vote - Tauese P. SUNIA (Democrat) 50.7%, Lealaifuaneva Peter REID (independent) 47.8% note: Togiola TULAFONO became acting governor 26 March 2003 upon the death of Governor Tauese P. SUNIA elections: US president and vice president elected on the same ticket for four-year terms; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2004) head of government: Governor Togiola TULAFONO (since 7 April 2003) following the death of Governor Tauese P. SUNIA on 26 March 2003; TULAFONO had been the Lieutenant Governor cabinet: NA
American Samoa Legislative branch bicameral Fono or Legislative Assembly consists of the House of Representatives (21 seats - 20 of which are elected by popular vote and 1 is an appointed, nonvoting delegate from Swains Island; members serve two-year terms) and the Senate (18 seats; members are elected from local chiefs and serve four-year terms) election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - independents 18 note: American Samoa elects one nonvoting representative to the US House of Representatives; election last held 7 November 2002 (next to be held NA November 2004); results - Eni F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA (Democrat) reelected as delegate elections: House of Representatives - last held 7 November 2002 (next to be held NA November 2004); Senate - last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2004)
American Samoa Judicial branch High Court (chief justice and associate justices are appointed by the US Secretary of the Interior)
American Samoa Political parties and leaders Democratic Party [leader NA]; Republican Party [leader NA]
American Samoa Political pressure groups and leaders NA
American Samoa International organization participation ESCAP (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, SPC
American Samoa Diplomatic representation in the US none (territory of the US)
American Samoa Diplomatic representation from the US none (territory of the US)
American Samoa Flag description blue, with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the outer side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional Samoan symbols of authority, a staff and a war club
American Samoa Economy - overview This is a traditional Polynesian economy in which more than 90% of the land is communally owned. Economic activity is strongly linked to the US, with which American Samoa conducts most of its foreign trade. Tuna fishing and tuna processing plants are the backbone of the private sector, with canned tuna the primary export. Transfers from the US Government add substantially to American Samoa's economic well-being. Attempts by the government to develop a larger and broader economy are restrained by Samoa's remote location, its limited transportation, and its devastating hurricanes. Tourism, a developing sector, has been held back by the recurring financial difficulties in East Asia.
American Samoa GDP purchasing power parity - $500 million (2000 est.)
American Samoa GDP - real growth rate NA%
American Samoa GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $8,000 (2000 est.)
American Samoa GDP - composition by sector agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%
American Samoa Population below poverty line NA%
American Samoa Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
American Samoa Inflation rate (consumer prices) NA%
American Samoa Labor force 14,000 (1996)
American Samoa Labor force - by occupation government 33%, tuna canneries 34%, other 33% (1990)
American Samoa Unemployment rate 6% (2000)
American Samoa Budget revenues: $121 million (37% in local revenue and 63% in US grants) expenditures: $127 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY96/97)
American Samoa Industries tuna canneries (largely supplied by foreign fishing vessels), handicrafts
American Samoa Industrial production growth rate NA%
American Samoa Electricity - production 130 million kWh (2001)
American Samoa Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
American Samoa Electricity - consumption 120.9 million kWh (2001)
American Samoa Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
American Samoa Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
American Samoa Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
American Samoa Oil - consumption 3,800 bbl/day (2001 est.)
American Samoa Oil - exports NA (2001)
American Samoa Oil - imports NA (2001)
American Samoa Agriculture - products bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams, copra, pineapples, papayas; dairy products, livestock
American Samoa Exports $345 million (1999)
American Samoa Exports - commodities canned tuna 93%
American Samoa Exports - partners Indonesia 71.1%, Japan 7.7%, Samoa 7.7%, Australia 6.7% (2002)
American Samoa Imports $452 million (1999)
American Samoa Imports - commodities materials for canneries 56%, food 8%, petroleum products 7%, machinery and parts 6%
American Samoa Imports - partners Australia 41%, New Zealand 23%, South Korea 18% (2002)
American Samoa Debt - external $NA
American Samoa Economic aid - recipient important financial support from the US, more than $40 million in 1994
American Samoa Currency US dollar (USD)
American Samoa Currency code USD
American Samoa Exchange rates the US dollar is used
American Samoa Fiscal year 1 October - 30 September
American Samoa Telephones - main lines in use 13,000 (1997)
American Samoa Telephones - mobile cellular 2,550 (1997)
American Samoa Telephone system general assessment: NA domestic: good telex, telegraph, facsimile and cellular telephone services; domestic satellite system with 1 Comsat earth station international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
American Samoa Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)
American Samoa Television broadcast stations 1 (1997)
American Samoa Internet country code .as
American Samoa Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
American Samoa Internet users NA
American Samoa Railways 0 km
American Samoa Highways total: 350 km paved: 150 km unpaved: 200 km
American Samoa Waterways none
American Samoa Ports and harbors Aunu'u (new construction), Auasi, Faleosao, Ofu, Pago Pago, Ta'u
American Samoa Merchant marine none (2002 est.)
American Samoa Airports 3 (2002)
American Samoa Airports - with paved runways total: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2002)
American Samoa Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2002)
American Samoa Military - note defense is the responsibility of the US
American Samoa Disputes - international none
Andorra Background For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique co-principality, ruled by the French chief of state and the Spanish bishop of Urgel. In 1993, this feudal system was modified with the titular heads of state retained, but the government transformed into a parliamentary democracy. Long isolated and impoverished, mountainous Andorra achieved considerable prosperity since World War II through its tourist industry. Many immigrants (legal and illegal) are attracted to the thriving economy with its lack of income taxes.
Andorra Location Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain
Andorra Geographic coordinates 42 30 N, 1 30 E
Andorra Map references Europe
Andorra Area total: 468 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 468 sq km
Andorra Area - comparative 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Andorra Land boundaries total: 120.3 km border countries: France 56.6 km, Spain 63.7 km
Andorra Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Andorra Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Andorra Climate temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers
Andorra Terrain rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys
Andorra Elevation extremes lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m highest point: Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m
Andorra Natural resources hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead
Andorra Land use arable land: 2.22% permanent crops: 0% other: 97.78% (1998 est.)
Andorra Irrigated land NA sq km
Andorra Natural hazards avalanches
Andorra Environment - current issues deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal
Andorra Environment - international agreements party to: Hazardous Wastes signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Andorra Geography - note landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in the Pyrenees
Andorra Population 69,150 (July 2003 est.)
Andorra Age structure 0-14 years: 15.1% (male 5,473; female 4,974) 15-64 years: 71.7% (male 26,063; female 23,542) 65 years and over: 13.2% (male 4,543; female 4,555) (2003 est.)
Andorra Median age total: 39.1 years male: 39.4 years female: 38.8 years (2002)
Andorra Population growth rate 1.06% (2003 est.)
Andorra Birth rate 9.65 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Andorra Death rate 5.74 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Andorra Net migration rate 6.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Andorra Sex ratio at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female total population: 1.09 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Andorra Infant mortality rate total: 4.06 deaths/1,000 live births female: 3.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births
Andorra Life expectancy at birth total population: 83.49 years male: 80.58 years female: 86.58 years (2003 est.)
Andorra Total fertility rate 1.27 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Andorra HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate NA%
Andorra HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
Andorra HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Andorra Nationality noun: Andorran(s) adjective: Andorran
Andorra Ethnic groups Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%, other 6% (1998)
Andorra Religions Roman Catholic (predominant)
Andorra Languages Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese
Andorra Literacy definition: NA total population: 100% male: NA% female: NA%
Andorra Country name conventional long form: Principality of Andorra conventional short form: Andorra local short form: Andorra local long form: Principat d'Andorra
Andorra Government type parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its heads of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are represented locally by coprinces' representatives
Andorra Capital Andorra la Vella
Andorra Administrative divisions 7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Escaldes-Engordany, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria
Andorra Independence 1278 (was formed under the joint suzerainty of the French count of Foix and the Spanish bishop of Urgel)
Andorra National holiday Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)
Andorra Constitution Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; approved by referendum 14 March 1993; came into force 4 May 1993
Andorra Legal system based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Andorra Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Andorra Executive branch chief of state: French Coprince Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995), represented by Philippe MASSONI (since 26 July 2002); Spanish Coprince Episcopal Monsignor Joan Enric VIVES SICILIA (since 12 May 2003), represented by Nemesi MARQUES OSTE (since NA) elections: Executive Council president elected by the General Council and formally appointed by the coprinces for a four-year term; election last held 4 March 2001 (next to be held NA 2005) election results: Marc FORNE Molne elected executive council president; percent of General Council vote - NA% cabinet: Executive Council or Govern designated by the Executive Council president head of government: Executive Council President Marc FORNE MOLNE (since 21 December 1994)
Andorra Legislative branch unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de las Valls (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14 to represent each of the 7 parishes; members serve four-year terms) elections: last held 4 March 2001 (next to be held NA March 2005) election results: percent of vote by party - PLA 46.1%, PSD 30%, PD 23.8%, other 0.1%; seats by party - PLA 15, PSD 6, PD 5, independents 2
Andorra Judicial branch Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or Tribunal Superior de Justicia d'Andorra; Supreme Council of Justice or Consell Superior de la Justicia; Fiscal Ministry or Ministeri Fiscal; Constitutional Tribunal or Tribunal Constitucional
Andorra Political parties and leaders Democratic Party or PD (formerly part of National Democratic Group or AND) [Ladislau BARO SOLO]; Liberal Party of Andorra or PLA [Marc FORNE MOLNE] (used to be Liberal Union or UL); Liberal Union or UL [Francesc CERQUEDA]; National Democratic Group or AND [Ladislau BARO SOLO]; National Democratic Initiative or IDN [Vicenc MATEU ZAMORA]; New Democracy or ND [Jaume BARTOMEU CASSANY]; Social Democratic Party or PSD (formerly part of National Democratic Group of AND) [leader NA]; Union of the People of Ordino (Unio Parroquial d'Ordino) or UPO [Simo DURO COMA] note: there are two other small parties
Andorra Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Andorra International organization participation CE, ECE, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OSCE, UN, UNESCO, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Andorra Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Jelena V. PIA-COMELLA chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017 FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630 telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064
Andorra Diplomatic representation from the US the US does not have an embassy in Andorra; the US Ambassador to Spain is accredited to Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the Consulate General's office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; telephone: (3493) 280-2227; FAX: (3493) 205-7705
Andorra Flag description three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in the center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem
Andorra Economy - overview Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do economy, accounts for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 9 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative advantage has recently eroded as the economies of neighboring France and Spain have been opened up, providing broader availability of goods and lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its "tax haven" status, also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is limited - only 2% of the land is arable - and most food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing output consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.
Andorra GDP purchasing power parity - $1.3 billion (2000 est.)
Andorra GDP - real growth rate 3.8% (2000 est.)
Andorra GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $19,000 (2000 est.)
Andorra GDP - composition by sector agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%
Andorra Population below poverty line NA%
Andorra Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Andorra Inflation rate (consumer prices) 4.3% (2000)
Andorra Labor force 33,000 (2001 est.)
Andorra Labor force - by occupation agriculture 1%, industry 21%, services 78% (2000 est.)
Andorra Unemployment rate 0%
Andorra Budget revenues: $385 million expenditures: $342 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997)
Andorra Industries tourism (particularly skiing), cattle raising, timber, banking
Andorra Industrial production growth rate NA%
Andorra Electricity - production NA kWh
Andorra Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 0% hydro: 0% other: 0% nuclear: 0%
Andorra Electricity - consumption NA kWh
Andorra Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2002)
Andorra Electricity - imports NA kWh; note - most electricity supplied by Spain and France; Andorra generates a small amount of hydropower
Andorra Agriculture - products small quantities of rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables; sheep
Andorra Exports $58 million f.o.b. (1998)
Andorra Exports - commodities tobacco products, furniture
Andorra Exports - partners Spain 58%, France 34% (2000)
Andorra Imports $1.077 billion (1998)
Andorra Imports - commodities consumer goods, food, electricity
Andorra Imports - partners Spain 48%, France 35%, US 2.3% (2000)
Andorra Debt - external $NA
Andorra Economic aid - recipient none
Andorra Currency euro (EUR)
Andorra Currency code EUR
Andorra Exchange rates euros per US dollar - 1.06 (2002), 1.12 (2001), 1.09 (2000), 0.94 (1999)
Andorra Fiscal year calendar year
Andorra Telephones - main lines in use 32,946 (December 1998)
Andorra Telephones - mobile cellular 14,117 (December 1998)
Andorra Telephone system general assessment: NA domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges international: landline circuits to France and Spain
Andorra Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 15, shortwave 0 (1998)
Andorra Television broadcast stations 0 (1997)
Andorra Internet country code .ad
Andorra Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Andorra Internet users 24,500 (2001)
Andorra Railways 0 km
Andorra Highways total: 269 km paved: 198 km unpaved: 71 km (1994)
Andorra Waterways none
Andorra Ports and harbors none
Andorra Airports none (2002)
Andorra Military branches no regular military forces, but there is a police force
Andorra Military - note defense is the responsibility of France and Spain
Andorra Disputes - international none; border is undemarcated in sections but is not in dispute (a few French farmers still remain upset about the transfer of 35 hectares of land to Andorra)
Angola Background Civil war has been the norm in Angola since independence from Portugal in 1975. A 1994 peace accord between the government and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) provided for the integration of former UNITA insurgents into the government and armed forces. A national unity government was installed in April of 1997, but serious fighting resumed in late 1998, rendering hundreds of thousands of people homeless. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost in fighting over the past quarter century. The death of insurgent leader Jonas SAVIMBI in 2002 and a subsequent cease-fire with UNITA may bode well for the country.
Angola Location Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo
Angola Geographic coordinates 12 30 S, 18 30 E
Angola Map references Africa
Angola Area total: 1,246,700 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 1,246,700 sq km
Angola Area - comparative slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Angola Land boundaries total: 5,198 km border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km
Angola Coastline 1,600 km
Angola Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
Angola Climate semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
Angola Terrain narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
Angola Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m
Angola Natural resources petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium
Angola Land use arable land: 2.41% permanent crops: 0.4% other: 97.19% (1998 est.)
Angola Irrigated land 750 sq km (1998 est.)
Angola Natural hazards locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau
Angola Environment - current issues overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water
Angola Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Angola Geography - note the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Angola Population 10,766,471 (July 2003 est.)
Angola Age structure 0-14 years: 43.5% (male 2,363,829; female 2,317,610) 15-64 years: 53.7% (male 2,941,999; female 2,842,923) 65 years and over: 2.8% (male 134,330; female 165,780) (2003 est.)
Angola Median age total: 18.2 years male: 18.2 years female: 18.2 years (2002)
Angola Population growth rate 1.97% (2003 est.)
Angola Birth rate 45.57 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Angola Death rate 25.83 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Angola Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Angola Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Angola Infant mortality rate total: 193.82 deaths/1,000 live births female: 180.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 206.26 deaths/1,000 live births
Angola Life expectancy at birth total population: 36.96 years male: 36.13 years female: 37.83 years (2003 est.)
Angola Total fertility rate 6.38 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Angola HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 5.5% (2001 est.)
Angola HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 350,000 (2001 est.)
Angola HIV/AIDS - deaths 24,000 (2001 est.)
Angola Nationality noun: Angolan(s) adjective: Angolan
Angola Ethnic groups Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%
Angola Religions indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998 est.)
Angola Languages Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages
Angola Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 42% male: 56% female: 28% (1998 est.)
Angola Country name conventional long form: Republic of Angola conventional short form: Angola local short form: Angola former: People's Republic of Angola local long form: Republica de Angola
Angola Government type republic, nominally a multiparty democracy with a strong presidential system
Angola Capital Luanda
Angola Administrative divisions 18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire
Angola Independence 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
Angola National holiday Independence Day, 11 November (1975)
Angola Constitution 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, 6 March 1991, and 26 August 1992
Angola Legal system based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of free markets
Angola Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Angola Executive branch chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; Fernando de Piedade Dias DOS SANTOS was appointed Prime Minister on 6 December 2002, but this is not a position of real power cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections: president elected by universal ballot for a NA-year term; President DOS SANTOS originally elected (in 1979) without opposition under a one-party system and stood for reelection in Angola's first multiparty elections 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA) election results: DOS SANTOS 49.6%, Jonas SAVIMBI 40.1%, making a run-off election necessary; the run-off was not held and SAVIMBI's National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) repudiated the results of the first election; the civil war resumed
Angola Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members elected by proportional vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA) election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 54%, UNITA 34%, others 12%; seats by party - MPLA 129, UNITA 70, PRS 6, FNLA 5, PLD 3, others 7
Angola Judicial branch Supreme Court or Tribunal da Relacao (judges are appointed by the president)
Angola Political parties and leaders Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Analia de Victoria PEREIRA]; National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [disputed leadership: Lucas NGONDA, Holden ROBERTO]; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [interim leader: PAULO Lukamba "Gato"], largest opposition party has engaged in years of armed resistance; Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS], ruling party in power since 1975; Social Renewal Party or PRS [disputed leadership: Eduardo KUANGANA, Antonio MUACHICUNGO] note: about a dozen minor parties participated in the 1992 elections but only won a few seats and have little influence in the National Assembly
Angola Political pressure groups and leaders Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO; Antonio Bento BEMBE] note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province
Angola International organization participation ACP, AfDB, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU, SADC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Angola Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Josefina Perpetua Pitra DIAKIDI FAX: [1] (202) 785-1258 consulate(s) general: Houston and New York telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156 chancery: 2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
Angola Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher William DELL embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of Luanda), Luanda mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda; pouch: American Embassy Luanda, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2550 telephone: [244] (2) 445-481, 447-028, 446-224 FAX: [244] (2) 446-924
Angola Flag description two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)
Angola Economy - overview Angola has been an economy in disarray because of a quarter century of nearly continuous warfare. An apparently durable peace was established after the death of rebel leader Jonas SAVIMBI on February 22, 2002, but consequences from the conflict continue including the impact of wide-spread land mines. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 85% of the population. Oil production and the supporting activities are vital to the economy, contributing about 45% to GDP and more than half of exports. Much of the country's food must still be imported. To fully take advantage of its rich natural resources - gold, diamonds, extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries, and large oil deposits - Angola will need to continue reforming government policies. While Angola made progress in bringing inflation down further, from 325% in 2000 to about 106% in 2002, the government has failed to make sufficient progress on reforms recommended by the IMF such as increasing foreign exchange reserves and promoting greater transparency in government spending. Increased oil production should bring about 6% GDP growth in 2003.
Angola GDP purchasing power parity - $18.36 billion (2002 est.)
Angola GDP - real growth rate 9.4% (2002 est.)
Angola GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,700 (2002 est.)
Angola GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 8% industry: 67% services: 25% (2001 est.)
Angola Population below poverty line NA%
Angola Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Angola Inflation rate (consumer prices) 106% (2002 est.)
Angola Labor force 5 million (1997 est.)
Angola Labor force - by occupation agriculture 85%, industry and services 15% (1997 est.)
Angola Unemployment rate extensive unemployment and underemployment affecting more than half the population (2001 est.)
Angola Budget revenues: $928 million expenditures: $2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $963 million (1992 est.)
Angola Industries petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing; brewing; tobacco products; sugar; textiles
Angola Industrial production growth rate 1%
Angola Electricity - production 1.45 billion kWh (2001)
Angola Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 36.4% hydro: 63.6% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Angola Electricity - consumption 1.348 billion kWh (2001)
Angola Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Angola Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Angola Oil - production 742,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Angola Oil - consumption 31,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Angola Oil - exports NA (2001)
Angola Oil - imports NA (2001)
Angola Oil - proved reserves 5.691 billion bbl (37257)
Angola Natural gas - production 530 million cu m (2001 est.)
Angola Natural gas - consumption 530 million cu m (2001 est.)
Angola Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Angola Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Angola Natural gas - proved reserves 79.57 billion cu m (37257)
Angola Agriculture - products bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish
Angola Exports $8.6 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Angola Exports - commodities crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
Angola Exports - partners US 41.2%, China 13.7%, France 8%, Belgium 6.3%, Taiwan 6.3%, Japan 4.9%, Spain 4.3% (2002)
Angola Imports $4.1 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Angola Imports - commodities machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods
Angola Imports - partners Portugal 20.2%, US 13.9%, South Africa 12.4%, France 6.7%, Brazil 5.8%, Belgium 5.3%, Netherlands 4% (2002)
Angola Debt - external $9.9 billion (2002 est.)
Angola Economic aid - recipient $383.5 million (1999)
Angola Currency kwanza (AOA)
Angola Currency code AOA
Angola Exchange rates kwanza per US dollar - 43.53 (2002), 22.06 (2001), 10.04 (2000), 2.79 (1999), 0.39 (1998); note - in December 1999 the kwanza was revalued with six zeroes dropped off the old value
Angola Fiscal year calendar year
Angola Telephones - main lines in use 72,000 (1998)
Angola Telephones - mobile cellular 25,800 (2000)
Angola Telephone system general assessment: telephone service limited mostly to government and business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for military links domestic: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Angola Radio broadcast stations AM 21, FM 6, shortwave 7 (2000)
Angola Television broadcast stations 6 (2000)
Angola Internet country code .ao
Angola Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Angola Internet users 60,000 (2002)
Angola Railways total: 2,761 km narrow gauge: 2,638 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2002)
Angola Highways total: 51,429 km paved: 5,349 km unpaved: 46,080 km (1999)
Angola Waterways 1,295 km
Angola Pipelines gas 214 km; liquid natural gas 14 km; liquid petroleum gas 30 km; oil 845 km; refined products 56 km (2003)
Angola Ports and harbors Ambriz, Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Malongo, Mocamedes, Namibe, Porto Amboim, Soyo
Angola Merchant marine total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 30,311 GRT/48,924 DWT ships by type: cargo 7, petroleum tanker 1 (2002 est.)
Angola Airports 243 (2002)
Angola Airports - with paved runways total: 32 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 8 1,524 to 2,437 m: 14 914 to 1,523 m: 5 under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Angola Airports - with unpaved runways total: 211 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 30 914 to 1,523 m: 95 under 914 m: 80 (2002)
Angola Military branches Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Police Force
Angola Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Angola Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,568,082 (2003 est.)
Angola Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,290,884 (2003 est.)
Angola Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 109,752 (2003 est.)
Angola Military expenditures - dollar figure $222.7 million (FY02)
Angola Military expenditures - percent of GDP 5.4% (FY02)
Angola Disputes - international gives shelter to thousands of refugees from the Democratic Republic of the Congo while thousands of Angolan refugees still remain in neighboring states as a consequence of the protracted civil wars in both states
Angola Illicit drugs used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western Europe and other African states
Anguilla Background Colonized by English settlers from Saint Kitts in 1650, Anguilla was administered by Great Britain until the early 19th century, when the island - against the wishes of the inhabitants - was incorporated into a single British dependency, along with Saint Kitts and Nevis. Several attempts at separation failed. In 1971, two years after a revolt, Anguilla was finally allowed to secede; this arrangement was formally recognized in 1980, with Anguilla becoming a separate British dependency.
Anguilla Location Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, east of Puerto Rico
Anguilla Geographic coordinates 18 15 N, 63 10 W
Anguilla Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Anguilla Area total: 102 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 102 sq km
Anguilla Area - comparative about half the size of Washington, DC
Anguilla Land boundaries 0 km
Anguilla Coastline 61 km
Anguilla Maritime claims exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 3 NM
Anguilla Climate tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds
Anguilla Terrain flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone
Anguilla Elevation extremes lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Crocus Hill 65 m
Anguilla Natural resources salt, fish, lobster
Anguilla Land use arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some commercial salt ponds) (1998 est.)
Anguilla Irrigated land NA sq km
Anguilla Natural hazards frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July to October)
Anguilla Environment - current issues supplies of potable water sometimes cannot meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution system
Anguilla Geography - note the most northerly of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles
Anguilla Population 12,738 (July 2003 est.)
Anguilla Age structure 0-14 years: 24.3% (male 1,575; female 1,526) 15-64 years: 68.8% (male 4,504; female 4,262) 65 years and over: 6.8% (male 387; female 484) (2003 est.)
Anguilla Median age total: 30 years male: 30 years female: 29.9 years (2002)
Anguilla Population growth rate 2.21% (2003 est.)
Anguilla Birth rate 14.68 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Anguilla Death rate 5.42 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Anguilla Net migration rate 12.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Anguilla Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Anguilla Infant mortality rate total: 22.8 deaths/1,000 live births female: 15.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 29.84 deaths/1,000 live births
Anguilla Life expectancy at birth total population: 76.7 years male: 73.79 years female: 79.7 years (2003 est.)
Anguilla Total fertility rate 1.76 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Anguilla HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate NA%
Anguilla HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
Anguilla HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Anguilla Nationality noun: Anguillan(s) adjective: Anguillan
Anguilla Ethnic groups black (predominant), mulatto, white
Anguilla Religions Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%, Baptist 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, other 12%
Anguilla Languages English (official)
Anguilla Literacy definition: age 12 and over can read and write total population: 95% male: 95% female: 95% (1984 est.)
Anguilla Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Anguilla
Anguilla Dependency status overseas territory of the UK
Anguilla Government type NA
Anguilla Capital The Valley
Anguilla Administrative divisions none (overseas territory of the UK)
Anguilla Independence none (overseas territory of the UK)
Anguilla National holiday Anguilla Day, 30 May
Anguilla Constitution Anguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982; amended 1990
Anguilla Legal system based on English common law
Anguilla Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Anguilla Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Peter JOHNSTONE (since NA February 2000) elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed chief minister by the governor head of government: Chief Minister Osbourne FLEMING (since 3 March 2000) cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among the elected members of the House of Assembly
Anguilla Legislative branch unicameral House of Assembly (11 seats total, 7 elected by direct popular vote, 2 ex officio members, and 2 appointed; members serve five-year terms) elections: last held 3 March 2000 (next to be held NA June 2005) election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - ANA 3, AUP 2, ADP 1, independent 1
Anguilla Judicial branch High Court (judge provided by Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court)
Anguilla Political parties and leaders Anguilla United Party or AUP [Hubert HUGHES]; The United Front or UF [Osbourne FLEMING, Victor BANKS], a coalition of the Anguilla Democratic Party or ADP and the Anguilla National Alliance or ANA
Anguilla Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Anguilla International organization participation Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), OECS (associate), ECLAC (associate)
Anguilla Diplomatic representation in the US none (overseas territory of the UK)
Anguilla Diplomatic representation from the US none (overseas territory of the UK)
Anguilla Flag description blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design on a white background with blue wavy water below
Anguilla Economy - overview Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends heavily on luxury tourism, offshore banking, lobster fishing, and remittances from emigrants. Increased activity in the tourism industry, which has spurred the growth of the construction sector, has contributed to economic growth. Anguillan officials have put substantial effort into developing the offshore financial sector, which is small, but growing. In the medium term, prospects for the economy will depend largely on the tourism sector and, therefore, on revived income growth in the industrialized nations as well as on favorable weather conditions.
Anguilla GDP purchasing power parity - $104 million (2001 est.)
Anguilla GDP - real growth rate 2.8% (2001 est.)
Anguilla GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $8,600 (2001 est.)
Anguilla GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 4% industry: 18% services: 78% (1997 est.)
Anguilla Population below poverty line NA%
Anguilla Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Anguilla Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.3%
Anguilla Labor force 6,049 (2001)
Anguilla Labor force - by occupation commerce 36%, services 29%, construction 18%, transportation and utilities 10%, manufacturing 3%, agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining 4% (2000 est,)
Anguilla Unemployment rate 6.7% (2001)
Anguilla Budget revenues: $22.8 million expenditures: $22.5 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2000 est.)
Anguilla Industries tourism, boat building, offshore financial services
Anguilla Industrial production growth rate 3.1% (1997 est.)
Anguilla Electricity - production NA (2000)
Anguilla Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: NA% hydro: NA% other: NA% nuclear: NA%
Anguilla Electricity - consumption 42.6 million kWh
Anguilla Agriculture - products small quantities of tobacco, vegetables; cattle raising
Anguilla Exports $2.6 million (1999)
Anguilla Exports - commodities lobster, fish, livestock, salt, concrete blocks, rum
Anguilla Exports - partners UK, US, Puerto Rico, Saint-Martin (2000)
Anguilla Imports $80.9 million (1999)
Anguilla Imports - commodities fuels, foodstuffs, manufactures, chemicals, trucks, textiles
Anguilla Imports - partners US, Puerto Rico, UK (2000)
Anguilla Debt - external $8.8 million (1998)
Anguilla Economic aid - recipient $3.5 million (1995)
Anguilla Currency East Caribbean dollar (XCD)
Anguilla Currency code XCD
Anguilla Exchange rates East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7000 (fixed rate since 1976)
Anguilla Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Anguilla Telephones - main lines in use 4,974 (2000)
Anguilla Telephones - mobile cellular 1,629 (2000)
Anguilla Telephone system general assessment: NA domestic: modern internal telephone system international: microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin (Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles)
Anguilla Radio broadcast stations AM 5, FM 6, shortwave 1 (1998)
Anguilla Television broadcast stations 1 (1997)
Anguilla Internet country code .ai
Anguilla Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 16 (2000)
Anguilla Internet users 919 (2000)
Anguilla Railways 0 km
Anguilla Highways total: 105 km paved: 65 km unpaved: 40 km (1997)
Anguilla Waterways none
Anguilla Ports and harbors Blowing Point, Road Bay
Anguilla Merchant marine none (2002 est.)
Anguilla Airports 3 (2002)
Anguilla Airports - with paved runways total: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)
Anguilla Airports - with unpaved runways total: 2 under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Anguilla Military - note defense is the responsibility of the UK
Anguilla Disputes - international none
Anguilla Illicit drugs transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the US and Europe
Antarctica Background Speculation over the existence of a "southern land" was not confirmed until the early 1820s when British and American commercial operators and British and Russian national expeditions began exploring the Antarctic Peninsula region and other areas south of the Antarctic Circle. Not until 1840 was it established that Antarctica was indeed a continent and not just a group of islands. Several exploration "firsts" were achieved in the early 20th century. Following World War II, there was an upsurge in scientific research on the continent. A number of countries have set up year-round research stations on Antarctica. Seven have made territorial claims, but no other country recognizes these claims. In order to form a legal framework for the activities of nations on the continent, an Antarctic Treaty was negotiated that neither denies nor gives recognition to existing territorial claims; signed in 1959, it entered into force in 1961.
Antarctica Location continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle
Antarctica Geographic coordinates 90 00 S, 0 00 E
Antarctica Map references Antarctic Region
Antarctica Area total: 14 million sq km note: fifth-largest continent, following Asia, Africa, North America, and South America, but larger than Australia and the subcontinent of Europe land: 14 million sq km (280,000 sq km ice-free, 13.72 million sq km ice-covered) (est.)
Antarctica Area - comparative slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US
Antarctica Land boundaries 0 km note: see entry on International disputes
Antarctica Coastline 17,968 km
Antarctica Maritime claims none; 20 of 27 Antarctic consultative nations have made no claims to Antarctic territory (although Russia and the US have reserved the right to do so) and do not recognize the claims of the other nations; also see the Disputes - international entry
Antarctica Climate severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the coast and average slightly below freezing
Antarctica Terrain about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock, with average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to nearly 5,000 meters; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves constitute 11% of the area of the continent
Antarctica Elevation extremes lowest point: Bentley Subglacial Trench -2,555 m highest point: Vinson Massif 4,897 m note: the lowest known land point in Antarctica is hidden in the Bentley Subglacial Trench; at its surface is the deepest ice yet discovered and the world's lowest elevation not under seawater
Antarctica Natural resources iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum and other minerals, and coal and hydrocarbons have been found in small uncommercial quantities; none presently exploited; krill, finfish, and crab have been taken by commercial fisheries
Antarctica Land use arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%) (1998 est.)
Antarctica Irrigated land 0 sq km (1998 est.)
Antarctica Natural hazards katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along the coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak; large icebergs may calve from ice shelf
Antarctica Environment - current issues in 1998, NASA satellite data showed that the antarctic ozone hole was the largest on record, covering 27 million square kilometers; researchers in 1997 found that increased ultraviolet light coming through the hole damages the DNA of icefish, an antarctic fish lacking hemoglobin; ozone depletion earlier was shown to harm one-celled antarctic marine plants; in 2002, significant areas of ice shelves disintegrated in response to regional warming
Antarctica Geography - note the coldest, windiest, highest (on average), and driest continent; during summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; mostly uninhabitable
Antarctica Population no indigenous inhabitants, but there are seasonally staffed research stations note: approximately 27 nations, all signatory to the Antarctic Treaty, send personnel to perform seasonal (summer) and year-round research on the continent and in its surrounding oceans; the population of persons doing and supporting science on the continent and its nearby islands south of 60 degrees south latitude (the region covered by the Antarctic Treaty) varies from approximately 4,000 in summer to 1,000 in winter; in addition, approximately 1,000 personnel including ship's crew and scientists doing onboard research are present in the waters of the treaty region; summer (January) population - 3,687 total; Argentina 302, Australia 201, Belgium 13, Brazil 80, Bulgaria 16, Chile 352, China 70, Finland 11, France 100, Germany 51, India 60, Italy 106, Japan 136, South Korea 14, Netherlands 10, NZ 60, Norway 40, Peru 28, Poland 70, Russia 254, South Africa 80, Spain 43, Sweden 20, UK 192, US 1,378 (1998-99); winter (July) population - 964 total; Argentina 165, Australia 75, Brazil 12, Chile 129, China 33, France 33, Germany 9, India 25, Japan 40, South Korea 14, NZ 10, Poland 20, Russia 102, South Africa 10, UK 39, US 248 (1998-99); year-round stations - 42 total; Argentina 6, Australia 4, Brazil 1, Chile 4, China 2, Finland 1, France 1, Germany 1, India 1, Italy 1, Japan 1, South Korea 1, NZ 1, Norway 1, Poland 1, Russia 6, South Africa 1, Spain 1, Ukraine 1, UK 2, US 3, Uruguay 1 (1998-99); summer-only stations - 32 total; Argentina 3, Australia 4, Bulgaria 1, Chile 7, Germany 1, India 1, Japan 3, NZ 1, Peru 1, Russia 3, Sweden 2, UK 5 (1998-99); in addition, during the austral summer some nations have numerous occupied locations such as tent camps, summer-long temporary facilities, and mobile traverses in support of research (July 2003 est.)
Antarctica Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Antarctica
Antarctica Government type Antarctic Treaty Summary - the Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, establishes the legal framework for the management of Antarctica. The 24th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was held in Russia in July 2001. At the end of 2001, there were 45 treaty member nations: 27 consultative and 18 non-consultative. Consultative (voting) members include the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica as national territory (some claims overlap) and 20 nonclaimant nations. The US and Russia have reserved the right to make claims. The US does not recognize the claims of others. Antarctica is administered through meetings of the consultative member nations. Decisions from these meetings are carried out by these member nations (within their areas) in accordance with their own national laws. The year in parentheses indicates when an acceding nation was voted to full consultative (voting) status, while no date indicates the country was an original 1959 treaty signatory. Claimant nations are - Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant consultative nations are - Belgium, Brazil (1983), Bulgaria (1998) China (1985), Ecuador (1990), Finland (1989), Germany (1981), India (1983), Italy (1987), Japan, South Korea (1989), Netherlands (1990), Peru (1989), Poland (1977), Russia, South Africa, Spain (1988), Sweden (1988), Uruguay (1985), and the US. Non-consultative (nonvoting) members, with year of accession in parentheses, are - Austria (1987), Canada (1988), Colombia (1989), Cuba (1984), Czech Republic (1993), Denmark (1965), Estonia (2001), Greece (1987), Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea (1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia (1993), Switzerland (1990), Turkey (1995), Ukraine (1992), and Venezuela (1999). Article 1 - area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel and equipment may be used for scientific research or any other peaceful purpose; Article 2 - freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue; Article 3 - free exchange of information and personnel, cooperation with the UN and other international agencies; Article 4 - does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims and no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force; Article 5 - prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes; Article 6 - includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees 00 minutes south and reserves high seas rights; Article 7 - treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial observation, to any area and may inspect all stations, installations, and equipment; advance notice of all expeditions and of the introduction of military personnel must be given; Article 8 - allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own states; Article 9 - frequent consultative meetings take place among member nations; Article 10 - treaty states will discourage activities by any country in Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty; Article 11 - disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ; Articles 12, 13, 14 - deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among involved nations. Other agreements - some 200 recommendations adopted at treaty consultative meetings and ratified by governments include - Agreed Measures for Fauna and Flora (1964) which were later incorporated into the Environmental Protocol; Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980); a mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988 but remains unratified; the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed 4 October 1991 and entered into force 14 January 1998; this agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment through five specific annexes: 1) marine pollution, 2) fauna and flora, 3) environmental impact assessments, 4) waste management, and 5) protected area management; it prohibits all activities relating to mineral resources except scientific research.
Antarctica Legal system Antarctica is administered through meetings of the consultative member nations. Decisions from these meetings are carried out by these member nations (within their areas) in accordance with their own national laws. US law, including certain criminal offenses by or against US nationals, such as murder, may apply extra-territorially. Some US laws directly apply to Antarctica. For example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C. section 2401 et seq., provides civil and criminal penalties for the following activities, unless authorized by regulation of statute: the taking of native mammals or birds; the introduction of nonindigenous plants and animals; entry into specially protected areas; the discharge or disposal of pollutants; and the importation into the US of certain items from Antarctica. Violation of the Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000 in fines and one year in prison. The National Science Foundation and Department of Justice share enforcement responsibilities. Public Law 95-541, the US Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, as amended in 1996, requires expeditions from the US to Antarctica to notify, in advance, the Office of Oceans, Room 5805, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520, which reports such plans to other nations as required by the Antarctic Treaty. For more information, contact Permit Office, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia 22230; telephone: (703) 292-8030, or visit their website at www.nsf.gov.
Antarctica Economy - overview Fishing off the coast and tourism, both based abroad, account for the limited economic activity. Antarctic fisheries in 2000-01 (1 July-30 June) reported landing 112,934 metric tons. Unregulated fishing, particularly of tooth fish, is a serious problem. Allegedly illegal fishing in antarctic waters in 1998 resulted in the seizure (by France and Australia) of at least eight fishing ships. The Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources determines the recommended catch limits for marine species. A total of 12,248 tourists visited in the 2000-01 antarctic summer, down from the 14,762 who visited the previous year. Nearly all of them were passengers on 21 commercial (nongovernmental) ships and several yachts that made trips during the summer. Most tourist trips lasted approximately two weeks.
Antarctica Telephones - main lines in use 0 note: information for US bases only (2001)
Antarctica Telephones - mobile cellular NA; Iridium system in use
Antarctica Telephone system general assessment: local systems at some research stations domestic: NA international: via satellite from some research stations
Antarctica Radio broadcast stations AM NA, FM 2, shortwave 1 note: information for US bases only (2002)
Antarctica Television broadcast stations 1 (cable system with six channels; American Forces Antarctic Network-McMurdo) note: information for US bases only (2002)
Antarctica Internet country code .aq
Antarctica Internet Service Providers (ISPs) NA
Antarctica Ports and harbors there are no developed ports and harbors in Antarctica; most coastal stations have offshore anchorages, and supplies are transferred from ship to shore by small boats, barges, and helicopters; a few stations have a basic wharf facility; US coastal stations include McMurdo (77 51 S, 166 40 E), Palmer (64 43 S, 64 03 W); government use only except by permit (see Permit Office under "Legal System"); all ships at port are subject to inspection in accordance with Article 7, Antarctic Treaty; offshore anchorage is sparse and intermittent
Antarctica Airports 30 note: 30 stations, operated by 16 national governments party to the Antarctic Treaty, have aircraft landing facilities for either helicopters and/or fixed-wing aircraft; commercial enterprises operate two additional aircraft landing facilities; helicopter pads are available at 27 stations; runways at 15 locations are gravel, sea-ice, blue-ice, or compacted snow suitable for landing wheeled, fixed-wing aircraft; of these, 1 is greater than 3 km in length, 6 are between 2 km and 3 km in length, 3 are between 1 km and 2 km in length, 3 are less than 1 km in length, and 2 are of unknown length; snow surface skiways, limited to use by ski-equipped, fixed-wing aircraft, are available at another 15 locations; of these, 4 are greater than 3 km in length, 3 are between 2 km and 3 km in length, 2 are between 1 km and 2 km in length, 2 are less than 1 km in length, and 4 are of unknown length; aircraft landing facilities generally subject to severe restrictions and limitations resulting from extreme seasonal and geographic conditions; aircraft landing facilities do not meet ICAO standards; advance approval from the respective governmental or nongovernmental operating organization required for landing; landed aircraft are subject to inspection in accordance with Article 7, Antarctic Treaty (2002)
Antarctica Airports - with unpaved runways total: 19 over 3,047 m: 6 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 4 under 914 m: 5 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
Antarctica Heliports 27 stations have helicopter landing facilities (helipads) (2002)
Antarctica Military - note the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a military nature, such as the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the carrying out of military maneuvers, or the testing of any type of weapon; it permits the use of military personnel or equipment for scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes
Antarctica Disputes - international Antarctic Treaty freezes claims (see Antarctic Treaty Summary in Government type entry); sections (some overlapping) claimed by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, NZ, Norway, and UK; the US and most other states do not recognize the territorial claims of other states and have made no claims themselves (the US and Russia reserve the right to do so); no claims have been made in the sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west; several states with land claims in Antarctica have expressed their intention to submit data to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf to extend their continental shelf claims to adjoining undersea ridges
Antigua and Barbuda Background The Siboney were the first to inhabit the islands of Antigua and Barbuda in 2400 B.C., but Arawak and Carib Indians populated the islands when Columbus landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early settlements by the Spanish and French were succeeded by the English who formed a colony in 1667. Slavery, established to run the sugar plantations on Antigua, was abolished in 1834. The islands became an independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981.
Antigua and Barbuda Location Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico
Antigua and Barbuda Geographic coordinates 17 03 N, 61 48 W
Antigua and Barbuda Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Antigua and Barbuda Area total: 443 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km) water: 0 sq km note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km land: 443 sq km
Antigua and Barbuda Area - comparative 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Antigua and Barbuda Land boundaries 0 km
Antigua and Barbuda Coastline 153 km
Antigua and Barbuda Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
Antigua and Barbuda Climate tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation
Antigua and Barbuda Terrain mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher volcanic areas
Antigua and Barbuda Elevation extremes lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m
Antigua and Barbuda Natural resources NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism
Antigua and Barbuda Land use arable land: 18.18% permanent crops: 0% other: 81.82% (1998 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Irrigated land NA sq km
Antigua and Barbuda Natural hazards hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts
Antigua and Barbuda Environment - current issues water management - a major concern because of limited natural fresh water resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly
Antigua and Barbuda Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Antigua and Barbuda Geography - note Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors and beaches; Barbuda has a very large western harbor
Antigua and Barbuda Population 67,897 (July 2003 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Age structure 0-14 years: 28.1% (male 9,706; female 9,371) 15-64 years: 67.4% (male 22,929; female 22,845) 65 years and over: 4.5% (male 1,218; female 1,828) (2003 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Median age total: 29.1 years male: 28.6 years female: 29.6 years (2002)
Antigua and Barbuda Population growth rate 0.64% (2003 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Birth rate 18.23 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Death rate 5.64 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Net migration rate -6.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Infant mortality rate total: 20.9 deaths/1,000 live births female: 16.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 25.14 deaths/1,000 live births
Antigua and Barbuda Life expectancy at birth total population: 71.31 years male: 68.99 years female: 73.75 years (2003 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Total fertility rate 2.28 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate NA%
Antigua and Barbuda HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
Antigua and Barbuda HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Antigua and Barbuda Nationality noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s) adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan
Antigua and Barbuda Ethnic groups black, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian
Antigua and Barbuda Religions Christian, (predominantly Anglican with other Protestant, and some Roman Catholic)
Antigua and Barbuda Languages English (official), local dialects
Antigua and Barbuda Literacy definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling total population: 89% male: 90% female: 88% (1960 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda Government type constitutional monarchy with UK-style parliament
Antigua and Barbuda Capital Saint John's
Antigua and Barbuda Administrative divisions 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip
Antigua and Barbuda Independence 1 November 1981 (from UK)
Antigua and Barbuda National holiday Independence Day (National Day), 1 November (1981)
Antigua and Barbuda Constitution 1 November 1981
Antigua and Barbuda Legal system based on English common law
Antigua and Barbuda Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Antigua and Barbuda Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General James B. CARLISLE (since NA 1993) elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general chosen by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister head of government: Prime Minister Lester Bryant BIRD (since 8 March 1994); Deputy Prime Minister Robin YEARWOOD
Antigua and Barbuda Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17-member body appointed by the governor general) and the House of Representatives (17 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve five-year terms) election results: percent of vote by party - ALP 53.2%, UPP 45.5%, independent 1.3%; seats by party - ALP 12, UPP 4, independent 1 elections: House of Representatives - last held 9 March 1999 (next to be held prior to March 2004)
Antigua and Barbuda Judicial branch Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia; one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction)
Antigua and Barbuda Political parties and leaders Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester Bryant BIRD]; Barbuda People's Movement or BPM [Thomas H. FRANK]; United Progressive Party or UPP [Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three opposition parties - United National Democratic Party or UNDP, Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM, and Progressive Labor Movement or PLM)
Antigua and Barbuda Political pressure groups and leaders Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]
Antigua and Barbuda International organization participation ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Antigua and Barbuda Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant) chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016 telephone: [1] (202) 362-5211 FAX: [1] (202) 362-5225 consulate(s) general: Miami
Antigua and Barbuda Diplomatic representation from the US the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda (embassy closed 30 June 1994); the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda Flag description red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the black band
Antigua and Barbuda Economy - overview Tourism continues to dominate the economy, accounting for more than half of GDP. Weak tourist arrival numbers since early 2000 have slowed the economy, however, and pressed the government into a tight fiscal corner. The dual-island nation's agricultural production is focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on income growth in the industrialized world, especially in the US, which accounts for slightly more than one-third of tourist arrivals.
Antigua and Barbuda GDP purchasing power parity - $750 million (2002 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda GDP - real growth rate 3% (2002 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $11,000 (2002 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 3.9% industry: 19.2% services: 76.8% (2002)
Antigua and Barbuda Population below poverty line NA%
Antigua and Barbuda Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Antigua and Barbuda Inflation rate (consumer prices) 0.4% (2000 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Labor force 30,000
Antigua and Barbuda Labor force - by occupation commerce and services 82%, agriculture 11%, industry 7% (1983)
Antigua and Barbuda Unemployment rate 11% (2001 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Budget revenues: $123.7 million expenditures: $145.9 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Industries tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)
Antigua and Barbuda Industrial production growth rate 6% (1997 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Electricity - production 105.3 million kWh (2001)
Antigua and Barbuda Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Antigua and Barbuda Electricity - consumption 97.89 million kWh (2001)
Antigua and Barbuda Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Antigua and Barbuda Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Antigua and Barbuda Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Oil - consumption 3,600 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Oil - exports NA (2001)
Antigua and Barbuda Oil - imports NA (2001)
Antigua and Barbuda Agriculture - products cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock
Antigua and Barbuda Exports $40 million
Antigua and Barbuda Exports - commodities petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, machinery and transport equipment 17%, food and live animals 4%, other 8%
Antigua and Barbuda Exports - partners France 68.5%, Germany 26.4%, Italy 1.2% (2002)
Antigua and Barbuda Imports $357 million (2000 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Imports - commodities food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil
Antigua and Barbuda Imports - partners France 23.4%, Germany 14.2%, US 13.2%, Poland 9.8%, South Korea 8.3%, Singapore 5%, UK 4.4% (2002)
Antigua and Barbuda Debt - external $231 million (1999)
Antigua and Barbuda Economic aid - recipient $2.3 million (1995)
Antigua and Barbuda Currency East Caribbean dollar (XCD)
Antigua and Barbuda Currency code XCD
Antigua and Barbuda Exchange rates East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7 (2002), 2.7 (2001), 2.7 (2000), 2.7 (1999), 2.7 (1998) (fixed rate since 1976)
Antigua and Barbuda Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Antigua and Barbuda Telephones - main lines in use 28,000 (1996)
Antigua and Barbuda Telephones - mobile cellular 1,300 (1996)
Antigua and Barbuda Telephone system general assessment: NA domestic: good automatic telephone system international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands Antilles) and Guadeloupe
Antigua and Barbuda Radio broadcast stations AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)
Antigua and Barbuda Television broadcast stations 2 (1997)
Antigua and Barbuda Internet country code .ag
Antigua and Barbuda Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 16 (2000)
Antigua and Barbuda Internet users 5,000 (2001)
Antigua and Barbuda Railways total: 77 km narrow gauge: 64 km 0.760-m gauge; 13 km 0.610-m gauge (used almost exclusively for handling sugarcane) (2001 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Highways total: 250 km (1999 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Waterways none
Antigua and Barbuda Ports and harbors Saint John's
Antigua and Barbuda Merchant marine total: 816 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 5,135,866 GRT/6,648,143 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Australia 1, Bangladesh 2, Belgium 3, Colombia 1, Cuba 1, Estonia 1, Germany 747, Greece 1, Iceland 8, Latvia 1, Lebanon 2, Lithuania 1, Netherlands 22, New Zealand 2, Portugal 1, Slovenia 6, South Africa 1, Sweden 2, United Kingdom 1, United States 7 (2002 est.) ships by type: bulk 16, cargo 474, chemical tanker 8, combination bulk 3, container 255, liquefied gas 10, multi-functional large-load carrier 6, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 8, roll on/roll off 35
Antigua and Barbuda Airports 3 (2002)
Antigua and Barbuda Airports - with paved runways total: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Antigua and Barbuda Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Antigua and Barbuda Military branches Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal Antigua and Barbuda Police Force (including the Coast Guard)
Antigua and Barbuda Military expenditures - dollar figure $NA
Antigua and Barbuda Military expenditures - percent of GDP NA%
Antigua and Barbuda Disputes - international none
Antigua and Barbuda Illicit drugs considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe; more significant as an offshore financial center
Arctic Ocean Background The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the world's five oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and the recently delimited Southern Ocean). The Northwest Passage (US and Canada) and Northern Sea Route (Norway and Russia) are two important seasonal waterways. A sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes circumscribes the Arctic Ocean.
Arctic Ocean Location body of water between Europe, Asia, and North America, mostly north of the Arctic Circle
Arctic Ocean Geographic coordinates 90 00 N, 0 00 E
Arctic Ocean Map references Arctic Region
Arctic Ocean Area total: 14.056 million sq km note: includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, Northwest Passage, and other tributary water bodies
Arctic Ocean Area - comparative slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US
Arctic Ocean Coastline 45,389 km
Arctic Ocean Climate polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively narrow annual temperature ranges; winters characterized by continuous darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear skies; summers characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow
Arctic Ocean Terrain central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar icepack that averages about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure ridges may be three times that size; clockwise drift pattern in the Beaufort Gyral Stream, but nearly straight-line movement from the New Siberian Islands (Russia) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland and Iceland); the icepack is surrounded by open seas during the summer, but more than doubles in size during the winter and extends to the encircling landmasses; the ocean floor is about 50% continental shelf (highest percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a central basin interrupted by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera, Nansen Cordillera, and Lomonosov Ridge)
Arctic Ocean Elevation extremes lowest point: Fram Basin -4,665 m highest point: sea level 0 m
Arctic Ocean Natural resources sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales)
Arctic Ocean Natural hazards ice islands occasionally break away from northern Ellesmere Island; icebergs calved from glaciers in western Greenland and extreme northeastern Canada; permafrost in islands; virtually ice locked from October to June; ships subject to superstructure icing from October to May
Arctic Ocean Environment - current issues endangered marine species include walruses and whales; fragile ecosystem slow to change and slow to recover from disruptions or damage; thinning polar icepack
Arctic Ocean Geography - note major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern access to the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait); strategic location between North America and Russia; shortest marine link between the extremes of eastern and western Russia; floating research stations operated by the US and Russia; maximum snow cover in March or April about 20 to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean; snow cover lasts about 10 months
Arctic Ocean Economy - overview Economic activity is limited to the exploitation of natural resources, including petroleum, natural gas, fish, and seals.
Arctic Ocean Ports and harbors Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (Russia), Prudhoe Bay (US)
Arctic Ocean Transportation - note sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes; the Northwest Passage (North America) and Northern Sea Route (Eurasia) are important seasonal waterways
Arctic Ocean Disputes - international some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
Argentina Background Following independence from Spain in 1816, Argentina experienced periods of internal political conflict between conservatives and liberals and between civilian and military factions. After World War II, a long period of Peronist authoritarian rule and interference in subsequent governments was followed by a military junta that took power in 1976. Democracy returned in 1983, and numerous elections since then have underscored Argentina's progress in democratic consolidation.
Argentina Location Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Chile and Uruguay
Argentina Geographic coordinates 34 00 S, 64 00 W
Argentina Map references South America
Argentina Area total: 2,766,890 sq km land: 2,736,690 sq km water: 30,200 sq km
Argentina Area - comparative slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US
Argentina Land boundaries total: 9,665 km border countries: Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km, Chile 5,150 km, Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km
Argentina Coastline 4,989 km
Argentina Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
Argentina Climate mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest
Argentina Terrain rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border
Argentina Elevation extremes lowest point: Salinas Chicas -40 m (located on Peninsula Valdes) highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,960 m
Argentina Natural resources fertile plains of the Pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium
Argentina Land use arable land: 9.14% permanent crops: 0.8% other: 90.06% (1998 est.)
Argentina Irrigated land 15,610 sq km (1998 est.)
Argentina Natural hazards San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the Pampas and northeast; heavy flooding
Argentina Environment - current issues environmental problems (urban and rural) typical of an industrializing economy such as deforestation, soil degradation, desertification, air pollution, and water pollution note: Argentina is a world leader in setting voluntary greenhouse gas targets
Argentina Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Argentina Geography - note second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic location relative to sea lanes between the South Atlantic and the South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); Cerro Aconcagua is South America's tallest mountain, while the Valdes Peninsula is the lowest point on the continent
Argentina Population 38,740,807 (July 2003 est.)
Argentina Age structure 0-14 years: 26.2% (male 5,185,548; female 4,955,551) 15-64 years: 63.4% (male 12,274,625; female 12,282,772) 65 years and over: 10.4% (male 1,659,641; female 2,382,670) (2003 est.)
Argentina Median age total: 29 years male: 28 years female: 29.9 years (2002)
Argentina Population growth rate 1.05% (2003 est.)
Argentina Birth rate 17.47 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Argentina Death rate 7.58 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Argentina Net migration rate 0.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Argentina Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Argentina Infant mortality rate total: 16.16 deaths/1,000 live births female: 14.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 18.14 deaths/1,000 live births
Argentina Life expectancy at birth total population: 75.48 years male: 71.72 years female: 79.44 years (2003 est.)
Argentina Total fertility rate 2.28 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Argentina HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.7% (2001 est.)
Argentina HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 130,000 (2001 est.)
Argentina HIV/AIDS - deaths 1,800 (2001 est.)
Argentina Nationality noun: Argentine(s) adjective: Argentine
Argentina Ethnic groups white (mostly Spanish and Italian) 97%, mestizo, Amerindian, or other nonwhite groups 3%
Argentina Religions nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%
Argentina Languages Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French
Argentina Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 97.1% male: 97.1% female: 97.1% (2003 est.)
Argentina Country name conventional long form: Argentine Republic conventional short form: Argentina local short form: Argentina local long form: Republica Argentina
Argentina Government type republic
Argentina Capital Buenos Aires
Argentina Administrative divisions 23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), and 1 autonomous city* (distrito federal); Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires Capital Federal*, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego - Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur, Tucuman note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica
Argentina Independence 9 July 1816 (from Spain)
Argentina National holiday Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)
Argentina Constitution 1 May 1853; revised August 1994
Argentina Legal system mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Argentina Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and mandatory
Argentina Executive branch chief of state: President Nestor KIRCHNER (since 25 May 2003); note - declared winner of a runoff election by default after Carlos Saul MENEM withdrew his candidacy on the eve of the election; Vice President Daniel SCIOLI (since 25 May 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Nestor KIRCHNER (since 25 May 2003); note - declared winner of a runoff election by default after Carlos Saul MENEM withdrew his candidacy on the eve of the election; Vice President Daniel SCIOLI (since 25 May 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president election results: results of the presidential primary of 27 April 2003: Carlos Saul MENEM 24.3%, Nestor KIRCHNER 22%, Ricardo Lopez MURPHY 16.4%, Adolfo Rodriguez SAA 14.4%, Elisa CARRIO 14.2%, other 8.7%; the subsequent runoff election slated for 25 May 2003 was awarded to KIRCHNER by default after MENEM withdrew his candidacy on the eve of the election elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; the last election held was the presidential primary election of 27 April 2003 (next election to be held NA 2007); a runoff election slated for 25 May 2003 between the two candidates receiving the highest votes in the primary was awarded to KIRCHNER by default after MENEM withdrew his candidacy on the eve of the election
Argentina Legislative branch bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate (72 seats; members are elected by direct vote; presently one-third of the members being elected every two years to a six-year term) and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats; members are elected by direct vote; one-half of the members elected every two years to a four-year term) election results: Senate - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA%; seats by bloc or party - PJ 40, UCR 24, provincial parties 6, Frepaso 1, ARI 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA%; seats by bloc or party - PJ 113, UCR 74, provincial parties 27, Frepaso 17, ARI 17, AR 9 elections: Senate - last held 14 October 2001 (next to be held intermittently by province before December 2003); Chamber of Deputies - last held 14 October 2001 (next to be held intermittently by province before December 2003)
Argentina Judicial branch Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (the nine Supreme Court judges are appointed by the president with approval by the Senate)
Argentina Political parties and leaders Action for the Republic or AR [Domingo CAVALLO]; Alternative for a Republic of Equals or ARI [Elisa CARRIO]; Front for a Country in Solidarity or Frepaso (a four-party coalition) [Dario Pedro ALESSANDRO]; Justicialist Party or PJ [Carlos Saul MENEM] (Peronist umbrella political organization); Radical Civic Union or UCR [Angel ROZAS]; Federal Recreate Movement [Ricardo LOPEZ MURPHY]; several provincial parties
Argentina Political pressure groups and leaders Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA); Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association); business organizations; General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization); Peronist-dominated labor movement; Roman Catholic Church; students
Argentina International organization participation AfDB, Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, ECLAC, FAO, G-6, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MINURSO, MIPONUH, MONUC, MTCR, NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOVIC, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Argentina Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Jose Octavio BORDON chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York FAX: [1] (202) 332-3171 telephone: [1] (202) 238-6400
Argentina Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador James D. WALSH; note - Lino GUTIERREZ is designated to replace Ambassador WALSH embassy: Avenida Colombia 4300, C1425GMN Buenos Aires mailing address: international mail: use street address; APO address: Unit 4334, APO AA 34034 telephone: [54] (11) 5777-4533 FAX: [54] (11) 5777-4240
Argentina Flag description three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and light blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a human face known as the Sun of May
Argentina Economy - overview Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base. Over the past decade, however, the country has suffered recurring economic problems of inflation, external debt, capital flight, and budget deficits. Growth in 2000 was a negative 0.8%, as both domestic and foreign investors remained skeptical of the government's ability to pay debts and maintain the peso's fixed exchange rate with the US dollar. The economic situation worsened in 2001 with the widening of spreads on Argentine bonds, massive withdrawals from the banks, and a further decline in consumer and investor confidence. Government efforts to achieve a "zero deficit," to stabilize the banking system, and to restore economic growth proved inadequate in the face of the mounting economic problems. The peso's peg to the dollar was abandoned in January 2002, and the peso was floated in February; the exchange rate plunged and inflation picked up rapidly, but by mid-2002 the economy had stabilized, albeit at a lower level. Strong demand for the peso compelled the Central Bank to intervene in foreign exchange markets to curb its appreciation in early 2003. Led by record exports, the economy began to recover with output up 5.5% in 2003, unemployment falling, and inflation sliced to 4.2% at year-end.
Argentina GDP purchasing power parity - $403.8 billion (2002 est.)
Argentina GDP - real growth rate -10.9% (2002 est.)
Argentina GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $10,500 (2002 est.)
Argentina GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 5% industry: 28% services: 66% (2000 est.)
Argentina Population below poverty line 37% (2001 est.)
Argentina Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Argentina Inflation rate (consumer prices) 41% (2002, yearend)
Argentina Labor force 15 million (1999)
Argentina Labor force - by occupation agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Argentina Unemployment rate 21.5% (37377)
Argentina Budget revenues: $44 billion expenditures: $48 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Argentina Industries food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel
Argentina Industrial production growth rate 1% (2000 est.)
Argentina Electricity - production 97.17 billion kWh (2001)
Argentina Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 52.2% hydro: 40.8% other: 0.2% (2001) nuclear: 6.7%
Argentina Electricity - consumption 92.12 billion kWh (2001)
Argentina Electricity - exports 5.662 billion kWh (2001)
Argentina Electricity - imports 7.417 billion kWh (2001)
Argentina Oil - production 828,600 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Argentina Oil - consumption 486,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Argentina Oil - exports NA (2001)
Argentina Oil - imports NA (2001)
Argentina Oil - proved reserves 2.927 billion bbl (37257)
Argentina Natural gas - production 37.15 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Argentina Natural gas - consumption 31.1 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Argentina Natural gas - exports 6.05 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Argentina Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Argentina Natural gas - proved reserves 768 billion cu m (37257)
Argentina Agriculture - products sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes, corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, wheat; livestock
Argentina Exports $25.3 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Argentina Exports - commodities edible oils, fuels and energy, cereals, feed, motor vehicles
Argentina Exports - partners Brazil 23.6%, US 10.9%, Chile 9.7%, Spain 4.3% (2002)
Argentina Imports $9 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Argentina Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal manufactures, plastics
Argentina Imports - partners Brazil 42%, US 12.8%, Germany 4.4% (2002)
Argentina Debt - external $155 billion (2001 est.)
Argentina Economic aid - recipient $10 billion (2001 est.)
Argentina Currency Argentine peso (ARS)
Argentina Currency code ARS
Argentina Exchange rates Argentine pesos per US dollar - 3.06 (2002), 1 (2001), 1 (2000), 1 (1999), 1 (1998)
Argentina Fiscal year calendar year
Argentina Telephones - main lines in use 7.5 million (1998)
Argentina Telephones - mobile cellular 3 million (December 1999)
Argentina Telephone system general assessment: by opening the telecommunications market to competition and foreign investment with the "Telecommunications Liberalization Plan of 1998," Argentina encouraged the growth of modern telecommunication technology; fiber-optic cable trunk lines are being installed between all major cities; the major networks are entirely digital and the availability of telephone service is being improved; however, telephone density is presently minimal, and making telephone service universally available will take time domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber-optic cable, and a domestic satellite system with 40 earth stations serve the trunk network; more than 110,000 pay telephones are installed and mobile telephone use is rapidly expanding international: satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); Atlantis II and Unisur submarine cables; two international gateways near Buenos Aires (1999)
Argentina Radio broadcast stations AM 260 (including 10 inactive stations), FM NA (probably more than 1,000, mostly unlicensed), shortwave 6 (1998)
Argentina Television broadcast stations 42 (plus 444 repeaters) (1997)
Argentina Internet country code .ar
Argentina Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 33 (2000)
Argentina Internet users 3.88 million (2001)
Argentina Railways total: 34,463 km (168 km electrified) broad gauge: 20,736 km 1.676-m gauge (142 km electrified) standard gauge: 3,115 km 1.435-m gauge (26 km electrified) narrow gauge: 10,375 km 1.000-m gauge; 237 km 0.750-m gauge (2002)
Argentina Highways total: 215,471 km paved: 63,348 km (including 734 km of expressways) unpaved: 152,123 km (1999)
Argentina Waterways 10,950 km
Argentina Pipelines gas 26,797 km; liquid petroleum gas 41 km; oil 3,668 km; refined products 2,945 km; unknown (oil/water) 13 km (2003)
Argentina Ports and harbors Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Comodoro Rivadavia, Concepcion del Uruguay, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Necochea, Rio Gallegos, Rosario, Santa Fe, Ushuaia
Argentina Merchant marine total: 23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 141,851 GRT/208,821 DWT ships by type: cargo 9, petroleum tanker 8, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 1, short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 1, includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: United Arab Emirates 1, Uruguay 1 (2002 est.)
Argentina Airports 1,342 (2002)
Argentina Airports - with paved runways total: 145 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 26 1,524 to 2,437 m: 62 914 to 1,523 m: 44 under 914 m: 9 (2002)
Argentina Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1,197 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 50 914 to 1,523 m: 572 under 914 m: 571 (2002)
Argentina Military branches Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic (includes naval aviation and Marines), Coast Guard, Argentine Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Aeronautical Police Force
Argentina Military manpower - military age 20 years of age (2003 est.)
Argentina Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 9,780,063 (2003 est.)
Argentina Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 7,942,837 (2003 est.)
Argentina Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 331,011 (2003 est.)
Argentina Military expenditures - dollar figure $4.3 billion (FY99)
Argentina Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.3% (FY00)
Argentina Disputes - international claims UK-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands in its constitution, but in 1995 ceded the right to settle the dispute by force; Beagle Channel islands dispute resolved through Papal mediation in 1984, but armed incidents persist since 1992 oil discovery; territorial claim in Antarctica partially overlaps UK and Chilean claims (see Antarctic disputes); unruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and drug trafficking, and harbors Islamist militants; uncontested dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question
Argentina Illicit drugs used as a transshipment country for cocaine headed for Europe and the US; some money-laundering activity, especially in the Tri-Border Area; domestic consumption of drugs in urban centers is increasing
Armenia Background Armenia prides itself on being the first nation to formally adopt Christianity (early 4th century). Despite periods of autonomy, over the centuries Armenia came under the sway of various empires including the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman. It was incorporated into Russia in 1828 and the USSR in 1920. Armenian leaders remain preoccupied by the long conflict with Muslim Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated region, assigned to Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s by Moscow. Armenia and Azerbaijan began fighting over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also a significant portion of Azerbaijan proper. The economies of both sides have been hurt by their inability to make substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution.
Armenia Location Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey
Armenia Geographic coordinates 40 00 N, 45 00 E
Armenia Map references Asia
Armenia Area total: 29,800 sq km water: 1,400 sq km land: 28,400 sq km
Armenia Area - comparative slightly smaller than Maryland
Armenia Land boundaries total: 1,254 km border countries: Azerbaijan-proper 566 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km
Armenia Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Armenia Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Armenia Climate highland continental, hot summers, cold winters
Armenia Terrain Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley
Armenia Elevation extremes lowest point: Debed River 400 m highest point: Aragats Lerrnagagat' 4,090 m
Armenia Natural resources small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, alumina
Armenia Land use arable land: 17.52% permanent crops: 2.3% other: 80.18% (1998 est.)
Armenia Irrigated land 2,870 sq km (1998 est.)
Armenia Natural hazards occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts
Armenia Environment - current issues soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; the energy crisis of the 1990s led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant in spite of its location in a seismically active zone
Armenia Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Armenia Geography - note landlocked in the Lesser Caucasus Mountains; Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan) is the largest lake in this mountain range
Armenia Population 3,326,448 note: Armenia's first census since independence was conducted in October 2001; official results are not expected until late 2003 (July 2003 est.)
Armenia Age structure 0-14 years: 21.1% (male 356,587; female 346,648) 15-64 years: 68.3% (male 1,113,241; female 1,158,245) 65 years and over: 10.6% (male 147,156; female 204,571) (2003 est.)
Armenia Median age total: 32.3 years male: 30.6 years female: 34.1 years (2002)
Armenia Population growth rate -0.07% (2003 est.)
Armenia Birth rate 12.57 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Armenia Death rate 10.16 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Armenia Net migration rate -3.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Armenia Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Armenia Infant mortality rate total: 40.86 deaths/1,000 live births female: 36.24 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 45.27 deaths/1,000 live births
Armenia Life expectancy at birth total population: 66.68 years male: 62.41 years female: 71.17 years (2003 est.)
Armenia Total fertility rate 1.56 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Armenia HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.2% (2001 est.)
Armenia HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS less than 2,400 (2001 est.)
Armenia HIV/AIDS - deaths less than 100 (2001 est.)
Armenia Nationality noun: Armenian(s) adjective: Armenian
Armenia Ethnic groups Armenian 93%, Azeri 1%, Russian 2%, other (mostly Yezidi Kurds) 4% (2002) note: as of the end of 1993, virtually all Azeris had emigrated from Armenia
Armenia Religions Armenian Apostolic 94%, other Christian 4%, Yezidi (Zoroastrian/animist) 2%
Armenia Languages Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2%
Armenia Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 98.6% male: 99.4% female: 98% (2003 est.)
Armenia Country name conventional long form: Republic of Armenia conventional short form: Armenia local short form: Hayastan former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
Armenia Government type republic
Armenia Capital Yerevan
Armenia Administrative divisions 11 provinces (marzer, singular - marz); Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir, Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush, Vayots' Dzor, Yerevan
Armenia Independence 21 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Armenia National holiday Independence Day, 21 September (1991)
Armenia Constitution adopted by nationwide referendum 5 July 1995
Armenia Legal system based on civil law system
Armenia Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Armenia Executive branch chief of state: President Robert KOCHARIAN (since 30 March 1998) head of government: Prime Minister Andranik MARKARYAN (since 12 May 2000) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 19 February and 5 March 2003 (next to be held NA 2008); prime minister appointed by the president; the prime minister and Council of Ministers must resign if the National Assembly refuses to accept their program election results: Robert KOCHARIAN reelected president; percent of vote - Robert KOCHARIAN 67.5%, Stepan DEMIRCHYAN 32.5%
Armenia Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or Azgayin Zhoghov (131 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms; 75 members selected by direct vote, 56 by party list) elections: last held 25 May 2003 (next to be held in the spring of 2007) election results: percent of vote by party - Republican Party 23.5%, Justice Bloc 13.6%, Rule of Law 12.3%, ARF (Dashnak) 11.4%, National Unity Party 8.8%, United Labor Party 5.7%; seats by party - Republican Party 23, Justice Bloc 14, Rule of Law 12, ARF (Dashnak) 11, National Unity 9, United Labor 6; note - seats by party change frequently as deputies switch parties or announce themselves independent note: electoral law was changed in 2002 so ratio in next elections will be 75 deputies elected by party list, 56 by direct election
Armenia Judicial branch Constitutional Court; Court of Cassation (Appeals Court)
Armenia Political parties and leaders Agro-Industrial Party [Vladimir BADALIAN]; Armenia Party [Myasnik MALKHASYAN]; Armenian National Movement or ANM [Alex ARZUMANYAN, chairman]; Armenian Ramkavar Liberal Party or HRAK [Ruben MIRZAKHANYAN, chairman]; Armenian Revolutionary Federation ("Dashnak" Party) or ARF [Vahan HOVHANISSIAN]; Democratic Party [Aram SARKISYAN]; Justice Bloc (comprised of the Democratic Party, National Democratic Party, National Democratic Union, and the People's Party); National Democratic Party [Shavarsh KOCHARIAN]; National Democratic Union or NDU [Vazgen MANUKIAN]; National Unity Party [Artashes GEGAMIAN, chairman]; People's Party of Armenia [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN]; Republic Party [Albert BAZEYAN and Aram SARKISYAN, chairmen]; Republican Party or RPA [Andranik MARKARYAN]; Rule of Law Party [Artur BAGDASARIAN, chairman]; Union of Constitutional Rights [Hrant KHACHATURYAN]; United Labor Party [Gurgen ARSENIAN]
Armenia Political pressure groups and leaders Yerkrapah Union [Manvel GRIGORIAN]
Armenia International organization participation BSEC, CE, CIS, COE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Armenia Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Arman KIRAKOSSIAN chancery: 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 consulate(s) general: Los Angeles FAX: [1] (202) 319-2982 telephone: [1] (202) 319-1976
Armenia Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador John M. ORDWAY embassy: 18 Baghramyan Ave., Yerevan 375019 mailing address: American Embassy Yerevan, Department of State, 7020 Yerevan Place, Washington, DC 20521-7020 telephone: [374](1) 521-611, 520-791, 542-177, 542-132, 524-661, 527-001, 524-840 FAX: [374](1) 520-800
Armenia Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and orange
Armenia Economy - overview Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia had developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange for raw materials and energy. Since the implosion of the USSR in December 1991, Armenia has switched to small-scale agriculture away from the large agroindustrial complexes of the Soviet era. The agricultural sector has long-term needs for more investment and updated technology. The privatization of industry has been at a slower pace, but has been given renewed emphasis by the current administration. Armenia is a food importer, and its mineral deposits (copper, gold, bauxite) are small. The ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over the ethnic Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh and the breakup of the centrally directed economic system of the former Soviet Union contributed to a severe economic decline in the early 1990s. By 1994, however, the Armenian Government had launched an ambitious IMF-sponsored economic program that has resulted in positive growth rates in 1995-2003. Armenia also has managed to slash inflation, stabilize the local currency (the dram), and privatize most small- and medium-sized enterprises. The chronic energy shortages Armenia suffered in the early and mid-1990s have been offset by the energy supplied by one of its nuclear power plants at Metsamor. Armenia is now a net energy exporter, although it does not have sufficient generating capacity to replace Metsamor, which is under international pressure to close. The electricity distribution system was privatized in 2002. Armenia's severe trade imbalance has been offset somewhat by international aid, domestic restructuring of the economy, and foreign direct investment. Economic ties with Russia remain close, especially in the energy sector.
Armenia GDP purchasing power parity - $12.13 billion (2002 est.)
Armenia GDP - real growth rate 12.9% (2002 est.)
Armenia GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $3,600 (2002 est.)
Armenia GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 30% industry: 26% services: 44% (2001 est.)
Armenia Population below poverty line 50% (2002 est.)
Armenia Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.3% highest 10%: 46.2% (1999)
Armenia Distribution of family income - Gini index 44.4 (1996)
Armenia Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.1% (2002 est.)
Armenia Labor force 1.4 million (2001)
Armenia Labor force - by occupation agriculture 45%, services 30%, industry 25% (2002 est.)
Armenia Unemployment rate 20% (2001 est.)
Armenia Budget revenues: $402 million expenditures: $482 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Armenia Industries metal-cutting machine tools, forging-pressing machines, electric motors, tires, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, gem cutting, jewelry manufacturing, software development, food processing, brandy
Armenia Industrial production growth rate 15% (2002 est.)
Armenia Electricity - production 6.479 billion kWh (2001)
Armenia Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 42.3% hydro: 27% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 30.7%
Armenia Electricity - consumption 5.784 billion kWh (2001)
Armenia Electricity - exports 704 million kWh; note - exports an unknown quantity to Georgia; includes exports to Nagorno-Karabakh region in Azerbaijan (2001)
Armenia Electricity - imports 463 million kWh; note - imports an unknown quantity from Iran (2001)
Armenia Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Armenia Oil - consumption 5,700 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Armenia Oil - exports NA (2001)
Armenia Oil - imports NA (2001)
Armenia Natural gas - production 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Armenia Natural gas - consumption 1.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Armenia Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Armenia Natural gas - imports 1.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Armenia Agriculture - products fruit (especially grapes), vegetables; livestock
Armenia Exports $525 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Armenia Exports - commodities diamonds, mineral products, foodstuffs, energy
Armenia Exports - partners Belgium 21.5%, Russia 14.6%, Israel 10.3%, Iran 9.4%, US 8.2%, Switzerland 6.8%, Germany 6.2% (2002)
Armenia Imports $991 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Armenia Imports - commodities natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products, foodstuffs, diamonds
Armenia Imports - partners US 15.3%, Russia 12.9%, Belgium 12.3%, Iran 10.3%, UAE 6.3%, Germany 5.5%, Italy 4.9% (2002)
Armenia Debt - external $905 million (June 2001)
Armenia Economic aid - recipient ODA $170 million (2000)
Armenia Currency dram (AMD)
Armenia Currency code AMD
Armenia Exchange rates drams per US dollar - NA (2002), 555.08 (2001), 539.53 (2000), 535.06 (1999), 504.92 (1998)
Armenia Fiscal year calendar year
Armenia Telephones - main lines in use 600,000 (2002)
Armenia Telephones - mobile cellular 50,000 (2002)
Armenia Telephone system general assessment: system inadequate; now 90% privately owned and undergoing modernization and expansion domestic: the majority of subscribers and the most modern equipment are in Yerevan (this includes paging and mobile cellular service) international: Yerevan is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional international service is available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States and through the Moscow international switch and by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (2000)
Armenia Radio broadcast stations AM 9, FM 6, shortwave 1 (1998)
Armenia Television broadcast stations 3 (plus an unknown number of repeaters); (1998)
Armenia Internet country code .am
Armenia Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 9 (2001)
Armenia Internet users 30,000 (2001)
Armenia Railways total: 852 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines broad gauge: 852 km 1.520-m gauge (779 km electrified) (2002)
Armenia Highways total: 15,918 km paved: 15,329 km (includes 7,527 km of expressways) unpaved: 589 km (2000)
Armenia Waterways NA km
Armenia Pipelines gas 2,031 km (2003)
Armenia Ports and harbors none
Armenia Airports 15 (2002)
Armenia Airports - with paved runways total: 8 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)
Armenia Airports - with unpaved runways total: 7 over 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Armenia Military branches Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border Guards
Armenia Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Armenia Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 919,582 (2003 est.)
Armenia Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 727,770 (2003 est.)
Armenia Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 37,209 (2003 est.)
Armenia Military expenditures - dollar figure $135 million (FY01)
Armenia Military expenditures - percent of GDP 6.5% (FY01)
Armenia Disputes - international Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh and militarily occupies 16% of Azerbaijan - Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate dispute; border with Turkey remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh dispute; traditional demands regarding former Armenian lands in Turkey have subsided; ethnic Armenian groups in Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy, closer ties with Armenia
Armenia Illicit drugs illicit cultivation of small amount of cannabis for domestic consumption; used as a transit point for illicit drugs - mostly opium and hashish - moving from Southwest Asia to Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe
Aruba Background Discovered and claimed for Spain in 1499, Aruba was acquired by the Dutch in 1636. The island's economy has been dominated by three main industries. A 19th century gold rush was followed by prosperity brought on by the opening in 1924 of an oil refinery. The last decades of the 20th century saw a boom in the tourism industry. Aruba seceded from the Netherlands Antilles in 1986 and became a separate, autonomous member of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Movement toward full independence was halted at Aruba's request in 1990.
Aruba Location Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Venezuela
Aruba Geographic coordinates 12 30 N, 69 58 W
Aruba Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Aruba Area total: 193 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 193 sq km
Aruba Area - comparative slightly larger than Washington, DC
Aruba Land boundaries 0 km
Aruba Coastline 68.5 km
Aruba Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 NM
Aruba Climate tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation
Aruba Terrain flat with a few hills; scant vegetation
Aruba Elevation extremes lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Mount Jamanota 188 m
Aruba Natural resources NEGL; white sandy beaches
Aruba Land use arable land: 10.53% (including aloe 0.01%) permanent crops: 0% other: 89.47% (1998 est.)
Aruba Irrigated land 0.01 sq km (1998 est.)
Aruba Natural hazards lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt
Aruba Environment - current issues NA
Aruba Geography - note a flat, riverless island renowned for its white sand beaches; its tropical climate is moderated by constant trade winds from the Atlantic Ocean; the temperature is almost constant at about 27 degrees Celsius (81 degrees Fahrenheit)
Aruba Population 70,844 (July 2003 est.)
Aruba Age structure 0-14 years: 20.7% (male 7,540; female 7,121) 15-64 years: 68.3% (male 23,427; female 24,955) 65 years and over: 11% (male 3,215; female 4,586) (2003 est.)
Aruba Median age total: 37.1 years male: 35.3 years female: 38.5 years (2002)
Aruba Population growth rate 0.55% (2003 est.)
Aruba Birth rate 11.86 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Aruba Death rate 6.38 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Aruba Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Aruba Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Aruba Infant mortality rate total: 6.14 deaths/1,000 live births female: 5.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 6.99 deaths/1,000 live births
Aruba Life expectancy at birth total population: 78.83 years male: 75.48 years female: 82.34 years (2003 est.)
Aruba Total fertility rate 1.79 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Aruba HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate NA%
Aruba HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
Aruba HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Aruba Nationality noun: Aruban(s) adjective: Aruban; Dutch
Aruba Ethnic groups mixed white/Caribbean Amerindian 80%
Aruba Religions Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, Hindu, Muslim, Confucian, Jewish
Aruba Languages Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, English dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish
Aruba Literacy definition: total population: 97% male: NA% female: NA%
Aruba Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Aruba
Aruba Dependency status part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; full autonomy in internal affairs obtained in 1986 upon separation from the Netherlands Antilles; Dutch Government responsible for defense and foreign affairs
Aruba Government type parliamentary democracy
Aruba Capital Oranjestad
Aruba Administrative divisions none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Aruba Independence none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Aruba National holiday Flag Day, 18 March
Aruba Constitution 1 January 1986
Aruba Legal system based on Dutch civil law system, with some English common law influence
Aruba Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Aruba Executive branch chief of state: Queen BEATRIX of the Netherlands (since 30 April 1980), represented by Governor General Olindo KOOLMAN (since 1 January 1992) election results: Nelson O. ODUBER elected prime minister; percent of legislative vote - NA% elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed for a six-year term by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime minister elected by the Staten for four-year terms; election last held 28 September 2001 (next to be held by December 2005) head of government: Prime Minister Nelson O. ODUBER (since 30 October 2001); Deputy Prime Minister Fredis REFUNJOL cabinet: Council of Ministers (elected by the Staten)
Aruba Legislative branch unicameral Legislature or Staten (21 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 28 September 2001 (next to be held by NA 2005) election results: percent of vote by party - MEP 52.4%, AVP 26.7%, PPA 9.6%, OLA 5.7%, Aliansa 3.5%, other 2.1%; seats by party - MEP 12, AVP 6, PPA 2, OLA 1
Aruba Judicial branch Joint High Court of Justice (judges are appointed by the monarch)
Aruba Political parties and leaders Aruba Solidarity Movement or MAS [leader NA]; Aruban Democratic Alliance or Aliansa [leader NA]; Aruban Democratic Party or PDA [Leo BERLINSKI]; Aruban Liberal Party or OLA [Glenbert CROES]; Aruban Patriotic Party or PPA [Benny NISBET]; Aruban People's Party or AVP [Jan (Henny) H. EMAN]; Concentration for the Liberation of Aruba or CLA [leader NA]; People's Electoral Movement Party or MEP [Nelson O. ODUBER]; For a Restructured Aruba Now or PARA [Urbana LOPEZ]; National Democratic Action or ADN [Pedro Charro KELLY]
Aruba Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Aruba International organization participation Caricom (observer), ECLAC (associate), Interpol, IOC, UNESCO (associate), WCL, WToO (associate)
Aruba Diplomatic representation in the US none (represented by the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Aruba Diplomatic representation from the US the US does not have an embassy in Aruba; the Consul General to Netherlands Antilles is accredited to Aruba
Aruba Flag description blue, with two narrow, horizontal, yellow stripes across the lower portion and a red, four-pointed star outlined in white in the upper hoist-side corner
Aruba Economy - overview Tourism is the mainstay of the small, open Aruban economy, with offshore banking and oil refining and storage also important. The rapid growth of the tourism sector over the last decade has resulted in a substantial expansion of other activities. Construction has boomed, with hotel capacity five times the 1985 level. In addition, the reopening of the country's oil refinery in 1993, a major source of employment and foreign exchange earnings, has further spurred growth. Aruba's small labor force and low unemployment rate have led to a large number of unfilled job vacancies, despite sharp rises in wage rates in recent years. Tourist arrivals have declined in the aftermath of the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks on the US. The government now must deal with a budget deficit and a negative trade balance.
Aruba GDP purchasing power parity - $1.94 billion (2002 est.)
Aruba GDP - real growth rate -1.5% (2002 est.)
Aruba GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $28,000 (2002 est.)
Aruba GDP - composition by sector agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%
Aruba Population below poverty line NA%
Aruba Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Aruba Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.2% (2002 est.)
Aruba Labor force 41,501 (1997 est.)
Aruba Labor force - by occupation most employment is in wholesale and retail trade and repair, followed by hotels and restaurants; oil refining
Aruba Unemployment rate 0.6%
Aruba Budget revenues: $135.81 million expenditures: $147 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000)
Aruba Industries tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining
Aruba Industrial production growth rate NA
Aruba Electricity - production 531.9 million kWh (2001)
Aruba Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Aruba Electricity - consumption 494.7 million kWh (2001)
Aruba Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Aruba Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Aruba Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Aruba Oil - consumption 6,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Aruba Oil - exports NA (2001)
Aruba Oil - imports NA (2001)
Aruba Agriculture - products aloes; livestock; fish
Aruba Exports $1.88 billion f.o.b. (including oil reexports) (2002 est.)
Aruba Exports - commodities live animals and animal products, art and collectibles, machinery and electrical equipment, transport equipment
Aruba Exports - partners Netherlands 28.6%, Colombia 21.7%, Panama 16.8%, US 12.1%, Netherlands Antilles 8.3%, Venezuela 7.6% (2002)
Aruba Imports $2.21 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Aruba Imports - commodities machinery and electrical equipment, crude oil for refining and reexport, chemicals; foodstuffs
Aruba Imports - partners US 54.7%, Netherlands 12.7%, UK 5.7% (2002)
Aruba Debt - external $285 million (1996)
Aruba Economic aid - recipient $26 million (1995); note - the Netherlands provided a $127 million aid package to Aruba and Suriname in 1996
Aruba Currency Aruban guilder/florin (AWG)
Aruba Currency code AWG
Aruba Exchange rates Aruban guilders/florins per US dollar - 1.79 (2002), 1.79 (2001), 1.79 (2000), 1.79 (1999), 1.79 (1998)
Aruba Fiscal year calendar year
Aruba Telephones - main lines in use 33,000 (1997)
Aruba Telephones - mobile cellular 3,402 (1997)
Aruba Telephone system general assessment: NA domestic: more than adequate international: 1 submarine cable to Sint Maarten (Netherlands Antilles); extensive interisland microwave radio relay links
Aruba Radio broadcast stations AM 4, FM 6, shortwave 0 (1998)
Aruba Television broadcast stations 1 (1997)
Aruba Internet country code .aw
Aruba Internet Service Providers (ISPs) NA
Aruba Internet users 24,000 (2002)
Aruba Railways 0 km
Aruba Highways total: 800 km paved: 513 km note: most coastal roads are paved, while unpaved roads serve large tracts of the interior (1995) unpaved: 287 km
Aruba Waterways none
Aruba Ports and harbors Barcadera, Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas
Aruba Merchant marine total: 3 note: there is one foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Monaco 1 (2002 est.) ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 1, petroleum tanker 1
Aruba Airports 1 (2002)
Aruba Airports - with paved runways total: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2002)
Aruba Military branches no regular indigenous military forces; Royal Dutch Navy and Marines, Coast Guard
Aruba Military - note defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Aruba Disputes - international none
Aruba Illicit drugs transit point for US- and Europe-bound narcotics with some accompanying money-laundering activity
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Background These uninhabited islands came under Australian authority in 1931; formal administration began two years later. Ashmore Reef supports a rich and diverse avian and marine habitat; in 1983, it became a National Nature Reserve. Cartier Island, a former bombing range, is now a marine reserve.
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Location Southeastern Asia, islands in the Indian Ocean, northwest of Australia, south of the Indonesian half of Timor island
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Geographic coordinates 12 14 S, 123 05 E
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Map references Southeast Asia
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Area total: 5 sq km note: includes Ashmore Reef (West, Middle, and East Islets) and Cartier Island water: 0 sq km land: 5 sq km
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Area - comparative about eight times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Land boundaries 0 km
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Coastline 74.1 km
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Maritime claims contiguous zone: 12 NM continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Climate tropical
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Terrain low with sand and coral
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Elevation extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 3 m
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Natural resources fish
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Land use arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (all grass and sand) (1998 est.)
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Irrigated land 0 sq km (1998 est.)
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Natural hazards surrounded by shoals and reefs that can pose maritime hazards
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Environment - current issues NA
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Geography - note Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established in August 1983
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Population no indigenous inhabitants note: Indonesian fishermen are allowed access to the lagoon and fresh water at Ashmore Reef's West Island (July 2003 est.)
Ashmore and Cartier Islands People - note the landing of illegal immigrants from Indonesia's Rote Island has become an ongoing problem
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Country name conventional long form: Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands conventional short form: Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Dependency status territory of Australia; administered by the Australian Department of Transport and Regional Services
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Legal system the laws of the Commonwealth of Australia and the laws of the Northern Territory of Australia, where applicable, apply
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Diplomatic representation in the US none (territory of Australia)
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Diplomatic representation from the US none (territory of Australia)
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Flag description the flag of Australia is used
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Economy - overview no economic activity
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Waterways none
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Ports and harbors none; offshore anchorage only
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Military - note defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic visits by the Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Disputes - international nationalist group in Indonesia reportedly seeks to populate reefs to assert claims; Australia has moved to close reefs to Indonesian traditional fishing and to create a national park while prospecting for hydrocarbons in the vicinity
Atlantic Ocean Background The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's five oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, but larger than the Indian Ocean, Southern Ocean, and Arctic Ocean). The Kiel Canal (Germany), Oresund (Denmark-Sweden), Bosporus (Turkey), Strait of Gibraltar (Morocco-Spain), and the Saint Lawrence Seaway (Canada-US) are important strategic access waterways.
Atlantic Ocean Location body of water between Africa, Europe, the Southern Ocean, and the Western Hemisphere
Atlantic Ocean Geographic coordinates 0 00 N, 25 00 W
Atlantic Ocean Map references Political Map of the World
Atlantic Ocean Area total: 76.762 million sq km note: includes Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea, almost all of the Scotia Sea, and other tributary water bodies
Atlantic Ocean Area - comparative slightly less than 6.5 times the size of the US
Atlantic Ocean Coastline 111,866 km
Atlantic Ocean Climate tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of Africa near Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea; hurricanes can occur from May to December, but are most frequent from August to November
Atlantic Ocean Terrain surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea, Denmark Strait, and coastal portions of the Baltic Sea from October to June; clockwise warm-water gyre (broad, circular system of currents) in the northern Atlantic, counterclockwise warm-water gyre in the southern Atlantic; the ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a rugged north-south centerline for the entire Atlantic basin
Atlantic Ocean Elevation extremes lowest point: Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench -8,605 m highest point: sea level 0 m
Atlantic Ocean Natural resources oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales), sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, precious stones
Atlantic Ocean Natural hazards icebergs common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, and the northwestern Atlantic Ocean from February to August and have been spotted as far south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands; ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme northern Atlantic from October to May; persistent fog can be a maritime hazard from May to September; hurricanes (May to December)
Atlantic Ocean Environment - current issues endangered marine species include the manatee, seals, sea lions, turtles, and whales; drift net fishing is hastening the decline of fish stocks and contributing to international disputes; municipal sludge pollution off eastern US, southern Brazil, and eastern Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Lake Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea; industrial waste and municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea, North Sea, and Mediterranean Sea
Atlantic Ocean Geography - note major chokepoints include the Dardanelles, Strait of Gibraltar, access to the Panama and Suez Canals; strategic straits include the Strait of Dover, Straits of Florida, Mona Passage, The Sound (Oresund), and Windward Passage; the Equator divides the Atlantic Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean Economy - overview The Atlantic Ocean provides some of the world's most heavily trafficked sea routes, between and within the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. Other economic activity includes the exploitation of natural resources, e.g., fishing, the dredging of aragonite sands (The Bahamas), and production of crude oil and natural gas (Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and North Sea).
Atlantic Ocean Ports and harbors Alexandria (Egypt), Algiers (Algeria), Antwerp (Belgium), Barcelona (Spain), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Casablanca (Morocco), Colon (Panama), Copenhagen (Denmark), Dakar (Senegal), Gdansk (Poland), Hamburg (Germany), Helsinki (Finland), Las Palmas (Canary Islands, Spain), Le Havre (France), Lisbon (Portugal), London (UK), Marseille (France), Montevideo (Uruguay), Montreal (Canada), Naples (Italy), New Orleans (US), New York (US), Oran (Algeria), Oslo (Norway), Peiraiefs or Piraeus (Greece), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Rotterdam (Netherlands), Saint Petersburg (Russia), Stockholm (Sweden)
Atlantic Ocean Transportation - note Kiel Canal and Saint Lawrence Seaway are two important waterways; significant domestic commercial and recreational use of Intracoastal Waterway on central and south Atlantic seaboard and Gulf of Mexico coast of US
Atlantic Ocean Disputes - international some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
Australia Background Australia became a commonwealth of the British Empire in 1901. It was able to take advantage of its natural resources to rapidly develop its agricultural and manufacturing industries and to make a major contribution to the British effort in World Wars I and II. Long-term concerns include pollution, particularly depletion of the ozone layer, and management and conservation of coastal areas, especially the Great Barrier Reef. A referendum to change Australia's status, from a commonwealth headed by the British monarch to a republic, was defeated in 1999.
Australia Location Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean
Australia Geographic coordinates 27 00 S, 133 00 E
Australia Map references Oceania
Australia Area total: 7,686,850 sq km water: 68,920 sq km note: includes Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island land: 7,617,930 sq km
Australia Area - comparative slightly smaller than the US contiguous 48 states
Australia Land boundaries 0 km
Australia Coastline 25,760 km
Australia Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
Australia Climate generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north
Australia Terrain mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast
Australia Elevation extremes lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m highest point: Mount Kosciuszko 2,229 m
Australia Natural resources bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, gold, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, petroleum
Australia Land use arable land: 6.88% permanent crops: 0.03% other: 93.09% (1998 est.)
Australia Irrigated land 24,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Australia Natural hazards cyclones along the coast; severe droughts; forest fires
Australia Environment - current issues soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited natural fresh water resources
Australia Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Australia Geography - note world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; regular, tropical, invigorating, sea breeze known as "the Doctor" occurs along the west coast in the summer
Australia Population 19,731,984 (July 2003 est.)
Australia Age structure 0-14 years: 20.2% (male 2,045,783; female 1,949,864) 15-64 years: 67.1% (male 6,680,531; female 6,553,141) 65 years and over: 12.7% (male 1,099,275; female 1,403,390) (2003 est.)
Australia Median age total: 36 years male: 35.2 years female: 36.8 years (2002)
Australia Population growth rate 0.93% (2003 est.)
Australia Birth rate 12.55 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Australia Death rate 7.31 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Australia Net migration rate 4.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Australia Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Australia Infant mortality rate total: 4.83 deaths/1,000 live births female: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 5.23 deaths/1,000 live births
Australia Life expectancy at birth total population: 80.13 years male: 77.27 years female: 83.13 years (2003 est.)
Australia Total fertility rate 1.76 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Australia HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.1% (2001 est.)
Australia HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 12,000 (2001 est.)
Australia HIV/AIDS - deaths less than 100 (2001 est.)
Australia Nationality noun: Australian(s) adjective: Australian
Australia Ethnic groups Caucasian 92%, Asian 7%, aboriginal and other 1%
Australia Religions Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian 24.3%, non-Christian 11%, other 12.6%
Australia Languages English, native languages
Australia Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 100% male: 100% female: 100% (1980 est.)
Australia Country name conventional long form: Commonwealth of Australia conventional short form: Australia
Australia Government type democratic, federal-state system recognizing the British monarch as sovereign
Australia Capital Canberra
Australia Administrative divisions 6 states and 2 territories*; Australian Capital Territory*, New South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia
Australia Dependent areas Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island
Australia Independence 1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)
Australia National holiday Australia Day, 26 January (1788)
Australia Constitution 9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901
Australia Legal system based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Australia Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Australia Executive branch chief of state: Queen of Australia ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Maj. Gen. (Ret.) Michael JEFFREY (since 11 August 2003) head of government: Prime Minister John Winston HOWARD (since 11 March 1996); Deputy Prime Minister John ANDERSON Deputy Prime Minister John ANDERSON (since 20 July 1999) cabinet: Parliament nominates and selects, from among its members, a list of candidates to serve as government ministers; from this list, the governor general swears in the final selections for the Cabinet elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is sworn in as prime minister by the governor general note: government coalition - Liberal Party and National Party
Australia Legislative branch bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the Senate (76 seats - 12 from each of the six states and two from each of the two mainland territories; one-half of the members elected every three years by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives (150 seats - this is up from 148 seats in 2001 election; members elected by popular vote on the basis of preferential representation to serve three-year terms; no state can have fewer than five representatives) elections: Senate - last held 10 November 2001 (next to be held by February 2005); House of Representatives - last held 10 November 2001 (next to be held by February 2005) election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Liberal Party-National Party coalition 35, Australian Labor Party 28, Australian Democrats 8, Green Party 2, One Nation Party 1, Country Labor Party 1, independent 1; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Liberal Party-National Party coalition 82, Australian Labor Party 65, independent and other 3
Australia Judicial branch High Court (the chief justice and six other justices are appointed by the governor general)
Australia Political parties and leaders Australian Democrats [Andrew BARTLETT]; Australian Labor Party [Mark LATHAM]; Australian Progressive Alliance [Meg LEES]; Country Labor Party [leader NA]; Australian Greens [Bob BROWN]; Liberal Party [John Winston HOWARD]; The Nationals [John ANDERSON]; One Nation Party [Len HARRIS]
Australia Political pressure groups and leaders Australian Monarchist League [leader NA]; Australian Republican Movement [leader NA]
Australia International organization participation ANZUS, APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OECD, OPCW, PCA, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNMEE, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC
Australia Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Michael J. THAWLEY consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco FAX: [1] (202) 797-3168 telephone: [1] (202) 797-3000 chancery: 1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
Australia Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador J. Thomas SCHIEFFER embassy: Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2600 mailing address: APO AP 96549 telephone: [61] (02) 6214-5600 FAX: [61] (02) 6214-5970 consulate(s) general: Melbourne, Perth, Sydney
Australia Flag description blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant known as the Commonwealth Star, representing the federation of the colonies of Australia in 1901; the star depicts one point for each of the six original states and one representing all of Australia's internal and external territories; the remaining half is a representation of the Southern Cross constellation in white with one small five-pointed star and four larger, seven-pointed stars
Australia Economy - overview Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist economy, with a per capita GDP on par with the four dominant West European economies. Rising output in the domestic economy has been offsetting the global slump, and business and consumer confidence remains robust. Australia's emphasis on reforms is another key factor behind the economy's strength. The stagnant economic conditions in major export partners and the impact of the worst drought in 100 years cast a shadow over prospects for 2003.
Australia GDP purchasing power parity - $525.5 billion (2002 est.)
Australia GDP - real growth rate 3.6% (2002 est.)
Australia GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $26,900 (2002 est.)
Australia GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 3% industry: 26% services: 71% (2001 est.)
Australia Population below poverty line NA%
Australia Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2% highest 10%: 25.4% (1994)
Australia Distribution of family income - Gini index 35.2 (1994)
Australia Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.8% (2002 est.)
Australia Labor force 9.2 million (37256)
Australia Labor force - by occupation services 73%, industry 22%, agriculture 5% (1997 est.)
Australia Unemployment rate 6.3% (2002)
Australia Budget revenues: $86.8 billion expenditures: $84.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY 00/01 est.)
Australia Industries mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, steel
Australia Industrial production growth rate 4.3% (2002 est.)
Australia Electricity - production 198.2 billion kWh (2001)
Australia Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 90.8% hydro: 8.3% other: 0.9% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Australia Electricity - consumption 184.4 billion kWh (2001)
Australia Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Australia Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Australia Oil - production 731,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Australia Oil - consumption 796,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Australia Oil - exports 523,400 bbl/day (2001)
Australia Oil - imports 530,800 bbl/day (2001)
Australia Oil - proved reserves 3.664 billion bbl (37257)
Australia Natural gas - production 33.08 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Australia Natural gas - consumption 23.33 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Australia Natural gas - exports 9.744 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Australia Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Australia Natural gas - proved reserves 2.407 trillion cu m (37257)
Australia Agriculture - products wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle, sheep, poultry
Australia Exports $66.3 billion (2002 est.)
Australia Exports - commodities coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, iron ore, wheat, machinery and transport equipment
Australia Exports - partners Japan 18.5%, US 9.6%, South Korea 8.3%, China 6.9%, New Zealand 6.5%, UK 4.7%, Singapore 4.1%, Taiwan 4% (2002)
Australia Imports $68 billion (2002 est.)
Australia Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines, telecommunication equipment and parts; crude oil and petroleum products
Australia Imports - partners US 18.3%, Japan 12.3%, China 10.1%, Germany 5.7%, UK 4.6% (2002)
Australia Debt - external $176.8 billion (yearend 2002 est.)
Australia Economic aid - donor ODA, $894 million (FY 99/00)
Australia Currency Australian dollar (AUD)
Australia Currency code AUD
Australia Exchange rates Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.84 (2002), 1.93 (2001), 1.72 (2000), 1.55 (1999), 1.59 (1998)
Australia Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Australia Telephones - main lines in use 10.05 million (2000)
Australia Telephones - mobile cellular 8.6 million (2000)
Australia Telephone system general assessment: excellent domestic and international service domestic: domestic satellite system; much use of radiotelephone in areas of low population density; rapid growth of mobile cellular telephones international: submarine cables to New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (4 Indian Ocean and 6 Pacific Ocean), 2 Inmarsat (Indian and Pacific Ocean regions) (1998)
Australia Radio broadcast stations AM 262, FM 345, shortwave 1 (1998)
Australia Television broadcast stations 104 (1997)
Australia Internet country code .au
Australia Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 571 (2002)
Australia Internet users 10.63 million (2002)
Australia Railways total: 41,588 km (4,612 km electrified) broad gauge: 2,193 km 1.600-m gauge narrow gauge: 15,456 km 1.067-m gauge dual gauge: 291 km dual gauge (2002) standard gauge: 23,648 km 1.435-m gauge
Australia Highways total: 811,603 km paved: 314,090 km (including 18,619 km of expressways) unpaved: 497,513 km (1999 est.)
Australia Waterways 8,368 km (mainly used by small, shallow-draft craft)
Australia Pipelines condensate 36 km; condensate/gas 243 km; gas 27,321 km; liquid petroleum gas 240 km; oil 4,779 km; oil/gas/water 104 km; water 40 km (2003)
Australia Ports and harbors Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Devonport (Tasmania), Fremantle, Geelong, Hobart (Tasmania), Launceston (Tasmania), Mackay, Melbourne, Sydney, Townsville
Australia Merchant marine total: 51 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,415,810 GRT/1,806,554 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: France 2, UK 2, US 14 (2002 est.) ships by type: bulk 20, cargo 6, chemical tanker 3, combination bulk 1, container 2, liquefied gas 4, passenger 2, petroleum tanker 7, roll on/roll off 6
Australia Airports 444 (2002)
Australia Airports - with paved runways total: 294 over 3,047 m: 10 2,438 to 3,047 m: 11 1,524 to 2,437 m: 126 914 to 1,523 m: 134 under 914 m: 13 (2002)
Australia Airports - with unpaved runways total: 150 1,524 to 2,437 m: 20 914 to 1,523 m: 116 under 914 m: 14 (2002)
Australia Military branches Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal Australian Air Force
Australia Military manpower - military age 17 years of age (2003 est.)
Australia Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 5,037,538 (2003 est.)
Australia Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 4,339,011 (2003 est.)
Australia Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 142,377 (2003 est.)
Australia Military expenditures - dollar figure $11.39 billion (FY02)
Australia Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.9% (FY02)
Australia Disputes - international maritime delimitation and resource sharing agreements signed with East Timor resolve dispute over "Timor Gap" hydrocarbon reserves; no agreement reached on dividing Timor Sea with Indonesia (see Ashmore and Cartier Islands disputes); Australia asserts a territorial claim to Antarctica and to its continental shelf (see Antarctica)
Australia Illicit drugs Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate
Austria Background Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year declared the country's "perpetual neutrality" as a condition for Soviet military withdrawal. This neutrality, once ingrained as part of the Austrian cultural identity, has been called into question since the Soviet collapse of 1991 and Austria's entry into the European Union in 1995. A prosperous country, Austria entered the European Monetary Union in 1999.
Austria Location Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia
Austria Geographic coordinates 47 20 N, 13 20 E
Austria Map references Europe
Austria Area total: 83,858 sq km water: 1,120 sq km land: 82,738 sq km
Austria Area - comparative slightly smaller than Maine
Austria Land boundaries total: 2,562 km border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330 km, Switzerland 164 km
Austria Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Austria Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Austria Climate temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain in lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional showers
Austria Terrain in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping
Austria Elevation extremes lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m
Austria Natural resources iron ore, oil, timber, magnesite, lead, coal, lignite, copper, hydropower
Austria Land use arable land: 16.89% permanent crops: 0.99% other: 82.12% (1998 est.)
Austria Irrigated land 457 sq km (2000 est.)
Austria Natural hazards landslides; avalanches; earthquakes
Austria Environment - current issues some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe
Austria Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Austria Geography - note landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere
Austria Population 8,188,207 (July 2003 est.)
Austria Age structure 0-14 years: 16.2% (male 678,944; female 646,390) 15-64 years: 68.3% (male 2,827,736; female 2,768,480) 65 years and over: 15.5% (male 490,979; female 775,678) (2003 est.)
Austria Median age total: 39.4 years male: 38.2 years female: 40.7 years (2002)
Austria Population growth rate 0.22% (2003 est.)
Austria Birth rate 9.43 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Austria Death rate 9.69 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Austria Net migration rate 2.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Austria Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Austria Infant mortality rate total: 4.33 deaths/1,000 live births female: 4.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 4.38 deaths/1,000 live births
Austria Life expectancy at birth total population: 78.17 years male: 75.02 years female: 81.48 years (2003 est.)
Austria Total fertility rate 1.41 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Austria HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.2% (2001 est.)
Austria HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 9,900 (2001 est.)
Austria HIV/AIDS - deaths less than 100 (2001 est.)
Austria Nationality noun: Austrian(s) adjective: Austrian
Austria Ethnic groups German 88%, non-nationals 9.3% (includes Croatians, Slovenes, Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Roma), naturalized 2% (includes those who have lived in Austria at least three generations)
Austria Religions Roman Catholic 78%, Protestant 5%, Muslim and other 17%
Austria Languages German
Austria Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 98% male: NA% female: NA%
Austria Country name conventional long form: Republic of Austria conventional short form: Austria local short form: Oesterreich local long form: Republik Oesterreich
Austria Government type federal republic
Austria Capital Vienna
Austria Administrative divisions 9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten, Niederoesterreich, Oberoesterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien
Austria Independence 1156 (from Bavaria)
Austria National holiday National Day, 26 October (1955); note - commemorates the State Treaty restoring national sovereignty and the end of occupation and the passage of the law on permanent neutrality
Austria Constitution 1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)
Austria Legal system civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Austria Suffrage 18 years of age; universal; compulsory for presidential elections
Austria Executive branch chief of state: President Thomas KLESTIL (since 8 July 1992) head of government: Chancellor Wolfgang SCHUESSEL (OeVP)(since 4 February 2000); Vice Chancellor Hubert GORBACH (since 21 October 2003) cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor elections: president elected by direct popular vote for a six-year term; presidential election last held 19 April 1998 (next to be held in the spring of 2004); chancellor traditionally chosen by the president from the plurality party in the National Council; vice chancellor chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor note: government coalition - OeVP and FPOe election results: Thomas KLESTIL reelected president; percent of vote - Thomas KLESTIL 63%, Gertraud KNOLL 14%, Heide SCHMIDT 11%, Richard LUGNER 10%, Karl NOWAK 2%
Austria Legislative branch bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of Federal Council or Bundesrat (64 members; members represent each of the states on the basis of population, but with each state having at least three representatives; members serve a four- or six-year term) and the National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms) election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - OeVP 42.3%, SPOe 36.9%, FPOe 10.2%, Greens 9%; seats by party - OeVP 79, SPOe 69, FPOe 19, Greens 16 elections: National Council - last held 24 November 2002 (next to be held in the fall of 2006)
Austria Judicial branch Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof
Austria Political parties and leaders Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Wolfgang SCHUESSEL]; Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Herbert HAUPT]; Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Alfred GUSENBAUER]; The Greens Alternative or GA [Alexander VAN DER BELLEN]
Austria Political pressure groups and leaders Austrian Trade Union Federation (primarily Socialist) or OeGB; Federal Economic Chamber; OeVP-oriented League of Austrian Industrialists or VOeI; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action; three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, and farmers
Austria International organization participation AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMISET, UNMOGIP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Austria Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Eva NOWOTNY chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750 telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700
Austria Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador William Lee LYONS BROWN, Jr. embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1090, Vienna mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: [43] (1) 31339, 31375, 31335 FAX: [43] (1) 5125835
Austria Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red
Austria Economy - overview Austria, with its well-developed market economy and high standard of living, is closely tied to other EU economies, especially Germany's. Membership in the EU has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European market and proximity to EU aspirant economies. Slowing growth in Germany and elsewhere in the world held the economy to only 1.2% growth in 2001, 0.6% in 2002, and 0.8% in 2003.. To meet increased competition from both EU and Central European countries, Austria will need to emphasize knowledge-based sectors of the economy, continue to deregulate the service sector, and lower its tax burden. A key issue is the encouragement of much greater participation in the labor market by its ageing population.
Austria GDP purchasing power parity - $227.7 billion (2002 est.)
Austria GDP - real growth rate 1.1% (2002 est.)
Austria GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $27,900 (2002 est.)
Austria GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 2% industry: 33% services: 65% (2002 est.)
Austria Population below poverty line NA%
Austria Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.5% highest 10%: 22.5% (1995)
Austria Distribution of family income - Gini index 31 (1995)
Austria Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.8% (2002 est.)
Austria Labor force 4.3 million (2001)
Austria Labor force - by occupation services 67%, industry and crafts 29%, agriculture and forestry 4% (2001 est.)
Austria Unemployment rate 4.8% (2002 est.)
Austria Budget revenues: $53 billion expenditures: $54 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Austria Industries construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, chemicals, lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard, communications equipment, tourism
Austria Industrial production growth rate 3.8% (2001 est.)
Austria Electricity - production 58.75 billion kWh (2001)
Austria Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 29.3% hydro: 67.2% other: 3.5% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Austria Electricity - consumption 54.85 billion kWh (2001)
Austria Electricity - exports 14.25 billion kWh (2001)
Austria Electricity - imports 14.47 billion kWh (2001)
Austria Oil - production 20,670 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Austria Oil - consumption 262,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Austria Oil - exports 35,470 bbl/day (2001)
Austria Oil - imports 262,000 bbl/day (2001)
Austria Oil - proved reserves 85.69 million bbl (37257)
Austria Natural gas - production 1.731 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Austria Natural gas - consumption 7.81 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Austria Natural gas - exports 403 million cu m (2001 est.)
Austria Natural gas - imports 6.033 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Austria Natural gas - proved reserves 24.9 billion cu m (37257)
Austria Agriculture - products grains, potatoes, sugar beets, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumber
Austria Exports $70 billion f.o.b. (2001)
Austria Exports - commodities machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, paper and paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel; textiles, foodstuffs
Austria Exports - partners Germany 31.5%, Italy 9.3%, Switzerland 5.4%, US 4.9%, UK 4.9%, France 4.7%, Hungary 4.3% (2002)
Austria Imports $74 billion c.i.f. (2001)
Austria Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods, oil and oil products; foodstuffs
Austria Imports - partners Germany 42.6%, Italy 6.6%, Hungary 5.1%, Switzerland 4.8%, Netherlands 4.4% (2002)
Austria Debt - external $12.1 billion (2001 est.)
Austria Economic aid - donor ODA, $410 million (2000)
Austria Currency euro (EUR) note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by the financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Austria Currency code EUR
Austria Exchange rates euros per US dollar - 1.06 (2002), 1.12 (2001), 1.09 (2000), 0.94 (1999), 12.38 (1998)
Austria Fiscal year calendar year
Austria Telephones - main lines in use 4 million (consisting of 3,600,000 analog main lines plus 400,000 Integrated Services Digital Network connections); in addition, there are 100,000 Asymmetric Digital Services lines (2001)
Austria Telephones - mobile cellular 6 million (2001)
Austria Telephone system general assessment: highly developed and efficient domestic: there are 48 main lines for every 100 persons; the fiber optic net is very extensive; all telephone applications and Internet services are available international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat; in addition, there are about 600 VSAT (very small aperture terminals) (2002)
Austria Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 160 (plus several hundred repeaters), shortwave 1 (2001)
Austria Television broadcast stations 45 (plus more than 1,000 repeaters) (2001)
Austria Internet country code .at
Austria Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 37 (2000)
Austria Internet users 3.7 million (2002)
Austria Railways total: 6,024 km (3,641 km electrified) standard gauge: 5,566 km 1.435-m gauge (3,524 km electrified) narrow gauge: 34 km 1.000-m gauge (28 km electrified); 424 km 0.760-m gauge (89 km electrified) (2002)
Austria Highways total: 200,000 km paved: 200,000 km (including 1,633 km of expressways) unpaved: 0 km (2000)
Austria Waterways 358 km (1999)
Austria Pipelines gas 2,722 km; oil 687 km; refined products 149 km (2003)
Austria Ports and harbors Enns, Krems, Linz, Vienna
Austria Merchant marine total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 27,551 GRT/34,225 DWT ships by type: cargo 4, container 1 (2002 est.)
Austria Airports 55 (2002)
Austria Airports - with paved runways total: 24 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 14 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
Austria Airports - with unpaved runways total: 31 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 27 (2002)
Austria Heliports 1 (2002)
Austria Military branches Land Forces (KdoLdSK), Air Forces (KdoLuSK)
Austria Military manpower - military age 19 years of age (2003 est.)
Austria Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,093,821 (2003 est.)
Austria Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,725,123 (2003 est.)
Austria Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 49,090 (2003 est.)
Austria Military expenditures - dollar figure $1.497 billion (FY01/02)
Austria Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.8% (FY01/02)
Austria Disputes - international minor disputes with Czech Republic and Slovenia continue over nuclear power plants and post-World War II treatment of German-speaking minorities
Austria Illicit drugs transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for Western Europe
Azerbaijan Background Azerbaijan - a nation with a Turkic and majority-Muslim population - regained its independence after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Despite a 1994 cease-fire, Azerbaijan has yet to resolve its conflict with Armenia over the Azerbaijani Nagorno-Karabakh enclave (largely Armenian populated). Azerbaijan has lost 16% of its territory and must support some 800,000 refugees and internally displaced persons as a result of the conflict. Corruption is ubiquitous and the promise of widespread wealth from Azerbaijan's undeveloped petroleum resources remains largely unfulfilled.
Azerbaijan Location Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range
Azerbaijan Geographic coordinates 40 30 N, 47 30 E
Azerbaijan Map references Asia
Azerbaijan Area total: 86,600 sq km note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991 water: 500 sq km land: 86,100 sq km
Azerbaijan Area - comparative slightly smaller than Maine
Azerbaijan Land boundaries total: 2,013 km border countries: Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km
Azerbaijan Coastline 0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (800 km, est.)
Azerbaijan Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Azerbaijan Climate dry, semiarid steppe
Azerbaijan Terrain large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland) (much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) in west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea
Azerbaijan Elevation extremes lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m
Azerbaijan Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, alumina
Azerbaijan Land use arable land: 19.31% permanent crops: 3.04% other: 77.65% (1998 est.)
Azerbaijan Irrigated land 14,550 sq km (1998 est.)
Azerbaijan Natural hazards droughts
Azerbaijan Environment - current issues local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil spills, from the use of DDT as a pesticide, and from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton
Azerbaijan Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Azerbaijan Geography - note both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are landlocked
Azerbaijan Population 7,830,764 (July 2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Age structure 0-14 years: 27.7% (male 1,101,320; female 1,064,214) 15-64 years: 64.7% (male 2,468,772; female 2,601,312) 65 years and over: 7.6% (male 236,683; female 358,463) (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Median age total: 27.1 years male: 25.7 years female: 28.6 years (2002)
Azerbaijan Population growth rate 0.44% (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Birth rate 19.28 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Death rate 9.68 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Net migration rate -5.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Infant mortality rate total: 82.41 deaths/1,000 live births female: 80.32 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 84.4 deaths/1,000 live births
Azerbaijan Life expectancy at birth total population: 63.16 years male: 58.95 years female: 67.58 years (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Total fertility rate 2.34 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS less than 1,400 (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan HIV/AIDS - deaths less than 100 (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan Nationality noun: Azerbaijani(s) adjective: Azerbaijani
Azerbaijan Ethnic groups Azeri 90%, Dagestani 3.2%, Russian 2.5%, Armenian 2%, other 2.3% (1998 est.) note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region
Azerbaijan Religions Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox 2.3%, other 1.8% (1995 est.) note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan; percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower
Azerbaijan Languages Azerbaijani (Azeri) 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995 est.)
Azerbaijan Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 97% male: 99% female: 96% (1989 est.)
Azerbaijan Country name conventional long form: Republic of Azerbaijan conventional short form: Azerbaijan local short form: none former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi
Azerbaijan Government type republic
Azerbaijan Capital Baku (Baki)
Azerbaijan Administrative divisions 59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities* (saharlar; sahar - singular), 1 autonomous republic** (muxtar respublika); Abseron Rayonu, Agcabadi Rayonu, Agdam Rayonu, Agdas Rayonu, Agstafa Rayonu, Agsu Rayonu, Ali Bayramli Sahari*, Astara Rayonu, Baki Sahari*, Balakan Rayonu, Barda Rayonu, Beylaqan Rayonu, Bilasuvar Rayonu, Cabrayil Rayonu, Calilabad Rayonu, Daskasan Rayonu, Davaci Rayonu, Fuzuli Rayonu, Gadabay Rayonu, Ganca Sahari*, Goranboy Rayonu, Goycay Rayonu, Haciqabul Rayonu, Imisli Rayonu, Ismayilli Rayonu, Kalbacar Rayonu, Kurdamir Rayonu, Lacin Rayonu, Lankaran Rayonu, Lankaran Sahari*, Lerik Rayonu, Masalli Rayonu, Mingacevir Sahari*, Naftalan Sahari*, Naxcivan Muxtar Respublikasi**, Neftcala Rayonu, Oguz Rayonu, Qabala Rayonu, Qax Rayonu, Qazax Rayonu, Qobustan Rayonu, Quba Rayonu, Qubadli Rayonu, Qusar Rayonu, Saatli Rayonu, Sabirabad Rayonu, Saki Rayonu, Saki Sahari*, Salyan Rayonu, Samaxi Rayonu, Samkir Rayonu, Samux Rayonu, Siyazan Rayonu, Sumqayit Sahari*, Susa Rayonu, Susa Sahari*, Tartar Rayonu, Tovuz Rayonu, Ucar Rayonu, Xacmaz Rayonu, Xankandi Sahari*, Xanlar Rayonu, Xizi Rayonu, Xocali Rayonu, Xocavand Rayonu, Yardimli Rayonu, Yevlax Rayonu, Yevlax Sahari*, Zangilan Rayonu, Zaqatala Rayonu, Zardab Rayonu
Azerbaijan Independence 30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Azerbaijan National holiday Founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaidzhan, 28 May (1918)
Azerbaijan Constitution adopted 12 November 1995
Azerbaijan Legal system based on civil law system
Azerbaijan Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Azerbaijan Executive branch chief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 October 2003) head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 4 November 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Abbas ABBASOV (since 10 November 2003) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly elections: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term; election last held 15 October 2003 (next to be held NA October 2008); prime minister and first deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly election results: Ilham ALIYEV elected president; percent of vote - Ilham ALIYEV 76.8%, Isa GAMBAROV 14%
Azerbaijan Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 4 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2005) election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NAP and allies 108, APF "Reform" 6, CSP 3, PNIA 2, Musavat Party 2, CPA 2, APF "Classic" 1, Compatriot Party 1 note: PNIA, Musavat, and APF "Classic" parties refused to take their seats note: 100 members of the current parliament were elected on the basis of single mandate constituencies, while 25 were elected based on proportional balloting; as a result of a 24 August 2002 national referendum on changes to the constitution, all 125 members of the next parliament will be elected from single mandate constituencies
Azerbaijan Judicial branch Supreme Court
Azerbaijan Political parties and leaders Azerbaijan Popular Front or APF [Ali KARIMLI, leader of "Reform" faction; Mirmahmud MIRALI-OGLU, leader of "Classic" faction]; Civic Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLY]; Civic Union Party [Ayaz MUTALIBOV]; Communist Party of Azerbaijan or CPA [Ramiz AHMADOV]; Compatriot Party [Mais SAFARLI]; Democratic Party for Azerbaijan or DPA [Rasul QULIYEV, chairman]; Justice Party [Ilyas ISMAILOV]; Liberal Party of Azerbaijan [Lala Shvkat HACIYEVA]; Musavat [Isa GAMBAR, chairman]; New Azerbaijan Party or NAP [Heydar ALIYEV, chairman]; Party for National Independence of Azerbaijan or PNIA [Etibar MAMMADLI, chairman]; Social Democratic Party of Azerbaijan or SDP [Zardust ALIZADE] note: opposition parties regularly factionalize and form new parties
Azerbaijan Political pressure groups and leaders Sadval, Lezgin movement; self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh independence movement; Union of Pro-Azerbaijani Forces (UPAF)
Azerbaijan International organization participation AsDB, BSEC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, GUUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Azerbaijan Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Hafiz PASHAYEV FAX: [1] (202) 337-5911 telephone: [1] (202) 337-3500 chancery: 2741 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Azerbaijan Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Ross L. WILSON embassy: 83 Azadliq Prospekt, Baku 370007 mailing address: American Embassy Baku, Department of State, 7050 Baku Place, Washington, DC 20521-7050 telephone: [9] (9412) 98-03-35, 36, 37 FAX: [9] (9412) 90-66-71
Azerbaijan Flag description three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band
Azerbaijan Economy - overview Azerbaijan's number one export is oil. Azerbaijan's oil production declined through 1997 but has registered an increase every year since. Negotiation of production-sharing arrangements (PSAs) with foreign firms, which have thus far committed $60 billion to long-term oilfield development, should generate the funds needed to spur future industrial development. Oil production under the first of these PSAs, with the Azerbaijan International Operating Company, began in November 1997. Azerbaijan shares all the formidable problems of the former Soviet republics in making the transition from a command to a market economy, but its considerable energy resources brighten its long-term prospects. Baku has only recently begun making progress on economic reform, and old economic ties and structures are slowly being replaced. One obstacle to economic progress is the need for stepped up foreign investment in the non-energy sector. A second obstacle is the continuing conflict with Armenia over the Nagorno-Karabakh region. Trade with Russia and the other former Soviet republics is declining in importance while trade is building with Turkey and the nations of Europe. Long-term prospects will depend on world oil prices, the location of new pipelines in the region, and Azerbaijan's ability to manage its oil wealth.
Azerbaijan GDP purchasing power parity - $28.61 billion (2002 est.)
Azerbaijan GDP - real growth rate 10.6% (2002 est.)
Azerbaijan GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $3,700 (2002 est.)
Azerbaijan GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 20% industry: 33% services: 47% (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan Population below poverty line 49% (2002 est.)
Azerbaijan Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.8% highest 10%: 27.8% (1995)
Azerbaijan Distribution of family income - Gini index 36 (1995)
Azerbaijan Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.6% (2002 est.)
Azerbaijan Labor force 3.7 million (2001)
Azerbaijan Labor force - by occupation agriculture and forestry 41%, industry 7%, services 52% (2001)
Azerbaijan Unemployment rate 16% (official rate is 1.2%) (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Budget revenues: $786 million expenditures: $807 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan Industries petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles
Azerbaijan Industrial production growth rate 6% (2002 est.)
Azerbaijan Electricity - production 18.23 billion kWh (2001)
Azerbaijan Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 89.7% hydro: 10.3% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Azerbaijan Electricity - consumption 16.65 billion kWh (2001)
Azerbaijan Electricity - exports 700 million kWh (2001)
Azerbaijan Electricity - imports 400 million kWh (2001)
Azerbaijan Oil - production 307,200 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan Oil - consumption 140,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan Oil - exports NA (2001)
Azerbaijan Oil - imports NA (2001)
Azerbaijan Oil - proved reserves 589 million bbl (37257)
Azerbaijan Natural gas - production 5.72 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan Natural gas - consumption 6.72 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan Natural gas - imports 1 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan Natural gas - proved reserves 62.3 billion cu m (37257)
Azerbaijan Agriculture - products cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats
Azerbaijan Exports $2 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Azerbaijan Exports - commodities oil and gas 90%, machinery, cotton, foodstuffs
Azerbaijan Exports - partners Italy 28.7%, Germany 17.7%, Israel 10.6%, France 8.4%, Georgia 6.7%, Russia 4.7% (2002)
Azerbaijan Imports $1.8 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Azerbaijan Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, oil products, foodstuffs, metals, chemicals
Azerbaijan Imports - partners Russia 17.8%, Turkey 11.9%, Germany 10.7%, France 7%, Kazakhstan 6.3%, China 6%, UK 5.5%, US 4.5% (2002)
Azerbaijan Debt - external $1.4 billion (2002)
Azerbaijan Economic aid - recipient ODA, $140 million (2000 est.)
Azerbaijan Currency Azerbaijani manat (AZM)
Azerbaijan Currency code AZM
Azerbaijan Exchange rates Azerbaijani manats per US dollar - 4,860.82 (2002), 4,656.58 (2001), 4,474.15 (2000), 4,120.17 (1999), 3,869 (1998)
Azerbaijan Fiscal year calendar year
Azerbaijan Telephones - main lines in use 865,000 (2002)
Azerbaijan Telephones - mobile cellular 800,000 (2002)
Azerbaijan Telephone system general assessment: inadequate; requires considerable expansion and modernization; teledensity of 10 main lines per 100 persons is low (2002) domestic: the majority of telephones are in Baku and other industrial centers - about 700 villages still without public telephone service; satellite service connects Baku to a modern switch in its exclave of Naxcivan international: the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still serviceable; a satellite connection to Turkey enables Baku to reach about 200 additional countries, some of which are directly connected to Baku by satellite providers other than Turkey (1997)
Azerbaijan Radio broadcast stations AM 10, FM 17, shortwave 1 (1998)
Azerbaijan Television broadcast stations 2 (1997)
Azerbaijan Internet country code .az
Azerbaijan Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 2 (2000)
Azerbaijan Internet users 25,000 (2002)
Azerbaijan Railways total: 2,122 km broad gauge: 2,122 km 1.520-m gauge (1,278 km electrified) (2002)
Azerbaijan Highways total: 24,981 km paved: 23,057 km unpaved: 1,924 km (2000)
Azerbaijan Waterways none
Azerbaijan Pipelines gas 5,001 km; oil 1,631 km (2003)
Azerbaijan Ports and harbors Baku (Baki)
Azerbaijan Merchant marine total: 55 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 251,004 GRT/313,193 DWT ships by type: cargo 13, petroleum tanker 40, roll on/roll off 2 (2002 est.)
Azerbaijan Airports 71 (2002)
Azerbaijan Airports - with paved runways total: 27 over 3.047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 6 1,524 to 2,437 m: 14 914 to 1,523 m: 4 under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Azerbaijan Airports - with unpaved runways total: 44 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 914 to 1,523 m: 9 under 914 m: 27 (2002)
Azerbaijan Military branches Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces
Azerbaijan Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,159,450 (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,727,340 (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 82,925 (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Military expenditures - dollar figure $121 million (FY99)
Azerbaijan Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.6% (FY99)
Azerbaijan Disputes - international Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh and militarily occupies about one-sixth of Azerbaijan - Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate dispute; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratify Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on an even one-fifth allocation and challenges Azerbaijan's hydrocarbon exploration in disputed waters; ICJ decision expected to resolve dispute with Turkmenistan over sovereignty of certain Caspian oilfields
Azerbaijan Illicit drugs limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; small government eradication program; transit point for Southwest Asian opiates bound for Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe
Bahamas, The Background Arawak Indians inhabited the islands when Christopher Columbus first set foot in the New World on San Salvador in 1492. British settlement of the islands began in 1647; the islands became a colony in 1783. Since attaining independence from the UK in 1973, The Bahamas have prospered through tourism and international banking and investment management. Because of its geography, the country is a major transshipment point for illegal drugs, particularly shipments to the US, and its territory is used for smuggling illegal migrants into the US.
Bahamas, The Location Caribbean, chain of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, southeast of Florida, northeast of Cuba
Bahamas, The Geographic coordinates 24 15 N, 76 00 W
Bahamas, The Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Bahamas, The Area total: 13,940 sq km water: 3,870 sq km land: 10,070 sq km
Bahamas, The Area - comparative slightly smaller than Connecticut
Bahamas, The Land boundaries 0 km
Bahamas, The Coastline 3,542 km
Bahamas, The Maritime claims exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
Bahamas, The Climate tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream
Bahamas, The Terrain long, flat coral formations with some low rounded hills
Bahamas, The Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Alvernia, on Cat Island 63 m
Bahamas, The Natural resources salt, aragonite, timber, arable land
Bahamas, The Land use arable land: 0.6% permanent crops: 0.4% other: 99% (1998 est.)
Bahamas, The Irrigated land NA sq km
Bahamas, The Natural hazards hurricanes and other tropical storms cause extensive flood and wind damage
Bahamas, The Environment - current issues coral reef decay; solid waste disposal
Bahamas, The Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Bahamas, The Geography - note strategic location adjacent to US and Cuba; extensive island chain of which 30 are inhabited
Bahamas, The Population 297,477 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2003 est.)
Bahamas, The Age structure 0-14 years: 28.8% (male 42,799; female 42,730) 15-64 years: 65.4% (male 95,718; female 98,875) 65 years and over: 5.8% (male 7,092; female 10,263) (2003 est.)
Bahamas, The Median age total: 27 years male: 26.2 years female: 27.7 years (2002)
Bahamas, The Population growth rate 0.77% (2003 est.)
Bahamas, The Birth rate 18.57 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bahamas, The Death rate 8.68 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bahamas, The Net migration rate -2.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bahamas, The Sex ratio at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Bahamas, The Infant mortality rate total: 26.21 deaths/1,000 live births female: 19.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 32.45 deaths/1,000 live births
Bahamas, The Life expectancy at birth total population: 65.71 years male: 62.3 years female: 69.18 years (2003 est.)
Bahamas, The Total fertility rate 2.25 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Bahamas, The HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 3.5% (2001 est.)
Bahamas, The HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 6,200 (2001 est.)
Bahamas, The HIV/AIDS - deaths 610 (2001 est.)
Bahamas, The Nationality noun: Bahamian(s) adjective: Bahamian
Bahamas, The Ethnic groups black 85%, white 12%, Asian and Hispanic 3%
Bahamas, The Religions Baptist 32%, Anglican 20%, Roman Catholic 19%, Methodist 6%, Church of God 6%, other Protestant 12%, none or unknown 3%, other 2%
Bahamas, The Languages English (official), Creole (among Haitian immigrants)
Bahamas, The Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 95.6% male: 94.7% female: 96.5% (2003 est.)
Bahamas, The Country name conventional long form: Commonwealth of The Bahamas conventional short form: The Bahamas
Bahamas, The Government type constitutional parliamentary democracy
Bahamas, The Capital Nassau
Bahamas, The Administrative divisions 21 districts; Acklins and Crooked Islands, Bimini, Cat Island, Exuma, Freeport, Fresh Creek, Governor's Harbour, Green Turtle Cay, Harbour Island, High Rock, Inagua, Kemps Bay, Long Island, Marsh Harbour, Mayaguana, New Providence, Nichollstown and Berry Islands, Ragged Island, Rock Sound, Sandy Point, San Salvador and Rum Cay
Bahamas, The Independence 10 July 1973 (from UK)
Bahamas, The National holiday Independence Day, 10 July (1973)
Bahamas, The Constitution 10 July 1973
Bahamas, The Legal system based on English common law
Bahamas, The Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Bahamas, The Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Ivy DUMONT (since NA May 2002) head of government: Prime Minister Perry CHRISTIE (since 3 May 2002) and Deputy Prime Minister Cynthia PRATT (since 7 May 2002) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the prime minister's recommendation elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; the prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister
Bahamas, The Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (16-member body appointed by the governor general upon the advice of the prime minister and the opposition leader for five-year terms) and the House of Assembly (40 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 1 May 2002 (next to be held by May 2007) election results: percent of vote by party - PLP 50.8%, FNM 41.1%, independents 5.2%; seats by party - PLP 29, FNM 7, independents 4
Bahamas, The Judicial branch Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; magistrates courts
Bahamas, The Political parties and leaders Free National Movement or FNM [Tommy TURNQUEST]; Progressive Liberal Party or PLP [Perry CHRISTIE]
Bahamas, The Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Bahamas, The International organization participation ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)
Bahamas, The Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Joshua SEARS consulate(s) general: Miami and New York FAX: [1] (202) 319-2668 telephone: [1] (202) 319-2660 chancery: 2220 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Bahamas, The Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affairs Robert M. WITAJEWSKI embassy: 42 Queen Street, Nassau mailing address: local or express mail address: P. O. Box N-8197, Nassau; Department of State, 3370 Nassau Place, Washington, DC 20521-3370 telephone: [1] (242) 322-1181, 328-2206 (after hours) FAX: [1] (242) 356-0222
Bahamas, The Flag description three equal horizontal bands of aquamarine (top), gold, and aquamarine, with a black equilateral triangle based on the hoist side
Bahamas, The Economy - overview The Bahamas is a stable, developing nation with an economy heavily dependent on tourism and offshore banking. Tourism alone accounts for more than 60% of GDP and directly or indirectly employs half of the archipelago's labor force. Steady growth in tourism receipts and a boom in construction of new hotels, resorts, and residences had led to solid GDP growth in recent years, but the slowdown in the US economy and the attacks of 11 September 2001 held back growth in these sectors in 2002. Manufacturing and agriculture together contribute approximately a tenth of GDP and show little growth, despite government incentives aimed at those sectors. Overall growth prospects in the short run rest heavily on the fortunes of the tourism sector, which depends on growth in the US, the source of most of the visitors.
Bahamas, The GDP purchasing power parity - $4.59 billion (2002 est.)
Bahamas, The GDP - real growth rate 0.1% (2002 est.)
Bahamas, The GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $15,300 (2002 est.)
Bahamas, The GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 3% industry: 7% services: 90% (1999 est.)
Bahamas, The Population below poverty line NA%
Bahamas, The Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Bahamas, The Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.8% (2001 est.)
Bahamas, The Labor force 156,000 (1999)
Bahamas, The Labor force - by occupation tourism 50%, other services 40%, industry 5%, agriculture 5% (1999 est.)
Bahamas, The Unemployment rate 6.9% (2001 est.)
Bahamas, The Budget revenues: $918.5 million expenditures: $956.5 million, including capital expenditures of $106.7 million (FY 99/00)
Bahamas, The Industries tourism, banking, e-commerce, cement, oil refining and transshipment, salt, rum, aragonite, pharmaceuticals, spiral-welded steel pipe
Bahamas, The Industrial production growth rate NA%
Bahamas, The Electricity - production 1.56 billion kWh (2001)
Bahamas, The Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Bahamas, The Electricity - consumption 1.451 billion kWh (2001)
Bahamas, The Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Bahamas, The Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Bahamas, The Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bahamas, The Oil - consumption 23,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bahamas, The Oil - exports NA (2001)
Bahamas, The Oil - imports NA (2001)
Bahamas, The Agriculture - products citrus, vegetables; poultry
Bahamas, The Exports $560.7 million (2002 est.)
Bahamas, The Exports - commodities fish and crawfish; rum, salt, chemicals; fruit and vegetables
Bahamas, The Exports - partners US 39.1%, Germany 15.4%, Spain 10.8%, France 7.4%, Poland 4.6%, Switzerland 4.3% (2002)
Bahamas, The Imports $1.86 billion (2002 est.)
Bahamas, The Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, mineral fuels; food and live animals
Bahamas, The Imports - partners US 20.3%, South Korea 20.1%, Germany 11.5%, Norway 11.5%, Japan 10%, Italy 7.2% (2002)
Bahamas, The Debt - external $371.6 million (2001)
Bahamas, The Economic aid - recipient $9.8 million (1995)
Bahamas, The Currency Bahamian dollar (BSD)
Bahamas, The Currency code BSD
Bahamas, The Exchange rates Bahamian dollars per US dollar - 1 (2002), 1 (2001), 1 (2000), 1 (1999), 1 (1998)
Bahamas, The Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Bahamas, The Telephones - main lines in use 96,000 (1997)
Bahamas, The Telephones - mobile cellular 6,152 (1997)
Bahamas, The Telephone system general assessment: modern facilities domestic: totally automatic system; highly developed international: tropospheric scatter and submarine cable to Florida; 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (1997)
Bahamas, The Radio broadcast stations AM 3, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)
Bahamas, The Television broadcast stations 1 (1997)
Bahamas, The Internet country code .bs
Bahamas, The Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 19 (2000)
Bahamas, The Internet users 16,900 (2002)
Bahamas, The Railways 0 km
Bahamas, The Highways total: 2,693 km paved: 1,546 km unpaved: 1,147 km (1999 est.)
Bahamas, The Waterways none
Bahamas, The Ports and harbors Freeport, Matthew Town, Nassau
Bahamas, The Merchant marine total: 1,090 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 33,065,778 GRT/46,202,085 DWT ships by type: bulk 150, cargo 223, chemical tanker 45, combination bulk 12, combination ore/oil 18, container 108, liquefied gas 26, livestock carrier 2, multi-functional large-load carrier 8, passenger 102, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 178, refrigerated cargo 135, roll on/roll off 40, short-sea passenger 17, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 23 note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Angola 1, Argentina 1, Australia 4, Belgium 18, Bermuda 1, Canada 5, Chile 1, China 3, Croatia 2, Cuba 3, Cyprus 2, Denmark 27, Ecuador 1, Estonia 2, Finland 9, France 15, Germany 26, Greece 173, Hong Kong 6, India 2, Indonesia 2, Ireland 1, Israel 3, Italy 9, Jamaica 1, Japan 32, Kenya 3, Malaysia 10, Malta 2, Monaco 67, Netherlands 32, New Zealand 2, Norway 237, Panama 2, Philippines 3, Poland 13, Reunion 1, Russia 6, Saudi Arabia 9, Singapore 13, Slovenia 1, South Korea 2, Spain 7, Sweden 12, Switzerland 8, Thailand 1, Trinidad and Tobago 2, Turkey 2, Ukraine 2, United Arab Emirates 10, United Kingdom 107, United States 159, Uruguay 1 (2002 est.)
Bahamas, The Airports 64 (2002)
Bahamas, The Airports - with paved runways total: 30 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 11 under 914 m: 2 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
Bahamas, The Airports - with unpaved runways total: 34 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 9 under 914 m: 22 (2002)
Bahamas, The Heliports 1 (2002)
Bahamas, The Military branches Royal Bahamas Defense Force (Coast Guard only), Royal Bahamas Police Force
Bahamas, The Military expenditures - dollar figure $20 million (FY95/96)
Bahamas, The Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.7% (FY99)
Bahamas, The Disputes - international have not been able to agree on a maritime boundary with the US
Bahamas, The Illicit drugs transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for US and Europe; offshore financial center
Bahrain Background Bahrain's small size and central location among Persian Gulf countries require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign affairs among its larger neighbors. Facing declining oil reserves, Bahrain has turned to petroleum processing and refining and has transformed itself into an international banking center. The new amir, installed in 1999, has pushed economic and political reforms and has worked to improve relations with the Shi'a community. In February 2001, Bahraini voters approved a referendum on the National Action Charter - the centerpiece of the amir's political liberalization program. In February 2002, Amir HAMAD bin Isa Al Khalifa proclaimed himself king. In October 2002, Bahrainis elected members of the lower house of Bahrain's reconstituted bicameral legislature, the National Assembly.
Bahrain Location Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia
Bahrain Geographic coordinates 26 00 N, 50 33 E
Bahrain Map references Middle East
Bahrain Area total: 665 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 665 sq km
Bahrain Area - comparative 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Bahrain Land boundaries 0 km
Bahrain Coastline 161 km
Bahrain Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined
Bahrain Climate arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
Bahrain Terrain mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment
Bahrain Elevation extremes lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 122 m
Bahrain Natural resources oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls
Bahrain Land use arable land: 4.35% permanent crops: 4.35% other: 91.3% (1998 est.)
Bahrain Irrigated land 50 sq km (1998 est.)
Bahrain Natural hazards periodic droughts; dust storms
Bahrain Environment - current issues desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations; lack of freshwater resources, groundwater and seawater are the only sources for all water needs
Bahrain Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Bahrain Geography - note close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf, which much of Western world's petroleum must transit to reach open ocean
Bahrain Population 667,238 note: includes 235,108 non-nationals (July 2003 est.)
Bahrain Age structure 0-14 years: 28.8% (male 97,294; female 94,930) 15-64 years: 68% (male 266,351; female 187,473) 65 years and over: 3.2% (male 10,807; female 10,383) (2003 est.)
Bahrain Median age total: 28.7 years male: 31.6 years female: 25.1 years (2002)
Bahrain Population growth rate 1.61% (2003 est.)
Bahrain Birth rate 19.02 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bahrain Death rate 3.99 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bahrain Net migration rate 1.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bahrain Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.42 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female total population: 1.28 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Bahrain Infant mortality rate total: 18.59 deaths/1,000 live births female: 15.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 21.65 deaths/1,000 live births
Bahrain Life expectancy at birth total population: 73.72 years male: 71.28 years female: 76.24 years (2003 est.)
Bahrain Total fertility rate 2.71 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Bahrain HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.3% (2001 est.)
Bahrain HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS less than 1,000
Bahrain HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Bahrain Nationality noun: Bahraini(s) adjective: Bahraini
Bahrain Ethnic groups Bahraini 63%, Asian 19%, other Arab 10%, Iranian 8%
Bahrain Religions Shi'a Muslim 70%, Sunni Muslim 30%
Bahrain Languages Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu
Bahrain Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 89.1% male: 91.9% female: 85% (2003 est.)
Bahrain Country name conventional long form: Kingdom of Bahrain conventional short form: Bahrain local short form: Al Bahrayn former: Dilmun local long form: Mamlakat al Bahrayn
Bahrain Government type constitutional hereditary monarchy
Bahrain Capital Manama
Bahrain Administrative divisions 12 municipalities (manatiq, singular - mintaqah); Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Al Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah al Wusta, Al Mintaqah ash Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq, Ar Rifa' wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah, Jidd Hafs, Madinat Hamad, Madinat 'Isa, Juzur Hawar, Sitrah note: all municipalities administered from Manama
Bahrain Independence 15 August 1971 (from UK)
Bahrain National holiday National Day, 16 December (1971); note - 15 August 1971 is the date of independence from the UK, 16 December 1971 is the date of independence from British protection
Bahrain Constitution adopted late December 2000; Bahrani voters approved on 13-14 February 2001 a referendum on legislative changes (revised constitution calls for a partially elected legislature, a constitutional monarchy, and an independent judiciary)
Bahrain Legal system based on Islamic law and English common law
Bahrain Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Bahrain Executive branch chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa Al Khalifa (since 6 March 1999); Heir Apparent Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad (son of the monarch, born 21 October 1969) head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since NA 1971) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
Bahrain Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of Shura Council (40 members appointed by the King) and House of Deputies (40 members directly elected to serve four-year terms) elections: House of Deputies - last held 31 October 2002 (next election to be held NA 2006) note: first elections since 7 December 1973; unicameral National Assembly dissolved 26 August 1975; National Action Charter created bicameral legislature on 23 December 2000; approved by referendum 14 February 2001; first legislative session of Parliament held on 25 December 2002 election results: House of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - independents 21, Sunni Islamists 9, other 10
Bahrain Judicial branch High Civil Appeals Court
Bahrain Political parties and leaders political parties prohibited but politically oriented societies are allowed
Bahrain Political pressure groups and leaders Shi'a activists fomented unrest sporadically in 1994-97, demanding the return of an elected National Assembly and an end to unemployment; several small, clandestine leftist and Islamic fundamentalist groups are active
Bahrain International organization participation ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Bahrain Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Khalifa bin Ali bin Rashid AL KHALIFA chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008 consulate(s) general: New York FAX: [1] (202) 362-2192 telephone: [1] (202) 342-0741
Bahrain Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Ronald E. NEUMANN embassy: Building #979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club), Block 321, Zinj District, Manama mailing address: American Embassy Manama, PSC 451, FPO AE 09834-5100; international mail: American Embassy, Box 26431, Manama telephone: [973] 273-300 FAX: [973] 272-594
Bahrain Flag description red with a white serrated band (five white points) on the hoist side; the five points represent the five pillars of Islam
Bahrain Economy - overview In Bahrain, petroleum production and refining account for about 60% of export receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 30% of GDP. With its highly developed communication and transport facilities, Bahrain is home to numerous multinational firms with business in the Gulf. Bahrain is dependent on Saudi Arabia for oil granted as aid. A large share of exports consists of petroleum products made from refining imported crude. Construction proceeds on several major industrial projects. Unemployment, especially among the young, and the depletion of oil and underground water resources are major long-term economic problems.
Bahrain GDP purchasing power parity - $9.91 billion (2002 est.)
Bahrain GDP - real growth rate 2.9% (2002 est.)
Bahrain GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $15,100 (2002 est.)
Bahrain GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 1% industry: 35% services: 64% (2001 est.)
Bahrain Population below poverty line NA%
Bahrain Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Bahrain Inflation rate (consumer prices) 0.5% (2002 est.)
Bahrain Labor force 295,000 note: 44% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national (1998 est.)
Bahrain Labor force - by occupation industry, commerce, and service 79%, government 20%, agriculture 1% (1997 est.)
Bahrain Unemployment rate 15% (1998 est.)
Bahrain Budget revenues: $1.8 billion expenditures: $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $700 million (2002 est.)
Bahrain Industries petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, offshore banking, ship repairing; tourism
Bahrain Industrial production growth rate 2% (2000 est.)
Bahrain Electricity - production 6.257 billion kWh (2001)
Bahrain Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Bahrain Electricity - consumption 5.819 billion kWh (2001)
Bahrain Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Bahrain Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Bahrain Oil - production 43,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bahrain Oil - consumption 31,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bahrain Oil - exports NA (2001)
Bahrain Oil - imports NA (2001)
Bahrain Oil - proved reserves 62.28 million bbl (37257)
Bahrain Natural gas - production 8.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Bahrain Natural gas - consumption 8.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Bahrain Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Bahrain Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Bahrain Natural gas - proved reserves 46 billion cu m (37257)
Bahrain Agriculture - products fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products; shrimp, fish
Bahrain Exports $5.8 billion (2002)
Bahrain Exports - commodities petroleum and petroleum products, aluminum, textiles
Bahrain Exports - partners US 4.5%, India 3.2%, Saudi Arabia 2.1% (2002)
Bahrain Imports $4.2 billion (2002)
Bahrain Imports - commodities crude oil, machinery, chemicals
Bahrain Imports - partners Saudi Arabia 30.1%, US 11.7%, Japan 7.1%, Germany 6.5%, UK 5.6% (2002)
Bahrain Debt - external $3.7 billion (2002)
Bahrain Economic aid - recipient $150 million; note - $50 million annually since 1992 from each of Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Kuwait (2002)
Bahrain Currency Bahraini dinar (BHD)
Bahrain Currency code BHD
Bahrain Exchange rates Bahraini dinars per US dollar - 0.38 (2002), 0.38 (2001), 0.38 (2000), 0.38 (1999), 0.38 (1998)
Bahrain Fiscal year calendar year
Bahrain Telephones - main lines in use 152,000 (1997)
Bahrain Telephones - mobile cellular 58,543 (1997)
Bahrain Telephone system general assessment: modern system domestic: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly growing use of mobile cellular telephones international: tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to Qatar, UAE, and Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat (1997)
Bahrain Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)
Bahrain Television broadcast stations 4 (1997)
Bahrain Internet country code .bh
Bahrain Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Bahrain Internet users 140,200 (2002)
Bahrain Railways 0 km
Bahrain Highways total: 3,261 km paved: 2,531 km unpaved: 730 km (2000)
Bahrain Waterways none
Bahrain Pipelines gas 20 km; oil 53 km (2003)
Bahrain Ports and harbors Manama, Mina' Salman, Sitrah
Bahrain Merchant marine total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 234,599 GRT/336,528 DWT ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 1, container 2, petroleum tanker 1, includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Kuwait 1 (2002 est.)
Bahrain Airports 4 (2002)
Bahrain Airports - with paved runways total: 3 over 3,047 m: 2 1524 to 2437 m: 1 (2002)
Bahrain Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)
Bahrain Heliports 1 (2002)
Bahrain Military branches Bahrain Defense Forces (BDF) comprising Ground Force (includes Air Defense), Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, Police Force, Amiri Guards, National Guard
Bahrain Military manpower - military age 15 years of age (2003 est.)
Bahrain Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 222,242 (2003 est.)
Bahrain Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 121,739 (2003 est.)
Bahrain Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 6,126 (2003 est.)
Bahrain Military expenditures - dollar figure $526.2 million (FY01)
Bahrain Military expenditures - percent of GDP 6.7% (FY01)
Bahrain Disputes - international none
Baker Island Background The US took possession of the island in 1857, and its guano deposits were mined by US and British companies during the second half of the 19th century. In 1935, a short-lived attempt at colonization was begun on this island - as well as on nearby Howland Island - but was disrupted by World War II and thereafter abandoned. Presently the island is a National Wildlife Refuge run by the US Department of the Interior; a day beacon is situated near the middle of the west coast.
Baker Island Location Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about half way between Hawaii and Australia
Baker Island Geographic coordinates 0 13 N, 176 31 W
Baker Island Map references Oceania
Baker Island Area total: 1.4 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 1.4 sq km
Baker Island Area - comparative about 2.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Baker Island Land boundaries 0 km
Baker Island Coastline 4.8 km
Baker Island Maritime claims exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
Baker Island Climate equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun
Baker Island Terrain low, nearly level coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef
Baker Island Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 8 m
Baker Island Natural resources guano (deposits worked until 1891), terrestrial and aquatic wildlife
Baker Island Land use arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (1998 est.)
Baker Island Irrigated land 0 sq km (1998 est.)
Baker Island Natural hazards the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime hazard
Baker Island Environment - current issues no natural fresh water resources
Baker Island Geography - note treeless, sparse, and scattered vegetation consisting of grasses, prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife
Baker Island Population uninhabited note: American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during World War II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by special-use permit from US Fish and Wildlife Service only and generally restricted to scientists and educators; a cemetery and remnants of structures from early settlement are located near the middle of the west coast; visited annually by US Fish and Wildlife Service (July 2003 est.)
Baker Island Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Baker Island
Baker Island Dependency status unincorporated territory of the US; administered from Washington, DC, by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system
Baker Island Legal system the laws of the US, where applicable, apply
Baker Island Flag description the flag of the US is used
Baker Island Economy - overview no economic activity
Baker Island Waterways none
Baker Island Ports and harbors none; offshore anchorage only; note - there is one small boat landing area along the middle of the west coast
Baker Island Airports 1 abandoned World War II runway of 1,665 m, completely covered with vegetation and unusable (2002)
Baker Island Transportation - note there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast
Baker Island Military - note defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US Coast Guard
Baker Island Disputes - international none
Bangladesh Background Bangladesh came into existence in 1971 when Bengali East Pakistan seceded from its union with West Pakistan. About a third of this extremely poor country floods annually during the monsoon rainy season, hampering economic development.
Bangladesh Location Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India
Bangladesh Geographic coordinates 24 00 N, 90 00 E
Bangladesh Map references Asia
Bangladesh Area total: 144,000 sq km land: 133,910 sq km water: 10,090 sq km
Bangladesh Area - comparative slightly smaller than Iowa
Bangladesh Land boundaries total: 4,246 km border countries: Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km
Bangladesh Coastline 580 km
Bangladesh Maritime claims contiguous zone: 18 NM territorial sea: 12 NM continental shelf: up to the outer limits of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Bangladesh Climate tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)
Bangladesh Terrain mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast
Bangladesh Elevation extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Keokradong 1,230 m
Bangladesh Natural resources natural gas, arable land, timber, coal
Bangladesh Land use arable land: 60.7% permanent crops: 2.61% other: 36.69% (1998 est.)
Bangladesh Irrigated land 38,440 sq km (1998 est.)
Bangladesh Natural hazards droughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely inundated during the summer monsoon season
Bangladesh Environment - current issues many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; water-borne diseases prevalent in surface water; water pollution, especially of fishing areas, results from the use of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by naturally occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation and erosion; deforestation; severe overpopulation
Bangladesh Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Bangladesh Geography - note most of the country is situated on deltas of large rivers flowing from the Himalayas: the Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna to eventually empty into the Bay of Bengal
Bangladesh Population 138,448,210 (July 2003 est.)
Bangladesh Age structure 0-14 years: 34.1% (male 24,255,300; female 23,007,632) 15-64 years: 62.5% (male 44,261,739; female 42,281,331) 65 years and over: 3.4% (male 2,506,606; female 2,135,602) (2003 est.)
Bangladesh Median age total: 21.2 years male: 21.2 years female: 21.1 years (2002)
Bangladesh Population growth rate 2.06% (2003 est.)
Bangladesh Birth rate 29.9 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bangladesh Death rate 8.63 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bangladesh Net migration rate -0.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bangladesh Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.17 male(s)/female total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Bangladesh Infant mortality rate total: 66.08 deaths/1,000 live births female: 64.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 67.21 deaths/1,000 live births
Bangladesh Life expectancy at birth total population: 61.33 years male: 61.46 years female: 61.2 years (2003 est.)
Bangladesh Total fertility rate 3.17 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Bangladesh HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
Bangladesh HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 13,000 (2001 est.)
Bangladesh HIV/AIDS - deaths 650 (2001 est.)
Bangladesh Nationality noun: Bangladeshi(s) adjective: Bangladeshi
Bangladesh Ethnic groups Bengali 98%, tribal groups, non-Bengali Muslims (1998)
Bangladesh Religions Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, other 1% (1998)
Bangladesh Languages Bangla (official, also known as Bengali), English
Bangladesh Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 43.1% male: 53.9% female: 31.8% (2003 est.)
Bangladesh Country name conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh conventional short form: Bangladesh former: East Pakistan
Bangladesh Government type parliamentary democracy
Bangladesh Capital Dhaka
Bangladesh Administrative divisions 5 divisions; Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi; note - there may be one additional division named Sylhet
Bangladesh Independence 16 December 1971 (from West Pakistan); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is known as Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh
Bangladesh National holiday Independence Day, 26 March (1971); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh
Bangladesh Constitution 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended following coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986, amended many times
Bangladesh Legal system based on English common law
Bangladesh Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Bangladesh Executive branch chief of state: President Iajuddin AHMED (since 6 September 2002); note - the president's duties are normally ceremonial, but with the 13th amendment to the constitution ("Caretaker Government Amendment"), the president's role becomes significant at times when Parliament is dissolved and a caretaker government is installed - at presidential direction - to supervise the elections head of government: Prime Minister Khaleda ZIA (since 10 October 2001) cabinet: Cabinet selected by the prime minister and appointed by the president elections: president elected by National Parliament for a five-year term; election scheduled for 16 September 2002 was not held since Iajuddin AHMED was the only presidential candidate; he was sworn in on 6 September 2002 (next election to be held by NA 2007); following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins the most seats is usually appointed prime minister by the president election results: Iajuddin AHMED declared by the Election Commission elected unopposed as president; percent of National Parliament vote - NA%
Bangladesh Legislative branch unicameral National Parliament or Jatiya Sangsad; 300 seats elected by popular vote from single territorial constituencies (the constitutional amendment reserving 30 seats for women over and above the 300 regular parliament seats expired in May 2001); members serve five-year terms elections: last held 1 October 2001 (next to be held before October 2006) election results: percent of vote by party - BNP and alliance partners 46%, AL 42%; seats by party - BNP 191, AL 62, JI 18, JP (Ershad faction) 14, IOJ 2, JP (Naziur) 4, other 9; note - the election of October 2001 brought a majority BNP government aligned with three other smaller parties - Jamaat-i-Islami, Islami Oikya Jote, and Jatiya Party (Naziur)
Bangladesh Judicial branch Supreme Court (the chief justices and other judges are appointed by the president)
Bangladesh Political parties and leaders Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA]; Bangladesh Communist Party or BCP [Saifuddin Ahmed MANIK]; Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP [Khaleda ZIA, chairperson]; Islami Oikya Jote or IOJ [Mufti Fazlul Haq AMINI]; Jamaat-E-Islami or JI [Motiur Rahman NIZAMI]; Jatiya Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD]; Jatiya Party (Manzur faction) [Naziur Rahman MANZUR]
Bangladesh Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Bangladesh International organization participation AsDB, C, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OPCW, SAARC, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMISET, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNU, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Bangladesh Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Syed Hasan AHMAD consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York FAX: [1] (202) 244-5366 telephone: [1] (202) 244-0183 chancery: 3510 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
Bangladesh Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Ann PETERS embassy: Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212 mailing address: G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000 telephone: [880] (2) 8824700 through 8824722 FAX: [880] (2) 8823744
Bangladesh Flag description green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist side of center; the red sun of freedom represents the blood shed to achieve independence; the green field symbolizes the lush countryside, and secondarily, the traditional color of Islam
Bangladesh Economy - overview Despite sustained domestic and international efforts to improve economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh remains a poor, overpopulated, and ill-governed nation. Although half of GDP is generated through the service sector, nearly two-thirds of Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector, with rice as the single-most-important product. Major impediments to growth include frequent cyclones and floods, inefficient state-owned enterprises, inadequate port facilities, a rapidly growing labor force that cannot be absorbed by agriculture, delays in exploiting energy resources (natural gas), insufficient power supplies, and slow implementation of economic reforms. Economic reform is stalled in many instances by political infighting and corruption at all levels of government. Progress also has been blocked by opposition from the bureaucracy, public sector unions, and other vested interest groups. The BNP government, led by Prime Minister Khaleda ZIA, has the parliamentary strength to push through needed reforms, but the party's political will to do so has been lacking in key areas.
Bangladesh GDP purchasing power parity - $238.2 billion (2002 est.)
Bangladesh GDP - real growth rate 4.8% (2002 est.)
Bangladesh GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,800 (2002 est.)
Bangladesh GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 35% industry: 19% services: 46% (2001 est.)
Bangladesh Population below poverty line 35.6% (FY 95/96 est.)
Bangladesh Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3.9% highest 10%: 28.6% (1995-96 est.)
Bangladesh Distribution of family income - Gini index 33.6 (FY 95/96)
Bangladesh Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.1% (2002 est.)
Bangladesh Labor force 64.1 million note: extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman, Qatar, and Malaysia; workers' remittances estimated at $1.71 billion in 1998-99 (1998)
Bangladesh Labor force - by occupation agriculture 63%, services 26%, industry 11% (FY 95/96)
Bangladesh Unemployment rate 40% (includes underemployment) (2002 est.)
Bangladesh Budget revenues: $4.9 billion expenditures: $6.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY99/00 est.)
Bangladesh Industries cotton textiles, jute, garments, tea processing, paper newsprint, cement, chemical fertilizer, light engineering, sugar
Bangladesh Industrial production growth rate 1.8% (2002 est.)
Bangladesh Electricity - production 15.33 billion kWh (2001)
Bangladesh Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 93.7% hydro: 6.3% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Bangladesh Electricity - consumption 14.25 billion kWh (2001)
Bangladesh Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Bangladesh Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Bangladesh Oil - production 3,581 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bangladesh Oil - consumption 71,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bangladesh Oil - exports NA (2001)
Bangladesh Oil - imports NA (2001)
Bangladesh Oil - proved reserves 28.45 million bbl (37257)
Bangladesh Natural gas - production 9.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Bangladesh Natural gas - consumption 9.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Bangladesh Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Bangladesh Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Bangladesh Natural gas - proved reserves 150.3 billion cu m (37257)
Bangladesh Agriculture - products rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, tobacco, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry
Bangladesh Exports $6.2 billion (2002)
Bangladesh Exports - commodities garments, jute and jute goods, leather, frozen fish and seafood (2001)
Bangladesh Exports - partners US 27.6%, Germany 10.4%, UK 9.8%, France 5.7%, Italy 4% (2002)
Bangladesh Imports $8.5 billion (2002)
Bangladesh Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, foodstuffs, petroleum products, cement (2000)
Bangladesh Imports - partners India 14.6%, China 11.6%, Singapore 11.5%, Japan 7.6%, Hong Kong 5.4%, South Korea 4.3% (2002)
Bangladesh Debt - external $16.5 billion (2002)
Bangladesh Economic aid - recipient $1.575 billion (2000 est.)
Bangladesh Currency taka (BDT)
Bangladesh Currency code BDT
Bangladesh Exchange rates taka per US dollar - 57.89 (2002), 55.81 (2001), 52.14 (2000), 49.09 (1999), 46.91 (1998)
Bangladesh Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Bangladesh Telephones - main lines in use 500,000 (2000)
Bangladesh Telephones - mobile cellular 283,000 (2000)
Bangladesh Telephone system general assessment: totally inadequate for a modern country domestic: modernizing; introducing digital systems; trunk systems include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links, and some fiber-optic cable in cities international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean); international radiotelephone communications and landline service to neighboring countries (2000)
Bangladesh Radio broadcast stations AM 12, FM 12, shortwave 2 (1999)
Bangladesh Television broadcast stations 15 (1999)
Bangladesh Internet country code .bd
Bangladesh Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 10 (2000)
Bangladesh Internet users 150,000 (2002)
Bangladesh Railways total: 2,706 km broad gauge: 884 km 1.676-m gauge narrow gauge: 1,822 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)
Bangladesh Highways total: 207,486 km paved: 19,773 km unpaved: 187,713 km (1999)
Bangladesh Waterways up to 8,046 km depending on season note: includes 3,058 km main cargo routes
Bangladesh Pipelines gas 2,016 km (2003)
Bangladesh Ports and harbors Chittagong, Dhaka, Mongla Port, Narayanganj
Bangladesh Merchant marine total: 40 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 314,437 GRT/436,465 DWT ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 23, container 11, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1 (2002 est.)
Bangladesh Airports 18 (2002)
Bangladesh Airports - with paved runways total: 15 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 6 (2002)
Bangladesh Airports - with unpaved runways total: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Bangladesh Military branches Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, paramilitary forces (includes Bangladesh Rifles, Bangladesh Ansars, Village Defense Parties, Armed Police Battalions, National Cadet Corps)
Bangladesh Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 38,436,912 (2003 est.)
Bangladesh Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 22,807,339 (2003 est.)
Bangladesh Military expenditures - dollar figure $559 million (FY96)
Bangladesh Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.8% (FY96)
Bangladesh Disputes - international discussions with India remain stalled to delimit a small section of river boundary, demarcate and fence the porous land boundary, exchange 162 miniscule enclaves, allocate divided villages, and stop illegal cross-border trade and violence; Bangladesh protests India's attempts to fence off high-traffic sections of the porous boundary; dispute with India over New Moore/South Talpatty Island in the Bay of Bengal prevents maritime boundary delimitation; Burmese Muslim refugees strain Bangladesh's meager resources
Bangladesh Illicit drugs transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries
Barbados Background The island was uninhabited when first settled by the British in 1627. Slaves worked the sugar plantations established on the island until 1834 when slavery was abolished. The economy remained heavily dependent on sugar, rum, and molasses production through most of the 20th century. The gradual introduction of social and political reforms in the 1940s and 1950s led to complete independence from the UK in 1966. In the 1990s, tourism and manufacturing surpassed the sugar industry in economic importance.
Barbados Location Caribbean, island in the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela
Barbados Geographic coordinates 13 10 N, 59 32 W
Barbados Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Barbados Area total: 431 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 431 sq km
Barbados Area - comparative 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Barbados Land boundaries 0 km
Barbados Coastline 97 km
Barbados Maritime claims exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
Barbados Climate tropical; rainy season (June to October)
Barbados Terrain relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region
Barbados Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Hillaby 336 m
Barbados Natural resources petroleum, fish, natural gas
Barbados Land use arable land: 37.21% permanent crops: 2.33% other: 60.46% (1998 est.)
Barbados Irrigated land 10 sq km (1998 est.)
Barbados Natural hazards infrequent hurricanes; periodic landslides
Barbados Environment - current issues pollution of coastal waters from waste disposal by ships; soil erosion; illegal solid waste disposal threatens contamination of aquifers
Barbados Environment - international agreements party to: Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity
Barbados Geography - note easternmost Caribbean island
Barbados Population 277,264 (July 2003 est.)
Barbados Age structure 0-14 years: 21.2% (male 29,621; female 29,207) 15-64 years: 70% (male 94,840; female 99,230) 65 years and over: 8.8% (male 9,355; female 15,011) (2003 est.)
Barbados Median age total: 33.3 years male: 32.2 years female: 34.4 years (2002)
Barbados Population growth rate 0.38% (2003 est.)
Barbados Birth rate 13.15 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Barbados Death rate 9.02 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Barbados Net migration rate -0.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Barbados Sex ratio at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Barbados Infant mortality rate total: 12.72 deaths/1,000 live births female: 11.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 14.39 deaths/1,000 live births
Barbados Life expectancy at birth total population: 71.84 years male: 69.56 years female: 74.14 years (2003 est.)
Barbados Total fertility rate 1.65 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Barbados HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 1.2% - note: no country specific models provided (2001 est.)
Barbados HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 1,800 (2001 est.)
Barbados HIV/AIDS - deaths 250 (2001 est.)
Barbados Nationality noun: Barbadian(s) or Bajan (colloquial) adjective: Barbadian or Bajan (colloquial)
Barbados Ethnic groups black 90%, white 4%, Asian and mixed 6%
Barbados Religions Protestant 67% (Anglican 40%, Pentecostal 8%, Methodist 7%, other 12%), Roman Catholic 4%, none 17%, other 12%
Barbados Languages English
Barbados Literacy definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school total population: 97.4% male: 98% female: 96.8% (1995 est.)
Barbados Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Barbados
Barbados Government type parliamentary democracy; independent sovereign state within the Commonwealth
Barbados Capital Bridgetown
Barbados Administrative divisions 11 parishes; Christ Church, Saint Andrew, Saint George, Saint James, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Lucy, Saint Michael, Saint Peter, Saint Philip, Saint Thomas; note - the city of Bridgetown may be given parish status
Barbados Independence 30 November 1966 (from UK)
Barbados National holiday Independence Day, 30 November (1966)
Barbados Constitution 30 November 1966
Barbados Legal system English common law; no judicial review of legislative acts
Barbados Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Barbados Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Clifford Straughn HUSBANDS (since 1 June 1996) head of government: Prime Minister Owen Seymour ARTHUR (since 6 September 1994); Deputy Prime Minister Mia MOTTLEY (since 26 May 2003) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; the prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister
Barbados Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (21-member body appointed by the governor general) and the House of Assembly (30 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: House of Assembly - last held 21 May 2003 (next to be held by May 2008) election results: House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - BLP 23, DLP 7
Barbados Judicial branch Supreme Court of Judicature (judges are appointed by the Service Commissions for the Judicial and Legal Services)
Barbados Political parties and leaders Barbados Labor Party or BLP [Owen ARTHUR]; Democratic Labor Party or DLP [Clyde Mascoll]
Barbados Political pressure groups and leaders Barbados Workers Union [Leroy TROTMAN]; Clement Payne Labor Union [David COMMISSIONG]; People's Progressive Movement [Eric SEALY]; Worker's Party of Barbados [Dr. George BELLE]
Barbados International organization participation ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Barbados Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Michael Ian KING consulate(s): Los Angeles consulate(s) general: Miami and New York FAX: [1] (202) 332-7467 telephone: [1] (202) 339-9201 chancery: 2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Barbados Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Earl N. PHILLIPS, Jr. embassy: Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Building, Broad Street, Bridgetown; (courier) ALICO Building-Cheapside, Bridgetown mailing address: P. O. Box 302, Bridgetown; FPO AA 34055 telephone: [1] (246) 436-4950 FAX: [1] (246) 429-5246, 429-3379
Barbados Flag description three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold, and blue with the head of a black trident centered on the gold band; the trident head represents independence and a break with the past (the colonial coat of arms contained a complete trident)
Barbados Economy - overview Historically, the Barbadian economy had been dependent on sugarcane cultivation and related activities, but production in recent years has diversified into manufacturing and tourism. Offshore finance and information services are important foreign exchange earners, and there is also a light-manufacturing sector. The government continues its efforts to reduce unemployment, to encourage direct foreign investment, and to privatize remaining state-owned enterprises. The economy contracted in 2002 mainly due to a 3% decline in tourism. Growth should be positive in 2003, the precise level largely dependent on economic conditions in the US and Europe.
Barbados GDP purchasing power parity - $4.153 billion (2002 est.)
Barbados GDP - real growth rate -2.8% (2002 est.)
Barbados GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $15,000 (2002 est.)
Barbados GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 6% industry: 16% services: 78% (2000 est.)
Barbados Population below poverty line NA%
Barbados Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Barbados Inflation rate (consumer prices) -0.6% (2002 est.)
Barbados Labor force 128,500 (2001 est.)
Barbados Labor force - by occupation services 75%, industry 15%, agriculture 10% (1996 est.)
Barbados Unemployment rate 10% (2001 est.)
Barbados Budget revenues: $847 million (including grants) expenditures: $886 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Barbados Industries tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly for export
Barbados Industrial production growth rate -3.2% (2000 est.)
Barbados Electricity - production 780 million kWh (2001)
Barbados Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Barbados Electricity - consumption 725.4 million kWh (2001)
Barbados Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Barbados Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Barbados Oil - production 1,271 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Barbados Oil - consumption 10,900 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Barbados Oil - exports NA (2001)
Barbados Oil - imports NA (2001)
Barbados Oil - proved reserves 1.254 million bbl (37257)
Barbados Natural gas - production 29.17 million cu m (2001 est.)
Barbados Natural gas - consumption 29.17 million cu m (2001 est.)
Barbados Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Barbados Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Barbados Natural gas - proved reserves 70.79 million cu m (37257)
Barbados Agriculture - products sugarcane, vegetables, cotton
Barbados Exports $227 million (2002)
Barbados Exports - commodities sugar and molasses, rum, other foods and beverages, chemicals, electrical components
Barbados Exports - partners US 14.7%, Trinidad and Tobago 12%, UK 10.6%, Jamaica 6.2%, Saint Lucia 4.7% (2002)
Barbados Imports $987 million (2002)
Barbados Imports - commodities consumer goods, machinery, foodstuffs, construction materials, chemicals, fuel, electrical components
Barbados Imports - partners US 41.1%, Trinidad and Tobago 17%, UK 7.3%, Japan 4.2% (2002)
Barbados Debt - external $692 million (2002)
Barbados Economic aid - recipient $9.1 million (1995)
Barbados Currency Barbadian dollar (BBD)
Barbados Currency code BBD
Barbados Exchange rates Barbadian dollars per US dollar - 2 (2002), 2 (2001), 2 (2000), 2 (1999), 2 (1998)
Barbados Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Barbados Telephones - main lines in use 108,000 (1997)
Barbados Telephones - mobile cellular 8,013 (1997)
Barbados Telephone system general assessment: NA domestic: island-wide automatic telephone system international: satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Trinidad and Saint Lucia
Barbados Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)
Barbados Television broadcast stations 1 (plus two cable channels) (1997)
Barbados Internet country code .bb
Barbados Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 19 (2000)
Barbados Internet users 6,000 (2000)
Barbados Railways 0 km
Barbados Highways total: 1,793 km paved: 1,719 km unpaved: 74 km (1999)
Barbados Waterways none
Barbados Ports and harbors Bridgetown, Speightstown (Port Charles Marina)
Barbados Merchant marine total: 34 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 284,222 GRT/439,810 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Australia 1, The Bahamas 1, Canada 4, Germany 1, Greece 2, Hong Kong 7, Norway 7, UK 18 (2002 est.) ships by type: bulk 8, cargo 22, combination bulk 1, container 1, petroleum tanker 2
Barbados Airports 1 (2002)
Barbados Airports - with paved runways total: 1 over 3,047 m: 1 (2002)
Barbados Military branches Royal Barbados Defense Force (including Ground Forces and Coast Guard), Royal Barbados Police Force
Barbados Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 77,862 (2003 est.)
Barbados Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 53,282 (2003 est.)
Barbados Military expenditures - dollar figure $NA
Barbados Military expenditures - percent of GDP NA%
Barbados Disputes - international none
Barbados Illicit drugs one of many Caribbean transshipment points for narcotics bound for Europe and the US; offshore financial center
Bassas da India Background This atoll is a volcanic rock surrounded by reefs and is awash at high tide. A French possession since 1897, it was placed under the administration of a commissioner residing in Reunion in 1968.
Bassas da India Location Southern Africa, islands in the southern Mozambique Channel, about one-half of the way from Madagascar to Mozambique
Bassas da India Geographic coordinates 21 30 S, 39 50 E
Bassas da India Map references Africa
Bassas da India Area total: 0.2 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 0.2 sq km
Bassas da India Area - comparative about one-third the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Bassas da India Land boundaries 0 km
Bassas da India Coastline 35.2 km
Bassas da India Maritime claims exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
Bassas da India Climate tropical
Bassas da India Terrain volcanic rock
Bassas da India Elevation extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 2.4 m
Bassas da India Natural resources none
Bassas da India Land use arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (all rock) (1998 est.)
Bassas da India Irrigated land 0 sq km (1998 est.)
Bassas da India Natural hazards maritime hazard since it is usually under water during high tide and surrounded by reefs; subject to periodic cyclones
Bassas da India Environment - current issues NA
Bassas da India Geography - note the islands emerge from a circular reef that sits atop a long-extinct, submerged volcano
Bassas da India Population uninhabited (July 2003 est.)
Bassas da India Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Bassas da India
Bassas da India Dependency status possession of France; administered by a high commissioner of the Republic, resident in Reunion
Bassas da India Legal system the laws of France, where applicable, apply
Bassas da India Flag description the flag of France is used
Bassas da India Economy - overview no economic activity
Bassas da India Waterways none
Bassas da India Ports and harbors none; offshore anchorage only
Bassas da India Military - note defense is the responsibility of France
Bassas da India Disputes - international claimed by Madagascar
Belarus Background After seven decades as a constituent republic of the USSR, Belarus attained its independence in 1991. It has retained closer political and economic ties to Russia than any of the other former Soviet republics. Belarus and Russia signed a treaty on a two-state union on 8 December 1999 envisioning greater political and economic integration. Although Belarus agreed to a framework to carry out the accord, serious implementation has yet to take place.
Belarus Location Eastern Europe, east of Poland
Belarus Geographic coordinates 53 00 N, 28 00 E
Belarus Map references Europe
Belarus Area total: 207,600 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 207,600 sq km
Belarus Area - comparative slightly smaller than Kansas
Belarus Land boundaries total: 2,900 km border countries: Latvia 141 km, Lithuania 502 km, Poland 407 km, Russia 959 km, Ukraine 891 km
Belarus Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Belarus Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Belarus Climate cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between continental and maritime
Belarus Terrain generally flat and contains much marshland
Belarus Elevation extremes lowest point: Nyoman River 90 m highest point: Dzyarzhynskaya Hara 346 m
Belarus Natural resources forests, peat deposits, small quantities of oil and natural gas, granite, dolomitic limestone, marl, chalk, sand, gravel, clay
Belarus Land use arable land: 29.76% permanent crops: 0.69% other: 69.55% (1998 est.)
Belarus Irrigated land 1,150 sq km (1998 est.)
Belarus Natural hazards NA
Belarus Environment - current issues soil pollution from pesticide use; southern part of the country contaminated with fallout from 1986 nuclear reactor accident at Chornobyl' in northern Ukraine
Belarus Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Belarus Geography - note landlocked; glacial scouring accounts for the flatness of Belarusian terrain and for its 11,000 lakes; the country is geologically well endowed with extensive deposits of granite, dolomitic limestone, marl, chalk, sand, gravel, and clay
Belarus Population 10,322,151 (July 2003 est.)
Belarus Age structure 0-14 years: 16.8% (male 885,265; female 848,516) 15-64 years: 68.9% (male 3,456,769; female 3,652,766) 65 years and over: 14.3% (male 490,529; female 988,306) (2003 est.)
Belarus Median age total: 36.7 years male: 34.1 years female: 39.3 years (2002)
Belarus Population growth rate -0.12% (2003 est.)
Belarus Birth rate 10.18 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Belarus Death rate 14.05 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Belarus Net migration rate 2.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Belarus Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.5 male(s)/female total population: 0.88 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Belarus Infant mortality rate total: 13.87 deaths/1,000 live births female: 12.56 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 15.13 deaths/1,000 live births
Belarus Life expectancy at birth total population: 68.43 years male: 62.54 years female: 74.6 years (2003 est.)
Belarus Total fertility rate 1.34 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Belarus HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.3% (2001 est.)
Belarus HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 15,000 (2001 est.)
Belarus HIV/AIDS - deaths 1,000 (2001 est.)
Belarus Nationality noun: Belarusian(s) adjective: Belarusian
Belarus Ethnic groups Belarusian 81.2%, Russian 11.4%, Polish, Ukrainian, and other 7.4%
Belarus Religions Eastern Orthodox 80%, other (including Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim) 20% (1997 est.)
Belarus Languages Belarusian, Russian, other
Belarus Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 99.6% male: 99.8% female: 99.5% (2003 est.)
Belarus Country name conventional long form: Republic of Belarus conventional short form: Belarus local short form: none former: Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic local long form: Respublika Byelarus'
Belarus Government type republic
Belarus Capital Minsk
Belarus Administrative divisions 6 voblastsi (singular - voblasts') and one municipality* (harady, singular - horad); Brestskaya (Brest), Homyel'skaya (Homyel'), Horad Minsk*, Hrodzyenskaya (Hrodna), Mahilyowskaya (Mahilyow), Minskaya, Vitsyebskaya (Vitsyebsk); note - when using a place name with the adjectival ending 'skaya,' the word voblasts' should be added to the place name note: voblasti have the administrative center name following in parentheses
Belarus Independence 25 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Belarus National holiday Independence Day, 3 July (1944); note - 3 July 1944 was the date Minsk was liberated from German troops, 25 August 1991 was the date of independence from the Soviet Union
Belarus Constitution 30 March 1994; revised by national referendum of 24 November 1996 giving the presidency greatly expanded powers and became effective 27 November 1996
Belarus Legal system based on civil law system
Belarus Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Belarus Executive branch chief of state: President Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (since 20 July 1994) head of government: Prime Minister Sergei SIDORSKY (acting; since 10 July 2003); Deputy Prime Ministers Andrei KOBYAKOV (since 13 March 2000), Sergei SIDORSKY (since 24 September 2001), Vladimir DRAZHIN (since 24 September 2001), Roman VNUCHKO (since 10 July 2003) cabinet: Council of Ministers election results: Aleksandr LUKASHENKO reelected president; percent of vote - Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 75.6%, Vladimir GONCHARIK 15.4% elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; first election took place 23 June and 10 July 1994; according to the 1994 constitution, the next election should have been held in 1999, however LUKASHENKO extended his term to 2001 via a November 1996 referendum; new election held 9 September 2001 (next election to be held by September 2006); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
Belarus Legislative branch bicameral Parliament or Natsionalnoye Sobranie consists of the Council of the Republic or Soviet Respubliki (64 seats; 56 members elected by regional councils and 8 members appointed by the president, all for 4-year terms) and the Chamber of Representatives or Palata Pretsaviteley (110 seats; members elected by universal adult suffrage to serve 4-year terms) election results: party affiliation data unavailable; under present political conditions party designations are meaningless elections: last held October 2000 (next to be held NA 2004)
Belarus Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); Constitutional Court (half of the judges appointed by the president and half appointed by the Chamber of Representatives)
Belarus Political parties and leaders Agrarian Party or AP [Mikhail SHIMANSKY]; Belarusian Communist Party or KPB [Viktor CHIKIN, chairman]; Belarusian Ecological Green Party (merger of Belarusian Ecological Party and Green Party of Belarus) [leader NA]; Belarusian Patriotic Movement (Belarusian Patriotic Party) or BPR [Anatoliy BARANKEVICH, chairman]; Belarusian Popular Front or BNF [Vintsuk VYACHORKA]; Belarusian Social-Democrat Party or SDBP [Nikolay STATKEVICH, chairman]; Belarusian Social-Democratic Party or Hromada [Stanislav SHUSHKEVICH, chairman]; Belarusian Socialist Party [Vyacheslav KUZNETSOV]; Civic Accord Bloc (United Civic Party) or CAB [Anatol LIABEDZKA]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDPB [Sergei GAYDUKEVICH, chairman]; Party of Communists Belarusian or PKB [Sergei KALYAKIN, chairman]; Republican Party of Labor and Justice or RPPS [Anatoliy NETYLKIN, chairman]; Social-Democrat Party of Popular Accord or PPA [Leanid SECHKA]; Women's Party or "Nadezhda" [Valentina POLEVIKOVA, chairperson]
Belarus Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Belarus International organization participation CEI, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, NAM (observer), NSG, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)
Belarus Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Mikhail KHVOSTOV chancery: 1619 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 consulate(s) general: New York FAX: [1] (202) 986-1805 telephone: [1] (202) 986-1604
Belarus Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Michael G. KOZAK embassy: 46 Starovilenskaya St., Minsk 220002 mailing address: PSC 78, Box B Minsk, APO 09723 telephone: [375] (17) 210-12-83 FAX: [375] (17) 234-7853
Belarus Flag description red horizontal band (top) and green horizontal band one-half the width of the red band; a white vertical stripe on the hoist side bears a Belarusian national ornament in red
Belarus Economy - overview Belarus has seen little structural reform since 1995, when President LUKASHENKO launched the country on the path of "market socialism." In keeping with this policy, LUKASHENKO reimposed administrative controls over prices and currency exchange rates and expanded the state's right to intervene in the management of private enterprise. In addition to the burdens imposed by high inflation and persistent trade deficits, businesses have been subject to pressure on the part of central and local governments, e.g., arbitrary changes in regulations, numerous rigorous inspections, retroactive application of new business regulations, and arrests of "disruptive" businessmen and factory owners. A wide range of redistributive policies has helped those at the bottom of the ladder. Close relations with Russia, possibly leading to reunion, color the pattern of economic developments. For the time being, Belarus remains self-isolated from the West and its open-market economies.
Belarus GDP purchasing power parity - $90.19 billion (2002 est.)
Belarus GDP - real growth rate 4.7% (2002 est.)
Belarus GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $8,700 (2002 est.)
Belarus GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 15% industry: 40% services: 45% (2002 est.)
Belarus Population below poverty line 22% (1995 est.)
Belarus Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 5.1% highest 10%: 20% (1998)
Belarus Distribution of family income - Gini index 21.7 (1998)
Belarus Inflation rate (consumer prices) 42.8% (2002 est.)
Belarus Labor force 4.8 million (2000)
Belarus Labor force - by occupation industry and construction NA%, agriculture and forestry NA%, services NA%
Belarus Unemployment rate 2.1% officially registered unemployed (December 2000); large number of underemployed workers
Belarus Budget revenues: $4 billion expenditures: $4.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $180 million (1997 est.)
Belarus Industries metal-cutting machine tools, tractors, trucks, earthmovers, motorcycles, television sets, chemical fibers, fertilizer, textiles, radios, refrigerators
Belarus Industrial production growth rate 2.5% (2002 est.)
Belarus Electricity - production 24.4 billion kWh (2001)
Belarus Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 99.5% hydro: 0.1% other: 0.4% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Belarus Electricity - consumption 26.69 billion kWh (2001)
Belarus Electricity - exports 300 million kWh (2001)
Belarus Electricity - imports 4.3 billion kWh (2001)
Belarus Oil - production 37,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Belarus Oil - consumption 230,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Belarus Oil - exports NA (2001)
Belarus Oil - imports NA (2001)
Belarus Natural gas - production 200 million cu m (2001 est.)
Belarus Natural gas - consumption 18 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Belarus Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Belarus Natural gas - imports 17.8 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Belarus Agriculture - products grain, potatoes, vegetables, sugar beets, flax; beef, milk
Belarus Exports $7.7 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Belarus Exports - commodities machinery and equipment, mineral products, chemicals, metals; textiles, foodstuffs
Belarus Exports - partners Russia 50.8%, Latvia 7.3%, Ukraine 6.3%, Lithuania 4.1%, Germany 4.1% (2002)
Belarus Imports $8.8 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Belarus Imports - commodities mineral products, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs, metals
Belarus Imports - partners Russia 68.2%, Germany 9.4%, Ukraine 3.2% (2002)
Belarus Debt - external $851 million (2001 est.)
Belarus Economic aid - recipient $194.3 million (1995)
Belarus Currency Belarusian ruble (BYB/BYR)
Belarus Currency code BYB/BYR
Belarus Exchange rates Belarusian rubles per US dollar - NA (2002), 1,390 (2001), 876.75 (2000), 248.8 (1999), 46.13 (1998)
Belarus Fiscal year calendar year
Belarus Telephones - main lines in use 2.313 million (1997)
Belarus Telephones - mobile cellular 8,167 (1997)
Belarus Telephone system general assessment: the Ministry of Telecommunications controls all telecommunications through its carrier (a joint stock company) Beltelcom which is a monopoly domestic: local - Minsk has a digital metropolitan network and a cellular NMT-450 network; waiting lists for telephones are long; local service outside Minsk is neglected and poor; intercity - Belarus has a partly developed fiber-optic backbone system presently serving at least 13 major cities (1998); Belarus's fiber optics form synchronous digital hierarchy rings through other countries' systems; an inadequate analog system remains operational international: Belarus is a member of the Trans-European Line (TEL), Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line, and has access to the Trans-Siberia Line (TSL); three fiber-optic segments provide connectivity to Latvia, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine; worldwide service is available to Belarus through this infrastructure; additional analog lines to Russia; Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik earth stations
Belarus Radio broadcast stations AM 28, FM 37, shortwave 11 (1998)
Belarus Television broadcast stations 47 (plus 27 repeaters) (1995)
Belarus Internet country code .by
Belarus Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 23 (2002)
Belarus Internet users 422,000 (2002)
Belarus Railways total: 5,523 km broad gauge: 5,523 km 1.520-m gauge (875 km electrified) (2002)
Belarus Highways total: 74,385 km paved: 66,203 km unpaved: 8,182 km (2000)
Belarus Waterways NA km; note - Belarus has extensive and widely used canal and river systems
Belarus Pipelines gas 4,519 km; oil 1,811 km; refined products 1,686 km (2003)
Belarus Ports and harbors Mazyr
Belarus Airports 124 (2002)
Belarus Airports - with paved runways total: 28 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 21 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Belarus Airports - with unpaved runways total: 96 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 914 to 1,523 m: 14 under 914 m: 67 (2002)
Belarus Military branches Army, Air Force (including air defense), Interior Ministry Troops, Border Guards
Belarus Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Belarus Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,756,572 (2003 est.)
Belarus Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 2,158,875 (2003 est.)
Belarus Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 86,654 (2003 est.)
Belarus Military expenditures - dollar figure $176.1 million (FY02)
Belarus Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.4% (FY02)
Belarus Disputes - international 1997 boundary treaty with Ukraine remains unratified over unresolved financial claims, preventing demarcation and encouraging illegal border crossing; boundaries with Latvia and Lithuania remain undemarcated despite European Union financial support
Belarus Illicit drugs limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for the domestic market; transshipment point for illicit drugs to and via Russia, and to the Baltics and Western Europe; lax money-laundering and banking regulations
Belgium Background Belgium became independent from the Netherlands in 1830 and was occupied by Germany during World Wars I and II. It has prospered in the past half century as a modern, technologically advanced European state and member of NATO and the EU. Tensions between the Dutch-speaking Flemings of the north and the French-speaking Walloons of the south have led in recent years to constitutional amendments granting these regions formal recognition and autonomy.
Belgium Location Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between France and the Netherlands
Belgium Geographic coordinates 50 50 N, 4 00 E
Belgium Map references Europe
Belgium Area total: 30,510 sq km land: 30,230 sq km water: 280 sq km
Belgium Area - comparative about the size of Maryland
Belgium Land boundaries total: 1,385 km border countries: France 620 km, Germany 167 km, Luxembourg 148 km, Netherlands 450 km
Belgium Coastline 66 km
Belgium Maritime claims continental shelf: median line with neighbors territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: median line with neighbors (extends about 68 km from coast)
Belgium Climate temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy
Belgium Terrain flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills, rugged mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast
Belgium Elevation extremes lowest point: North Sea 0 m highest point: Signal de Botrange 694 m
Belgium Natural resources coal, natural gas
Belgium Land use arable land: 25% permanent crops: 0% note: includes Luxembourg (1998 est.) other: 75%
Belgium Irrigated land 40 sq km (includes Luxembourg) (1998 est.)
Belgium Natural hazards flooding is a threat in areas of reclaimed coastal land, protected from the sea by concrete dikes
Belgium Environment - current issues the environment is exposed to intense pressures from human activities: urbanization, dense transportation network, industry, extensive animal breeding and crop cultivation; air and water pollution also have repercussions for neighboring countries; uncertainties regarding federal and regional responsibilities (now resolved) have slowed progress in tackling environmental challenges
Belgium Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Belgium Geography - note crossroads of Western Europe; majority of West European capitals within 1,000 km of Brussels, the seat of both the European Union and NATO
Belgium Population 10,289,088 (July 2003 est.)
Belgium Age structure 0-14 years: 17.2% (male 905,856; female 865,589) 15-64 years: 65.6% (male 3,400,419; female 3,346,182) 65 years and over: 17.2% (male 725,162; female 1,045,880) (2003 est.)
Belgium Median age total: 40 years male: 38.7 years female: 41.3 years (2002)
Belgium Population growth rate 0.14% (2003 est.)
Belgium Birth rate 10.45 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Belgium Death rate 10.07 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Belgium Net migration rate 0.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Belgium Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Belgium Infant mortality rate total: 4.57 deaths/1,000 live births female: 3.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 5.16 deaths/1,000 live births
Belgium Life expectancy at birth total population: 78.29 years male: 74.97 years female: 81.78 years (2003 est.)
Belgium Total fertility rate 1.62 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Belgium HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.2% (2001 est.)
Belgium HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 8,500 (2001 est.)
Belgium HIV/AIDS - deaths less than 100 (2001 est.)
Belgium Nationality noun: Belgian(s) adjective: Belgian
Belgium Ethnic groups Fleming 58%, Walloon 31%, mixed or other 11%
Belgium Religions Roman Catholic 75%, Protestant or other 25%
Belgium Languages Dutch (official) 60%, French (official) 40%, German (official) less than 1%, legally bilingual (Dutch and French)
Belgium Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 98% male: NA% female: NA%
Belgium Country name conventional long form: Kingdom of Belgium conventional short form: Belgium local short form: Belgique/Belgie local long form: Royaume de Belgique/Koninkrijk Belgie
Belgium Government type federal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarch
Belgium Capital Brussels
Belgium Administrative divisions 10 provinces (French: provinces, singular - province; Dutch: provincies, singular - provincie) and 3 regions* (French: regions; Dutch: gewesten); Antwerpen, Brabant Wallon, Brussels* (Bruxelles), Flanders*, Hainaut, Liege, Limburg, Luxembourg, Namur, Oost-Vlaanderen, Vlaams-Brabant, Wallonia*, West-Vlaanderen
Belgium Independence 4 October 1830 a provisional government declared independence from the Netherlands; 21 July 1831 the ascension of King Leopold I to the throne
Belgium National holiday 21 July (1831) ascension to the Throne of King Leopold I
Belgium Constitution 7 February 1831, last revised 14 July 1993; parliament approved a constitutional package creating a federal state
Belgium Legal system civil law system influenced by English constitutional theory; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Belgium Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Belgium Executive branch chief of state: King ALBERT II (since 9 August 1993); Heir Apparent Prince PHILIPPE, son of the monarch head of government: Prime Minister Guy VERHOFSTADT (since 13 July 1999) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch and approved by Parliament elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch and then approved by Parliament note: government coalition - VLD, MR, PS, SP, AGALEV, and ECOLO
Belgium Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of a Senate or Senaat in Dutch, Senat in French (71 seats; 40 members are directly elected by popular vote, 31 are indirectly elected; members serve four-year terms) and a Chamber of Deputies or Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers in Dutch, Chambre des Representants in French (150 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms) elections: Senate and Chamber of Deputies - last held 18 June 2003 (next to be held in NA May 2007) note: as a result of the 1993 constitutional revision that furthered devolution into a federal state, there are now three levels of government (federal, regional, and linguistic community) with a complex division of responsibilities; this reality leaves six governments each with its own legislative assembly; for other acronyms of the listed parties see the Political parties and leaders entry election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - SP.A-Spirit 15.5%, VLD 15.4%, CD & V 12.7%, PS 12.8%, MR 12.1%, VB 9.4%, CDH 5.6%; seats by party - SP.A-Spirit 7, VLD 7, CD & V 6, PS 6, MR 5, VB 5, CDH 2, other 2 (note - there are also 31 indirectly elected senators); Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - VLD 15.4%, SP.A-Spirit 14.9%, CD & V 13.3%, PS 13.0%, VB 11.6%, MR 11.4%, CDH 5.5%, Ecolo 3.1%; seats by party - VLD 25, SP.A-Spirit 23, CD & V 21, PS 25, VB 18, MR 24, CDH 8 Ecolo 4, other 2
Belgium Judicial branch Supreme Court of Justice or Hof van Cassatie (in Dutch) or Cour de Cassation (in French) (judges are appointed for life by the monarch, although selected by the Government)
Belgium Political parties and leaders AGALEV (Flemish Greens) [Dirk HOLEMANS]; Christian Democrats and Flemish or CD & V [Yves LETERME]; note - used to be the Flemish Christian Democrats or CVP; Ecolo (Francophone Greens) [Jean-Michel JAVAUK, Evelyne HUYTEBROECK, Claude BROUIR]; Flemish Liberal Democrats or VLD [Karel DE GUCHT]; Francophone Humanist and Democratic Center of CDH (used to be Social Christian Party or PSC) [Joelle MILQUET]; Francophone Reformist Movement or MR (used to be Liberal Reformation Party or PRL) [Antoine DUQUESNE]; Francophone Socialist Party or PS [Elio DI RUPO]; National Front or FN [Daniel FERET]; New Flemish Alliance or NVA [Geert BOURGEOIS]; note - new party that emerged after the demise of the People's Union or VU; Social Progressive Alternative Party or SP.A [Steve STEVAERT]; note - was Flemish Socialist Party or SP; Spirit [Els VAN WEERT]; note - new party that emerged after the demise of the People's Union or VU; Vlaams Blok or VB [Frank VANHECKE]; other minor parties
Belgium Political pressure groups and leaders Christian and Socialist Trade Unions; Federation of Belgian Industries; numerous other associations representing bankers, manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the legal and medical professions; various organizations represent the cultural interests of Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such as Pax Christi and groups representing immigrants
Belgium International organization participation ACCT, AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WADB (nonregional), WCL, WCO, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC
Belgium Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Franciskus VAN DAELE chancery: 3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York FAX: [1] (202) 333-3079 telephone: [1] (202) 333-6900
Belgium Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen Franklin BRAUER embassy: Regentlaan 27 Boulevard du Regent, B-1000 Brussels mailing address: PSC 82, Box 002, APO AE 09710 telephone: [32] (2) 508-2111 FAX: [32] (2) 511-2725
Belgium Flag description three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), yellow, and red; the design was based on the flag of France
Belgium Economy - overview This modern private enterprise economy has capitalized on its central geographic location, highly developed transport network, and diversified industrial and commercial base. Industry is concentrated mainly in the populous Flemish area in the north. With few natural resources, Belgium must import substantial quantities of raw materials and export a large volume of manufactures, making its economy unusually dependent on the state of world markets. Roughly three-quarters of its trade is with other EU countries. Public debt is about 100% of GDP, and the government has succeeded in balancing its budget. Belgium, together with 11 of its EU partners, began circulating the euro currency in January 2002. Economic growth in 2001-03 dropped sharply due to the global economic slowdown. Prospects for 2004 again depend largely on recovery in the EU and the US.
Belgium GDP purchasing power parity - $299.7 billion (2002 est.)
Belgium GDP - real growth rate 0.7% (2002 est.)
Belgium GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $29,200 (2002 est.)
Belgium GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 1.3% industry: 24.4% services: 74.3% (2001)
Belgium Population below poverty line 4%
Belgium Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3.2% highest 10%: 23% (1996)
Belgium Distribution of family income - Gini index 28.7 (1996)
Belgium Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.7% (2002 est.)
Belgium Labor force 4.44 million (2001)
Belgium Labor force - by occupation services 73%, industry 25%, agriculture 2% (1999 est.)
Belgium Unemployment rate 7.2% (2002 est.)
Belgium Budget revenues: $113.4 billion expenditures: $106 billion, including capital expenditures of $7.17 billion (2000)
Belgium Industries engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly, processed food and beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles, glass, petroleum, coal
Belgium Industrial production growth rate 4.5% (2000 est.)
Belgium Electricity - production 74.28 billion kWh (2001)
Belgium Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 38.4% hydro: 0.6% other: 1.8% (2001) nuclear: 59.3%
Belgium Electricity - consumption 78.18 billion kWh (2001)
Belgium Electricity - exports 6.712 billion kWh (2001)
Belgium Electricity - imports 15.82 billion kWh (2001)
Belgium Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Belgium Oil - consumption 595,100 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Belgium Oil - exports 450,000 bbl/day (2001)
Belgium Oil - imports 1.042 million bbl/day (2001)
Belgium Natural gas - production 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Belgium Natural gas - consumption 15.5 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Belgium Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Belgium Natural gas - imports 15.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Belgium Agriculture - products sugar beets, fresh vegetables, fruits, grain, tobacco; beef, veal, pork, milk
Belgium Exports $162 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Belgium Exports - commodities machinery and equipment, chemicals, diamonds, metals and metal products, foodstuffs
Belgium Exports - partners Germany 18.6%, France 16.3%, Netherlands 11.6%, UK 9.6%, US 7.9%, Italy 5.4% (2002)
Belgium Imports $152 billion f.o.b. (2001)
Belgium Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals and metal products, foodstuffs
Belgium Imports - partners Germany 17.2%, Netherlands 15.6%, France 12.8%, UK 7.3%, Ireland 7%, US 6.4%, Italy 4% (2002)
Belgium Debt - external $28.3 billion (1999 est.)
Belgium Economic aid - donor ODA, $764 million (1997)
Belgium Currency euro (EUR) note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Belgium Currency code EUR
Belgium Exchange rates euros per US dollar - 1.06 (2002), 1.12 (2001), 1.09 (2000), 0.94 (1999), 36.3 (1998)
Belgium Fiscal year calendar year
Belgium Telephones - main lines in use 4.769 million (1997)
Belgium Telephones - mobile cellular 974,494 (1997)
Belgium Telephone system general assessment: highly developed, technologically advanced, and completely automated domestic and international telephone and telegraph facilities domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; extensive cable network; limited microwave radio relay network international: 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat
Belgium Radio broadcast stations FM 79, AM 7, shortwave 1 (1998)
Belgium Television broadcast stations 25 (plus 10 repeaters) (1997)
Belgium Internet country code .be
Belgium Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 61 (2000)
Belgium Internet users 3.76 million (2002)
Belgium Railways total: 3,471 km standard gauge: 3,471 km 1.435-m gauge (2,631 km electrified) (2002)
Belgium Highways total: 148,216 km paved: 116,687 km (including 1,727 km of expressways) unpaved: 31,529 km (2000)
Belgium Waterways 1,570 km (route length in regular commercial use) (2001)
Belgium Pipelines gas 1,485 km; oil 158 km; refined products 535 km (2003)
Belgium Ports and harbors Antwerp (one of the world's busiest ports), Brugge, Gent, Hasselt, Liege, Mons, Namur, Oostende, Zeebrugge
Belgium Merchant marine total: 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 32,215 GRT/55,725 DWT ships by type: cargo 6, chemical tanker 10, petroleum tanker 4, includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Finland 1, Netherlands 3 (2002 est.)
Belgium Airports 42 (2002)
Belgium Airports - with paved runways total: 25 over 3,047 m: 6 2,438 to 3,047 m: 8 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 7 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
Belgium Airports - with unpaved runways total: 17 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m: 15 (2002)
Belgium Heliports 1 (2002)
Belgium Military branches Army, Navy, Air Components, Federal Police
Belgium Military manpower - military age 19 years of age (2003 est.)
Belgium Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,497,423 (2003 est.)
Belgium Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 2,059,131 (2003 est.)
Belgium Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 60,921 (2003 est.)
Belgium Military expenditures - dollar figure $3.077 billion (FY01/02)
Belgium Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.4% (FY01/02)
Belgium Disputes - international none
Belgium Illicit drugs growing producer of synthetic drugs; transit point for US-bound ecstasy; source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors; transshipment point for cocaine, heroin, hashish, and marijuana entering Western Europe; money laundering related to trafficking of drugs, automobiles, alcohol, and tobacco
Belize Background Territorial disputes between the UK and Guatemala delayed the independence of Belize (formerly British Honduras) until 1981. Guatemala refused to recognize the new nation until 1992. Tourism has become the mainstay of the economy. The country remains plagued by high unemployment, growing involvement in the South American drug trade, and increased urban crime.
Belize Location Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and Mexico
Belize Geographic coordinates 17 15 N, 88 45 W
Belize Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Belize Area total: 22,966 sq km water: 160 sq km land: 22,806 sq km
Belize Area - comparative slightly smaller than Massachusetts
Belize Land boundaries total: 516 km border countries: Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km
Belize Coastline 386 km
Belize Maritime claims exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM in the north, 3 NM in the south; note - from the mouth of the Sarstoon River to Ranguana Cay, Belize's territorial sea is 3 NM; according to Belize's Maritime Areas Act, 1992, the purpose of this limitation is to provide a framework for the negotiation of a definitive agreement on territorial differences with Guatemala
Belize Climate tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to November); dry season (February to May)
Belize Terrain flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south
Belize Elevation extremes lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Victoria Peak 1,160 m
Belize Natural resources arable land potential, timber, fish, hydropower
Belize Land use arable land: 2.81% permanent crops: 1.1% other: 96.09% (1998 est.)
Belize Irrigated land 30 sq km (1998 est.)
Belize Natural hazards frequent, devastating hurricanes (June to November) and coastal flooding (especially in south)
Belize Environment - current issues deforestation; water pollution from sewage, industrial effluents, agricultural runoff; solid and sewage waste disposal
Belize Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Belize Geography - note only country in Central America without a coastline on the North Pacific Ocean
Belize Population 266,440 (July 2003 est.)
Belize Age structure 0-14 years: 41.1% (male 55,880; female 53,706) 15-64 years: 55.3% (male 74,612; female 72,813) 65 years and over: 3.5% (male 4,571; female 4,858) (2003 est.)
Belize Median age total: 18.9 years male: 18.8 years female: 19 years (2002)
Belize Population growth rate 2.44% (2003 est.)
Belize Birth rate 30.46 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Belize Death rate 6.05 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Belize Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Belize Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Belize Infant mortality rate total: 27.07 deaths/1,000 live births female: 23.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 30.56 deaths/1,000 live births
Belize Life expectancy at birth total population: 67.36 years male: 65.19 years female: 69.63 years (2003 est.)
Belize Total fertility rate 3.86 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Belize HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 2% (2001 est.)
Belize HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 2,500 (2001 est.)
Belize HIV/AIDS - deaths 300 (2001 est.)
Belize Nationality noun: Belizean(s) adjective: Belizean
Belize Ethnic groups mestizo 48.7%, Creole 24.9%, Maya 10.6%, Garifuna 6.1%, other 9.7%
Belize Religions Roman Catholic 49.6%, Protestant 27% (Anglican 5.3%, Methodist 3.5%, Mennonite 4.1%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5.2%, Pentecostal 7.4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.5%), none 9.4%, other 14% (2000)
Belize Languages English (official), Spanish, Mayan, Garifuna (Carib), Creole
Belize Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 94.1% male: 94.1% female: 94.1% (2003 est.)
Belize Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Belize former: British Honduras
Belize Government type parliamentary democracy
Belize Capital Belmopan
Belize Administrative divisions 6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo
Belize Independence 21 September 1981 (from UK)
Belize National holiday Independence Day, 21 September (1981)
Belize Constitution 21 September 1981
Belize Legal system English law
Belize Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Belize Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Colville YOUNG, Sr. (since 17 November 1993) head of government: Prime Minister Said Wilbert MUSA (since 28 August 1998); Deputy Prime Minister John BRICENO (since 1 September 1998) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister
Belize Legislative branch bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (12 members appointed by the governor general - six on the advice of the prime minister, three on the advice of the leader of the opposition, and one each on the advice of the Belize Council of Churches and Evangelical Association of Churches, the Belize Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the Belize Better Business Bureau, and the National Trade Union Congress and the Civil Society Steering Committee; members are appointed for five-year terms) and the House of Representatives (29 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: House of Representatives - last held 5 March 2003 (next to be held NA March 2008) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PUP 21, UDP 8
Belize Judicial branch Supreme Court (the chief justice is appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister)
Belize Political parties and leaders People's United Party or PUP [Said MUSA]; United Democratic Party or UDP [Dean BARROW, party leader; Douglas SINGH, party chairman]
Belize Political pressure groups and leaders Society for the Promotion of Education and Research or SPEAR [Adele CATZIM]
Belize International organization participation ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Belize Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Lisa M. SHOMAN consulate(s) general: Los Angeles FAX: [1] (202) 332-6888 telephone: [1] (202) 332-9636 chancery: 2535 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Belize Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Russell F. FREEMAN embassy: 29 Gabourel Lane and Hutson Street, Belize City mailing address: P. O. Box 286, Unit 7401, APO AA 34025 telephone: [501] 227-7161 through 7163 FAX: [501] 30802
Belize Flag description blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the bottom edges; centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms; the coat of arms features a shield flanked by two workers in front of a mahogany tree with the related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I Flourish in the Shade) on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a green garland
Belize Economy - overview In this small, essentially private enterprise economy the tourism industry is the number one foreign exchange earner followed by cane sugar, citrus, marine products, bananas, and garments. The government's expansionary monetary and fiscal policies, initiated in September 1998, led to GDP growth of 6.5% in 1999, 10.8% in 2000, 4.6% in 2001, and 3.7% in 2002. Major concerns continue to be the sizable trade deficit and foreign debt. A key short-term objective remains the reduction of poverty with the help of international donors.
Belize GDP purchasing power parity - $1.28 billion (2002 est.)
Belize GDP - real growth rate 3.7% (2002 est.)
Belize GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $4,900 (2002 est.)
Belize GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 18% industry: 24% services: 58% (2001 est.)
Belize Population below poverty line 33% (1999 est.)
Belize Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Belize Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.9% (2002 est.)
Belize Labor force 90,000 note: shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical personnel
Belize Labor force - by occupation agriculture 27%, industry 18%, services 55% (2001 est.)
Belize Unemployment rate 9.1% (2002)
Belize Budget revenues: $224 million expenditures: $209 million, including capital expenditures of $70 million (2002 est.)
Belize Industries garment production, food processing, tourism, construction
Belize Industrial production growth rate 4.6% (1999)
Belize Electricity - production 199.5 million kWh (2001)
Belize Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 59.9% hydro: 40.1% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Belize Electricity - consumption 185.5 million kWh (2001)
Belize Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Belize Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Belize Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Belize Oil - consumption 5,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Belize Oil - exports NA (2001)
Belize Oil - imports NA (2001)
Belize Agriculture - products bananas, coca, citrus, sugar; fish, cultured shrimp; lumber; garments
Belize Exports $290 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Belize Exports - commodities sugar, bananas, citrus, clothing, fish products, molasses, wood
Belize Exports - partners US 40.5%, UK 23.2%, Peru 8.3% (2002)
Belize Imports $430 million c.i.f. (2002 est.)
Belize Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods; fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals; food, beverages, tobacco
Belize Imports - partners US 35.7%, Mexico 10.1%, Netherlands Antilles 6.1%, Japan 5.9%, Cuba 5.7%, UK 5.4% (2002)
Belize Debt - external $475 million (2001 est.)
Belize Economic aid - recipient $NA
Belize Currency Belizean dollar (BZD)
Belize Currency code BZD
Belize Exchange rates Belizean dollars per US dollar - 2 (2002), 2 (2001), 2 (2000), 2 (1999), 2 (1998)
Belize Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Belize Telephones - main lines in use 31,000 (1997)
Belize Telephones - mobile cellular 3,023 (1997)
Belize Telephone system general assessment: above-average system domestic: trunk network depends primarily on microwave radio relay international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Belize Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 12, shortwave 0 (1998)
Belize Television broadcast stations 2 (1997)
Belize Internet country code .bz
Belize Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 2 (2000)
Belize Internet users 18,000 (2002)
Belize Railways 0 km
Belize Highways total: 2,872 km paved: 488 km unpaved: 2,384 km (1999 est.)
Belize Waterways 825 km (river network used by shallow-draft craft; seasonally navigable)
Belize Ports and harbors Belize City, Big Creek, Corozol, Punta Gorda
Belize Merchant marine total: 292 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,030,141 GRT/1,499,777 DWT ships by type: bulk 15, cargo 200, chemical tanker 7, combination ore/oil 1, container 12, petroleum tanker 31, refrigerated cargo 18, roll on/roll off 5, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 1 note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Albania 2, Belgium 3, British Virgin Islands 6, Cambodia 1, China 38, Cyprus 1, Ecuador 1, Egypt 1, Equatorial Guinea 1, Eritrea 1, Estonia 7, Germany 3, Greece 4, Grenada 1, Honduras 1, Hong Kong 20, Indonesia 6, Italy 2, Japan 4, Jordan 1, Lebanon 1, Liberia 5, Malaysia 3, Malta 2, Man, Isle of 1, Marshall Islands 13, Mexico 1, Netherlands 1, Nigeria 1, Panama 12, Philippines 4, Portugal 1, Romania 1, Russia 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Saudi Arabia 1, Singapore 22, South Korea 10, Spain 4, Switzerland 1, Taiwan 1, Thailand 6, Tunisia 1, Turkey 1, Ukraine 3, United Arab Emirates 9, United Kingdom 2, United States 4, Virgin Islands (UK) 6, Yemen 1 (2002 est.)
Belize Airports 42 (2002)
Belize Airports - with paved runways total: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Belize Airports - with unpaved runways total: 38 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 10 under 914 m: 27 (2002)
Belize Military branches Belize Defense Force (includes Army, Maritime Wing, Air Wing, and Volunteer Guard)
Belize Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Belize Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 66,332 (2003 est.)
Belize Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 39,337 (2003 est.)
Belize Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 3,046 (2003 est.)
Belize Military expenditures - dollar figure $7.7 million (FY00/01)
Belize Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.87% (FY00/01)
Belize Disputes - international Guatemala has claimed half of southern Belize; Guatemalan squatters continue to settle along the border despite a 2000 agreement; OAS brokered a Differendum in 2002 that created a small adjustment to land boundary, a large Guatemalan maritime corridor in the Caribbean, a joint ecological park for disputed Sapodilla Cays, and a substantial US-UK financial package, but agreement was not brought to a popular referendum
Belize Illicit drugs major transshipment point for cocaine; small-scale illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; some money-laundering activity related to offshore sector
Benin Background Present day Benin was the site of Dahomey, a prominent West African kingdom that rose in the 15th century. The territory became a French Colony in 1872 and achieved independence on 1 August 1960, as the Republic of Benin. A succession of military governments ended in 1972 with the rise to power of Mathieu KEREKOU and the establishment of a government based on Marxist-Leninist principles. A move to representative government began in 1989. Two years later, free elections ushered in former Prime Minister Nicephore SOGLO as president, marking the first successful transfer of power in Africa from a dictatorship to a democracy. KEREKOU was returned to power by elections held in 1996 and 2001, though some irregularities were alleged.
Benin Location Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Nigeria and Togo
Benin Geographic coordinates 9 30 N, 2 15 E
Benin Map references Africa
Benin Area total: 112,620 sq km water: 2,000 sq km land: 110,620 sq km
Benin Area - comparative slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Benin Land boundaries total: 1,989 km border countries: Burkina Faso 306 km, Niger 266 km, Nigeria 773 km, Togo 644 km
Benin Coastline 121 km
Benin Maritime claims territorial sea: 200 NM
Benin Climate tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Benin Terrain mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains
Benin Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mont Sokbaro 658 m
Benin Natural resources small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble, timber
Benin Land use arable land: 15.28% permanent crops: 1.36% other: 83.36% (1998 est.)
Benin Irrigated land 120 sq km (1998 est.)
Benin Natural hazards hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north from December to March
Benin Environment - current issues inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching threatens wildlife populations; deforestation; desertification
Benin Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Benin Geography - note sandbanks create difficult access to a coast with no natural harbors, river mouths, or islands
Benin Population 7,041,490 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2003 est.)
Benin Age structure 0-14 years: 47% (male 1,668,817; female 1,638,291) 15-64 years: 50.7% (male 1,739,517; female 1,834,231) 65 years and over: 2.3% (male 67,504; female 93,130) (2003 est.)
Benin Median age total: 16.4 years male: 15.9 years female: 16.9 years (2002)
Benin Population growth rate 2.95% (2003 est.)
Benin Birth rate 43.15 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Benin Death rate 13.65 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Benin Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Benin Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Benin Infant mortality rate total: 86.76 deaths/1,000 live births female: 81.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 91.79 deaths/1,000 live births
Benin Life expectancy at birth total population: 51.08 years male: 50.35 years female: 51.84 years (2003 est.)
Benin Total fertility rate 6.04 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Benin HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 3.6% (2001 est.)
Benin HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 120,000 (2001 est.)
Benin HIV/AIDS - deaths 8,100 (2001 est.)
Benin Nationality noun: Beninese (singular and plural) adjective: Beninese
Benin Ethnic groups African 99% (42 ethnic groups, most important being Fon, Adja, Yoruba, Bariba), Europeans 5,500
Benin Religions indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 30%, Muslim 20%
Benin Languages French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common vernaculars in south), tribal languages (at least six major ones in north)
Benin Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 40.9% male: 56.2% female: 26.5% (2000)
Benin Country name conventional long form: Republic of Benin conventional short form: Benin local short form: Benin former: Dahomey local long form: Republique du Benin
Benin Government type republic under multiparty democratic rule; dropped Marxism-Leninism December 1989; democratic reforms adopted February 1990; transition to multiparty system completed 4 April 1991
Benin Capital Porto-Novo is the official capital; Cotonou is the seat of government
Benin Administrative divisions 12 departments; Alibori, Atakora, Atlantique, Borgou, Collines, Kouffo, Donga, Littoral, Mono, Oueme, Plateau, Zou
Benin Independence 1 August 1960 (from France)
Benin National holiday National Day, 1 August (1960)
Benin Constitution December 1990
Benin Legal system based on French civil law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Benin Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Benin Executive branch chief of state: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 April 1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 April 1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections: president reelected by popular vote for a five-year term; runoff election held 22 March 2001 (next to be held NA March 2006) note: the four top-ranking contenders following the first-round presidential elections were: Mathieu KEREKOU (incumbent) 45.4%, Nicephore SOGOLO (former president) 27.1%, Adrien HOUNGBEDJI (National Assembly Speaker) 12.6%, and Bruno AMOUSSOU (Minister of State) 8.6%; the second-round balloting, originally scheduled for 18 March 2001, was postponed four days because both SOGOLO and HOUNGBEDJI withdrew alleging electoral fraud; this left KEREKOU to run against his own Minister of State, AMOUSSOU, in what was termed a "friendly match" election results: Mathieu KEREKOU reelected president; percent of vote - Mathieu KEREKOU 84.1%, Bruno AMOUSSOU 15.9%
Benin Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (83 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms) election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Presidential Movement 52, opposition (PRB, PRD, E'toile, and 5 other small parties) 31 elections: last held 30 March 2003 (next to be held NA March 2007)
Benin Judicial branch Constitutional Court or Cour Constitutionnelle; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; High Court of Justice
Benin Political parties and leaders African Congress for Renewal or DUNYA [Saka SALEY]; African Movement for Democracy and Progress or MADEP [Sefou FAGBOHOUN]; Alliance of the Social Democratic Party or PSD [Bruno AMOUSSOU]; Coalition of Democratic Forces [Gatien HOUNGBEDJI]; Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Adrien HOUNGBEDJI]; Front for Renewal and Development or FARD-ALAFIA [Jerome Sakia KINA]; Impulse for Progress and Democracy or IPD [Bertin BORNA]; Key Force or FC [leader NA]; Presidential Movement (UBF, MADEP, FC, IDP, and 4 other small parties); Renaissance Party du Benin or PRB [Nicephore SOGLO]; The Star Alliance (Alliance E'toile) [Sacca LAFIA]; Union of Tomorrow's Benin or UBF [Bruno AMOUSSOU] note: approximately 20 additional minor parties
Benin Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Benin International organization participation ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Benin Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Cyrille Segbe OGUIN FAX: [1] (202) 265-1996 telephone: [1] (202) 232-6656 chancery: 2124 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
Benin Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Wayne NEILL embassy: Rue Caporal Bernard Anani, Cotonou mailing address: 01 B. P. 2012, Cotonou telephone: [229] 30-06-50 FAX: [229] 30-06-70
Benin Flag description two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red with a vertical green band on the hoist side
Benin Economy - overview The economy of Benin remains underdeveloped and dependent on subsistence agriculture, cotton production, and regional trade. Growth in real output has averaged a stable 5% in the past six years, but rapid population rise has offset much of this increase. Inflation has subsided over the past several years. In order to raise growth still further, Benin plans to attract more foreign investment, place more emphasis on tourism, facilitate the development of new food processing systems and agricultural products, and encourage new information and communication technology. The 2001 privatization policy should continue in telecommunications, water, electricity, and agriculture in spite of initial government reluctance. The Paris Club and bilateral creditors have eased the external debt situation, while pressing for speeded-up structural reforms.
Benin GDP purchasing power parity - $7.38 billion (2002 est.)
Benin GDP - real growth rate 6% (2002 est.)
Benin GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,100 (2002 est.)
Benin GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 38% industry: 15% services: 47% (2002 est.)
Benin Population below poverty line 37% (2001 est.)
Benin Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Benin Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.3% (2002 est.)
Benin Labor force NA
Benin Unemployment rate NA%
Benin Budget revenues: $377.4 million expenditures: $561.8 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001)
Benin Industries textiles, food processing, chemical production, construction materials (2001)
Benin Industrial production growth rate 8.3% (2001 est.)
Benin Electricity - production 274.3 million kWh (2001)
Benin Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 14.2% hydro: 85.8% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Benin Electricity - consumption 631.1 million kWh (2001)
Benin Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Benin Electricity - imports 376 million kWh (2001)
Benin Oil - production 700 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Benin Oil - consumption 11,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Benin Oil - exports NA (2001)
Benin Oil - imports NA (2001)
Benin Oil - proved reserves 4.105 million bbl (37257)
Benin Natural gas - proved reserves 608.8 million cu m (37257)
Benin Agriculture - products cotton, corn, cassava (tapioca), yams, beans, palm oil, peanuts, livestock (2001)
Benin Exports $207 million f.o.b. (2002)
Benin Exports - commodities cotton, crude oil, palm products, cocoa
Benin Exports - partners India 25%, Italy 11.1%, Indonesia 7.4%, China 7.2%, Thailand 6.7%, Brazil 6.1%, UK 4.4%, Niger 4% (2002)
Benin Imports $479 million c.i.f. (2002)
Benin Imports - commodities foodstuffs, capital goods, petroleum products
Benin Imports - partners China 30.7%, France 15.7%, UK 4.8%, Italy 4.2% (2002)
Benin Debt - external $1.6 billion (2000)
Benin Economic aid - recipient $342.6 million (2000)
Benin Currency Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Benin Currency code XOF
Benin Exchange rates Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 696.99 (2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.7 (1999), 589.95 (1998)
Benin Fiscal year calendar year
Benin Telephones - main lines in use 51,000 (2000)
Benin Telephones - mobile cellular 55,500 (2000)
Benin Telephone system general assessment: NA domestic: fair system of open-wire, microwave radio relay, and cellular connections international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); submarine cable
Benin Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (2000)
Benin Television broadcast stations 1;; (2001)
Benin Internet country code .bj
Benin Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 4 (2002)
Benin Internet users 25,000 (2002)
Benin Railways total: 578 km narrow gauge: 578 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)
Benin Highways total: 6,787 km paved: 1,357 km (including 10 km of expressways) unpaved: 5,430 km (1999 est.)
Benin Waterways streams navigable along small sections, important only locally
Benin Ports and harbors Cotonou, Porto-Novo
Benin Merchant marine none (2002 est.)
Benin Airports 5 (2002)
Benin Airports - with paved runways total: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)
Benin Airports - with unpaved runways total: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2002)
Benin Military branches Armed Forces (including Army, Navy, Air Force), National Gendarmerie
Benin Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Benin Military manpower - availability note: both sexes are liable for military service females age 15-49: 1,536,036 (2003 est.) males age 15-49: 1,597,562
Benin Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 805,603 females age 15-49: 809,961 (2003 est.)
Benin Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 75,021 females: 78,998 (2003 est.)
Benin Military expenditures - dollar figure $80.8 million (FY02)
Benin Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.7% (FY02)
Benin Disputes - international two villages are in dispute along the border with Burkina Faso; much of Benin-Niger boundary, including tripoint with Nigeria, remains undemarcated, but states accept 2001 arbitration over disputed Niger River islands; several villages along the Okpara River are in dispute with Nigeria; in 2001, Benin claimed Togo moved the boundary stones - joint commission presently resurveying the boundary
Benin Illicit drugs transshipment point for narcotics associated with Nigerian trafficking organizations and most commonly destined for Western Europe and the US; vulnerable to money laundering due to a poorly regulated financial infrastructure
Bermuda Background Bermuda was first settled in 1609 by shipwrecked English colonists headed for Virginia. Tourism to the island to escape North American winters first developed in Victorian times. Tourism continues to be important to the island's economy, although international business has overtaken it in recent years. Bermuda has developed into a highly successful offshore financial center. A referendum on independence was soundly defeated in 1995.
Bermuda Location North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, east of North Carolina (US)
Bermuda Geographic coordinates 32 20 N, 64 45 W
Bermuda Map references North America
Bermuda Area total: 53.3 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 53.3 sq km
Bermuda Area - comparative about one-third the size of Washington, DC
Bermuda Land boundaries 0 km
Bermuda Coastline 103 km
Bermuda Maritime claims exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
Bermuda Climate subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter
Bermuda Terrain low hills separated by fertile depressions
Bermuda Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Town Hill 76 m
Bermuda Natural resources limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism
Bermuda Land use arable land: 6% permanent crops: 0% other: 94% (55% developed, 45% rural/open space) (1998 est.)
Bermuda Irrigated land NA sq km
Bermuda Natural hazards hurricanes (June to November)
Bermuda Environment - current issues asbestos disposal; water pollution; preservation of open space; sustainable development
Bermuda Geography - note consists of about 138 coral islands and islets with ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land was leased by US Government from 1941 to 1995
Bermuda Population 64,482 (July 2003 est.)
Bermuda Age structure 0-14 years: 19.2% (male 6,195; female 6,205) 15-64 years: 69.3% (male 22,110; female 22,574) 65 years and over: 11.5% (male 3,215; female 4,183) (2003 est.)
Bermuda Median age total: 38.7 years male: 37.8 years female: 39.6 years (2002)
Bermuda Population growth rate 0.72% (2003 est.)
Bermuda Birth rate 12.13 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bermuda Death rate 7.46 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bermuda Net migration rate 2.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bermuda Sex ratio at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Bermuda Infant mortality rate total: 9.05 deaths/1,000 live births female: 7.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 10.77 deaths/1,000 live births
Bermuda Life expectancy at birth total population: 77.41 years male: 75.38 years female: 79.49 years (2003 est.)
Bermuda Total fertility rate 1.9 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Bermuda HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate NA%
Bermuda HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
Bermuda HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Bermuda Nationality noun: Bermudian(s) adjective: Bermudian
Bermuda Ethnic groups black 58%, white 36%, other 6%
Bermuda Religions non-Anglican Protestant 39%, Anglican 27%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 19%
Bermuda Languages English (official), Portuguese
Bermuda Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 98% male: 98% female: 99% (1970 est.)
Bermuda Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Bermuda former: Somers Islands
Bermuda Dependency status overseas territory of the UK
Bermuda Government type parliamentary British overseas territory with internal self-government
Bermuda Capital Hamilton
Bermuda Administrative divisions 9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint George's, Sandys, Smith's, Southampton, Warwick
Bermuda Independence none (overseas territory of the UK)
Bermuda National holiday Bermuda Day, 24 May
Bermuda Constitution 8 June 1968, amended 1989
Bermuda Legal system English law
Bermuda Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Bermuda Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Sir John VEREKER (since NA April 2002) head of government: Premier Alex SCOTT (since 24 July 2003) cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed premier by the governor
Bermuda Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (an 11-member body appointed by the governor, the premier, and the opposition) and the House of Assembly (36 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last general election held 24 July 2003 (next to be held NA July 2008) election results: percent of vote by party - PLP 51.7%, UBP 48%; seats by party - PLP 22, UBP 14
Bermuda Judicial branch Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrate Courts
Bermuda Political parties and leaders National Liberal Party or NLP [Dessaline WALDRON]; Progressive Labor Party or PLP [Jennifer SMITH]; United Bermuda Party or UBP [Chairman Wayne FURBERT]
Bermuda Political pressure groups and leaders Bermuda Employer's Union [Eddie SAINTS]; Bermuda Industrial Union or BIU [Derrick BURGESS]; Bermuda Public Services Association or BPSA [leader NA]; Bermuda Union of Teachers [Michael CHARLES]
Bermuda International organization participation Caricom (observer), ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), IOC, WCO
Bermuda Diplomatic representation in the US none (overseas territory of the UK)
Bermuda Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Consul General Denis Patrick COLEMAN, Jr. consulate(s) general: Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire DVO3 mailing address: P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; American Consulate General Hamilton, Department of State, 5300 Hamilton Place, Washington, DC 20520-5300 telephone: [1] (441) 295-1342 FAX: [1] (441) 295-1592, [1] (441) 296-9233
Bermuda Flag description red, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (white and green shield with a red lion holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag
Bermuda Economy - overview Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, with its economy primarily based on providing financial services for international business and luxury facilities for tourists. The effects of 11 September 2001 have had both positive and negative ramifications for Bermuda. On the positive side, a number of new reinsurance companies have located on the island, contributing to the expansion of an already robust international business sector. On the negative side, Bermuda's tourism industry - which derives over 80% of its visitors from the US - has been severely hit as American tourists have chosen not to travel. Tourism rebounded somewhat in 2002, but remains below the pre-11 September level. Most capital equipment and food must be imported. Bermuda's industrial sector is small, although construction continues to be important. Agriculture is limited, only 6% of the land being arable.
Bermuda GDP purchasing power parity - $2.25 billion (2002 est.)
Bermuda GDP - real growth rate 0.5% (2002 est.)
Bermuda GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $35,200 (2002 est.)
Bermuda GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 1% industry: 10% services: 89% (2002 est.)
Bermuda Population below poverty line NA%
Bermuda Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Bermuda Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.3% (July 2002)
Bermuda Labor force 37,472 (2000)
Bermuda Labor force - by occupation clerical 22%, services 20%, laborers 17%, professional and technical 17%, administrative and managerial 13%, sales 8%, agriculture and fishing 3% (2000 est.)
Bermuda Unemployment rate 4.5% (1993)
Bermuda Budget revenues: $609.5 million expenditures: $574.6 million, including capital expenditures of $54.8 million (FY 00/01)
Bermuda Industries tourism, international business, light manufacturing
Bermuda Industrial production growth rate NA%
Bermuda Electricity - production 643.7 million kWh (2001)
Bermuda Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Bermuda Electricity - consumption 598.6 million kWh (2001)
Bermuda Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Bermuda Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Bermuda Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bermuda Oil - consumption 4,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bermuda Oil - exports NA (2001)
Bermuda Oil - imports NA (2001)
Bermuda Agriculture - products bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy products
Bermuda Exports $51 million (2000)
Bermuda Exports - commodities reexports of pharmaceuticals
Bermuda Exports - partners France 77.4%, UK 2.8%, US 2.4% (2002)
Bermuda Imports $719 million (2000)
Bermuda Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, chemicals, food and live animals
Bermuda Imports - partners Kazakhstan 30.9%, France 24.7%, Italy 10.5%, US 9.7%, South Korea 8.4%, Mexico 4.3% (2002)
Bermuda Debt - external $145 million (FY 99/00)
Bermuda Economic aid - recipient $NA
Bermuda Currency Bermudian dollar (BMD)
Bermuda Currency code BMD
Bermuda Exchange rates Bermudian dollar per US dollar - 1.0000 (fixed rate pegged to the US dollar)
Bermuda Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Bermuda Telephones - main lines in use 52,000 (1997)
Bermuda Telephones - mobile cellular 7,980 (1996)
Bermuda Telephone system general assessment: NA domestic: modern, fully automatic telephone system international: 3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Bermuda Radio broadcast stations AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)
Bermuda Television broadcast stations 3 (1997)
Bermuda Internet country code .bm
Bermuda Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 20 (2000)
Bermuda Internet users 25,000 (2000)
Bermuda Railways 0 km
Bermuda Highways total: 450 km paved: 450 km note: public roads - 209 km; private roads - 241 km (2002) unpaved: 0 km
Bermuda Waterways none
Bermuda Ports and harbors Hamilton, Saint George's, Dockyard
Bermuda Merchant marine total: 93 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 4,993,227 GRT/7,089,760 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Croatia 5, Denmark 2, Germany 1, Greece 1, Hong Kong 9, Indonesia 1, Norway 2, Sweden 11, United Kingdom 52, United States 13 (2002 est.) ships by type: bulk 25, cargo 4, chemical tanker 1, container 14, liquefied gas 9, passenger 5, petroleum tanker 11, refrigerated cargo 13, roll on/roll off 7, short-sea passenger 4
Bermuda Airports 1 (2002)
Bermuda Airports - with paved runways total: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2002)
Bermuda Military branches no regular indigenous military forces; Bermuda Regiment, Bermuda Police Force, Bermuda Reserve Constabulary
Bermuda Military expenditures - dollar figure $4.028 million (January 2002)
Bermuda Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.11% (FY00/01)
Bermuda Military - note defense is the responsibility of the UK
Bermuda Disputes - international none
Bhutan Background In 1865, Britain and Bhutan signed the Treaty of Sinchulu, under which Bhutan would receive an annual subsidy in exchange for ceding some border land. Under British influence, a monarchy was set up in 1907; three years later, a treaty was signed whereby the British agreed not to interfere in Bhutanese internal affairs and Bhutan allowed Britain to direct its foreign affairs. This role was assumed by independent India after 1947. Two years later, a formal Indo-Bhutanese accord returned the areas of Bhutan annexed by the British, formalized the annual subsidies the country received, and defined India's responsibilities in defense and foreign relations. A refugee issue of some 100,000 Bhutanese in Nepal remains unresolved; 90% of the refugees are housed in seven United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) camps. Maoist Assamese separatists from India, who have established themselves in the southeast portion of Bhutan, have drawn Indian cross-border incursions.
Bhutan Location Southern Asia, between China and India
Bhutan Geographic coordinates 27 30 N, 90 30 E
Bhutan Map references Asia
Bhutan Area total: 47,000 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 47,000 sq km
Bhutan Area - comparative about half the size of Indiana
Bhutan Land boundaries total: 1,075 km border countries: China 470 km, India 605 km
Bhutan Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Bhutan Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Bhutan Climate varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas
Bhutan Terrain mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna
Bhutan Elevation extremes lowest point: Drangme Chhu 97 m highest point: Kula Kangri 7,553 m
Bhutan Natural resources timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide
Bhutan Land use arable land: 2.98% permanent crops: 0.43% other: 96.59% (1998 est.)
Bhutan Irrigated land 400 sq km (1998 est.)
Bhutan Natural hazards violent storms from the Himalayas are the source of the country's name which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon; frequent landslides during the rainy season
Bhutan Environment - current issues soil erosion; limited access to potable water
Bhutan Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Bhutan Geography - note landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes
Bhutan Population 2,139,549 note: other estimates range as low as 810,000 (July 2003 est.)
Bhutan Age structure 0-14 years: 39.6% (male 438,784; female 407,919) 15-64 years: 56.4% (male 621,666; female 585,550) 65 years and over: 4% (male 43,262; female 42,368) (2003 est.)
Bhutan Median age total: 20.1 years male: 19.9 years female: 20.3 years (2002)
Bhutan Population growth rate 2.14% (2003 est.)
Bhutan Birth rate 34.82 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bhutan Death rate 13.47 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bhutan Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bhutan Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.02 male(s)/female total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Bhutan Infant mortality rate total: 104.68 deaths/1,000 live births female: 106.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 102.49 deaths/1,000 live births
Bhutan Life expectancy at birth total population: 53.58 years male: 53.9 years female: 53.25 years (2003 est.)
Bhutan Total fertility rate 4.94 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Bhutan HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
Bhutan HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS less than 100 (1999 est.)
Bhutan HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Bhutan Nationality noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural) adjective: Bhutanese
Bhutan Ethnic groups Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35% (includes Lhotsampas--one of several Nepalese ethnic groups), indigenous or migrant tribes 15%
Bhutan Religions Lamaistic Buddhist 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced Hinduism 25%
Bhutan Languages Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects, Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects
Bhutan Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 42.2% male: 56.2% female: 28.1% (1995 est.)
Bhutan Country name conventional long form: Kingdom of Bhutan conventional short form: Bhutan
Bhutan Government type monarchy; special treaty relationship with India
Bhutan Capital Thimphu
Bhutan Administrative divisions 18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural); Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang, Dagana, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang, Tashigang, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang note: there may be two new districts named Gasa and Yangtse
Bhutan Independence 8 August 1949 (from India)
Bhutan National holiday National Day (Ugyen WANGCHUCK became first hereditary king), 17 December (1907)
Bhutan Constitution no written constitution or bill of rights; note - the King commissioned a committee to draft a constitution in 2001, but has yet to be approved
Bhutan Legal system based on Indian law and English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Bhutan Suffrage each family has one vote in village-level elections
Bhutan Executive branch chief of state: King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972) elections: none; the monarch is hereditary, but democratic reforms in July 1998 grant the National Assembly authority to remove the monarch with two-thirds vote head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Lyonpo Jigme Y. THINLEY (since 30 August 2003) cabinet: Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog) nominated by the monarch, approved by the National Assembly; members serve fixed, five-year terms; note - there is also a Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde), members nominated by the monarch
Bhutan Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Tshogdu (150 seats; 105 elected from village constituencies, 10 represent religious bodies, and 35 are designated by the monarch to represent government and other secular interests; members serve three-year terms) elections: local elections last held November 2002 (next to be held NA 2005) election results: NA
Bhutan Judicial branch Supreme Court of Appeal (the monarch); High Court (judges appointed by the monarch)
Bhutan Political parties and leaders no legal parties
Bhutan Political pressure groups and leaders Buddhist clergy; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading militant antigovernment campaign; Indian merchant community; United Front for Democracy (exiled)
Bhutan International organization participation AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OPCW (signatory), SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WTrO (observer)
Bhutan Diplomatic representation in the US none; note - Bhutan has a Permanent Mission to the UN; address: 2 United Nations Plaza, 27th Floor, New York, NY 10017; telephone [1] (212) 826-1919; the Bhutanese mission to the UN has consular jurisdiction in the US consulate(s) general: New York
Bhutan Diplomatic representation from the US the US and Bhutan have no formal diplomatic relations, although informal contact is maintained between the Bhutanese and US Embassy in New Delhi (India)
Bhutan Flag description divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper triangle is yellow and the lower triangle is orange; centered along the dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from the hoist side
Bhutan Economy - overview The economy, one of the world's smallest and least developed, is based on agriculture and forestry, providing the main livelihood for more than 90% of the population. Agriculture consists largely of subsistence farming and animal husbandry. Rugged mountains dominate the terrain and make the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive. The economy is closely aligned with India's through strong trade and monetary links and dependence on India's financial assistance. The industrial sector is technologically backward, with most production of the cottage industry type. Most development projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian migrant labor. Bhutan's hydropower potential and its attraction for tourists are key resources. The government has made some progress in expanding the nation's productive base and improving social welfare. Model education, social, and environment programs are underway with support from multilateral development organizations. Each economic program takes into account the government's desire to protect the country's environment and cultural traditions. Detailed controls and uncertain policies in areas like industrial licensing, trade, labor, and finance continue to hamper foreign investment.
Bhutan GDP purchasing power parity - $2.7 billion (2002 est.)
Bhutan GDP - real growth rate 7.7% (2002 est.)
Bhutan GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,300 (2002 est.)
Bhutan GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 45% industry: 10% services: 45% (2002 est.)
Bhutan Population below poverty line NA%
Bhutan Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Bhutan Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3% (2002 est.)
Bhutan Labor force NA note: massive lack of skilled labor
Bhutan Labor force - by occupation agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry and commerce 2%
Bhutan Unemployment rate NA%
Bhutan Budget revenues: $146 million expenditures: $152 million, including capital expenditures of NA note: the government of India finances nearly three-fifths of Bhutan's budget expenditures (FY95/96 est.)
Bhutan Industries cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages, calcium carbide
Bhutan Industrial production growth rate 9.3% (1996 est.)
Bhutan Electricity - production 1.896 billion kWh (2001)
Bhutan Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 0.1% hydro: 99.9% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Bhutan Electricity - consumption 379.5 million kWh (2001)
Bhutan Electricity - exports 1.4 billion kWh (2001)
Bhutan Electricity - imports 16 million kWh (2001)
Bhutan Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bhutan Oil - consumption 1,020 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bhutan Oil - exports NA (2001)
Bhutan Oil - imports NA (2001)
Bhutan Agriculture - products rice, corn, root crops, citrus, foodgrains; dairy products, eggs
Bhutan Exports $154 million f.o.b. (2000 est.)
Bhutan Exports - commodities electricity (to India), cardamom, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit, precious stones, spices
Bhutan Exports - partners US 24.1%, UK 23.9%, Pakistan 23.1%, France 13.9% (2002)
Bhutan Imports $196 million c.i.f. (2000 est.)
Bhutan Imports - commodities fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts, vehicles, fabrics, rice
Bhutan Imports - partners Japan 44.5%, Germany 12.2%, UK 8.5%, Singapore 6%, South Korea 5%, US 4.2% (2002)
Bhutan Debt - external $245 million (2000)
Bhutan Economic aid - recipient substantial aid from India and other nations
Bhutan Currency ngultrum (BTN); Indian rupee (INR)
Bhutan Currency code BTN; INR
Bhutan Exchange rates ngultrum per US dollar - 48.61 (2002), 47.19 (2001), 44.94 (2000), 43.06 (1999), 41.26 (1998)
Bhutan Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Bhutan Telephones - main lines in use 6,000 (1997)
Bhutan Telephones - mobile cellular NA
Bhutan Telephone system general assessment: NA domestic: domestic telephone service is very poor with few telephones in use international: international telephone and telegraph service is by landline through India; a satellite earth station was planned (1990)
Bhutan Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)
Bhutan Television broadcast stations 0 (1997)
Bhutan Internet country code .bt
Bhutan Internet Service Providers (ISPs) NA
Bhutan Internet users 2,500 (2002)
Bhutan Railways 0 km
Bhutan Highways total: 3,690 km paved: 2,240 km unpaved: 1,450 km (1999 est.)
Bhutan Waterways none
Bhutan Ports and harbors none
Bhutan Airports 2 (2002)
Bhutan Airports - with paved runways total: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)
Bhutan Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)
Bhutan Military branches Royal Bhutan Army, Royal Bodyguard, National Militia, Royal Bhutan Police, Forest Guards
Bhutan Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Bhutan Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 530,860 (2003 est.)
Bhutan Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 283,493 (2003 est.)
Bhutan Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 22,755 (2003 est.)
Bhutan Military expenditures - dollar figure $9.3 million (FY02)
Bhutan Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.9% (FY02)
Bhutan Disputes - international approximately 100,000 Bhutanese refugees living in Nepal, 90% of whom reside in seven UN Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees camps, place decades-long strains on Nepal
Bolivia Background Bolivia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR, broke away from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history has consisted of a series of nearly 200 coups and counter-coups. Comparatively democratic civilian rule was established in the 1980s, but leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty, social unrest, and drug production. Current goals include attracting foreign investment, strengthening the educational system, resolving disputes with coca growers over Bolivia's counterdrug efforts, continuing the privatization program, and waging an anticorruption campaign.
Bolivia Location Central South America, southwest of Brazil
Bolivia Geographic coordinates 17 00 S, 65 00 W
Bolivia Map references South America
Bolivia Area total: 1,098,580 sq km water: 14,190 sq km land: 1,084,390 sq km
Bolivia Area - comparative slightly less than three times the size of Montana
Bolivia Land boundaries total: 6,743 km border countries: Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km, Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km
Bolivia Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Bolivia Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Bolivia Climate varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid
Bolivia Terrain rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin
Bolivia Elevation extremes lowest point: Rio Paraguay 90 m highest point: Nevado Sajama 6,542 m
Bolivia Natural resources tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower
Bolivia Land use arable land: 1.73% permanent crops: 0.21% other: 98.06% (1998 est.)
Bolivia Irrigated land 1,280 sq km (1998 est.)
Bolivia Natural hazards flooding in the northeast (March-April)
Bolivia Environment - current issues the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used for drinking and irrigation
Bolivia Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection
Bolivia Geography - note landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru
Bolivia Population 8,586,443 (July 2003 est.)
Bolivia Age structure 0-14 years: 37.1% (male 1,624,366; female 1,562,501) 15-64 years: 58.4% (male 2,452,892; female 2,561,873) 65 years and over: 4.5% (male 172,292; female 212,519) (2003 est.)
Bolivia Median age total: 20.8 years male: 20.1 years female: 21.5 years (2002)
Bolivia Population growth rate 1.63% (2003 est.)
Bolivia Birth rate 25.53 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bolivia Death rate 7.91 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bolivia Net migration rate -1.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bolivia Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Bolivia Infant mortality rate total: 56.05 deaths/1,000 live births female: 52.16 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 59.75 deaths/1,000 live births
Bolivia Life expectancy at birth total population: 64.78 years male: 62.2 years female: 67.48 years (2003 est.)
Bolivia Total fertility rate 3.23 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Bolivia HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.1% - note: no country specific models provided (2001 est.)
Bolivia HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 4,600 (2001 est.)
Bolivia HIV/AIDS - deaths 290 (2001 est.)
Bolivia Nationality noun: Bolivian(s) adjective: Bolivian
Bolivia Ethnic groups Quechua 30%, mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) 30%, Aymara 25%, white 15%
Bolivia Religions Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist)
Bolivia Languages Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)
Bolivia Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 87.2% male: 93.1% female: 81.6% (2003 est.)
Bolivia Country name conventional long form: Republic of Bolivia conventional short form: Bolivia local short form: Bolivia local long form: Republica de Bolivia
Bolivia Government type republic
Bolivia Capital La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat of judiciary)
Bolivia Administrative divisions 9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija
Bolivia Independence 6 August 1825 (from Spain)
Bolivia National holiday Independence Day, 6 August (1825)
Bolivia Constitution 2 February 1967; revised in August 1994
Bolivia Legal system based on Spanish law and Napoleonic Code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Bolivia Suffrage 18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married); 21 years of age, universal and compulsory (single)
Bolivia Executive branch chief of state: President Carlos Diego MESA Gisbert (since 17 October 2003); Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Carlos Diego MESA Gisbert (since 17 October 2003); Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 30 June 2002 (next to be held NA June 2007) election results: as a result of no candidate winning a majority in the 30 June 2002 election, Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA Bustamante was chosen president by Congress; Congressional votes - Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA Bustamante 84, Evo MORALES 43; note - following the resignation of the elected president on 17 October 2003, Vice President Carlos Diego MESA Gisbert assumed the presidency
Bolivia Legislative branch bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (27 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms; note - some members are drawn from party lists, thus not directly elected) elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies - last held 30 June 2002 (next to be held NA June 2007) election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MNR 11, MAS 8, MIR 5, NFR 2, other 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MNR 36, MAS 27, MIR 26, NFR 25, others 16
Bolivia Judicial branch Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges appointed for 10-year terms by National Congress); District Courts (one in each department); provincial and local courts (to try minor cases)
Bolivia Political parties and leaders Bolivian Socialist Falange or FSB [Romel PANTOJA]; Civic Solidarity Union or UCS [Johnny FERNANDEZ]; Free Bolivia Movement or MBL [Franz BARRIOS]; Marshal of Ayacucho Institutional Vanguard or VIMA [Freddy ZABALA]; Movement of the Revolutionary Left or MIR [Jaime PAZ Zamora]; Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Evo MORALES]; Movement Without Fear or MSM [Juan DEL GRANADO]; Nationalist Democratic Action or ADN [Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez]; Nationalist Revolutionary Movement or MNR [Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA]; New Republican Force or NFR [Manfred REYES-VILLA]; Pachakuti Indigenous Movement or MIP [Felipe QUISPE]; Socialist Party or PS [Jeres JUSTINIANO] note: the MNR, MIR, and UCS comprise the ruling coalition
Bolivia Political pressure groups and leaders Cocalero Groups; indigenous organizations; labor unions; Sole Confederation of Campesino Workers of Bolivia or CSUTCB [Felipe QUISPE]
Bolivia International organization participation ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MONUC, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMISET, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Bolivia Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Jaime APARICIO Otero chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 consulate(s) general: Miami, New York, and San Francisco consulate(s): Washington, DC FAX: [1] (202) 328-3712 telephone: [1] (202) 483-4410
Bolivia Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador David N. GREENLEE embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, San Jorge, La Paz mailing address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032 telephone: [591] (2) 2430120, 2430251 FAX: [591] (2) 2433900
Bolivia Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band
Bolivia Economy - overview Bolivia, long one of the poorest and least developed Latin American countries, made considerable progress in the 1990s toward the development of a market-oriented economy. Successes under President SANCHEZ DE LOZADA (1993-97) included the signing of a free trade agreement with Mexico and becoming an associate member of the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur), as well as the privatization of the state airline, telephone company, railroad, electric power company, and oil company. Growth slowed in 1999, in part due to tight government budget policies, which limited needed appropriations for anti-poverty programs, and the fallout from the Asian financial crisis. In 2000, major civil disturbances held down growth to 2.5%. Bolivia's GDP failed to grow in 2001 due to the global slowdown and laggard domestic activity. Growth picked up slightly in 2002, but the first quarter of 2003 saw extensive civil riots and looting and loss of confidence in the government. Bolivia will remain highly dependent on foreign aid unless and until it can develop its substantial natural resources.
Bolivia GDP purchasing power parity - $21.15 billion (2002 est.)
Bolivia GDP - real growth rate 2.8% (2002 est.)
Bolivia GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,500 (2002 est.)
Bolivia GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 20% industry: 20% services: 60% (2002 est.)
Bolivia Population below poverty line 70% (1999 est.)
Bolivia Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1.3% highest 10%: 32% (1999)
Bolivia Distribution of family income - Gini index 58.9 (1997)
Bolivia Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2% (2001 est.)
Bolivia Labor force 2.5 million
Bolivia Labor force - by occupation agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Bolivia Unemployment rate 7.6% note: widespread underemployment (2000)
Bolivia Budget revenues: $4 billion expenditures: $4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.)
Bolivia Industries mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco, handicrafts, clothing
Bolivia Industrial production growth rate 3.9% (1998)
Bolivia Electricity - production 3.901 billion kWh (2001)
Bolivia Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 44.4% hydro: 54% other: 1.5% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Bolivia Electricity - consumption 3.634 billion kWh (2001)
Bolivia Electricity - exports 3 million kWh (2001)
Bolivia Electricity - imports 9 million kWh (2001)
Bolivia Oil - production 44,340 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bolivia Oil - consumption 49,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bolivia Oil - exports NA (2001)
Bolivia Oil - imports NA (2001)
Bolivia Oil - proved reserves 458.8 million bbl (37257)
Bolivia Natural gas - production 4.05 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Bolivia Natural gas - consumption 1.15 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Bolivia Natural gas - exports 2.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Bolivia Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Bolivia Natural gas - proved reserves 727.2 billion cu m (37257)
Bolivia Agriculture - products soybeans, coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice, potatoes; timber
Bolivia Exports $1.3 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Bolivia Exports - commodities soybeans, natural gas, zinc, gold, wood (2000)
Bolivia Exports - partners Brazil 24.3%, Switzerland 15.7%, US 14.1%, Venezuela 12.8%, Colombia 10.2%, Peru 5.4% (2002)
Bolivia Imports $1.6 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Bolivia Imports - commodities capital goods, raw materials and semi-manufactures, chemicals, petroleum, food
Bolivia Imports - partners Brazil 22%, Argentina 17.4%, US 15.6%, Chile 7%, Japan 5.5%, Peru 5.4%, China 4.8% (2002)
Bolivia Debt - external $5.9 billion (2002 est.)
Bolivia Economic aid - recipient $588 million (1997)
Bolivia Currency boliviano (BOB)
Bolivia Currency code BOB
Bolivia Exchange rates bolivianos per US dollar - 7.17 (2002), 6.61 (2001), 6.18 (2000), 5.81 (1999), 5.51 (1998)
Bolivia Fiscal year calendar year
Bolivia Telephones - main lines in use 327,600 (1996)
Bolivia Telephones - mobile cellular 116,000 (1997)
Bolivia Telephone system general assessment: new subscribers face bureaucratic difficulties; most telephones are concentrated in La Paz and other cities; mobile cellular telephone use expanding rapidly domestic: primary trunk system, which is being expanded, employs digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic cable; mobile cellular systems are being expanded international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Bolivia Radio broadcast stations AM 171, FM 73, shortwave 77 (1999)
Bolivia Television broadcast stations 48 (1997)
Bolivia Internet country code .bo
Bolivia Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 9 (2000)
Bolivia Internet users 78,000 (2000)
Bolivia Railways total: 3,519 km narrow gauge: 3,519 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)
Bolivia Highways total: 53,790 km paved: 3,496 km (including 13 km of expressways) unpaved: 50,294 km (2000 est.)
Bolivia Waterways 10,000 km (commercially navigable)
Bolivia Pipelines gas 4,860 km; liquid petroleum gas 47 km; oil 2,460 km; refined products 1,589 km; unknown (oil/water) 247 km (2003)
Bolivia Ports and harbors Puerto Aguirre (on the Paraguay/Parana waterway, at the Bolivia/Brazil border); also, Bolivia has free port privileges in maritime ports in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay
Bolivia Merchant marine total: 53 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 347,535 GRT/591,113 DWT ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 25, chemical tanker 4, container 4, livestock carrier 1, petroleum tanker 12, roll on/roll off 1, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 1 note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of Belize 2, China 2, Cuba 1, Cyprus 1, Egypt 1, Honduras 1, Latvia 2, Liberia 2, Panama 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Saudi Arabia 1, Singapore 1, South Korea 3, Switzerland 1, Ukraine 1, UAE 5, US 1 (2002 est.)
Bolivia Airports 1,081 (2002)
Bolivia Airports - with paved runways total: 12 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)
Bolivia Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1,069 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 64 914 to 1,523 m: 225 under 914 m: 776 (2002)
Bolivia Military branches Army (Ejercito Boliviano), Navy (Fuerza Naval, includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana), National Police Force (Policia Nacional de Bolivia)
Bolivia Military manpower - military age 19 years of age (2003 est.)
Bolivia Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,118,908 (2003 est.)
Bolivia Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,380,883 (2003 est.)
Bolivia Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 96,003 (2003 est.)
Bolivia Military expenditures - dollar figure $147 million (FY99)
Bolivia Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.8% (FY99)
Bolivia Disputes - international continues to press Chile and Peru to restore the Atacama corridor ceded to Chile in 1884; Chile demands water rights to Bolivia's Rio Lauca and Silala Spring
Bolivia Illicit drugs world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Colombia and Peru) with an estimated 24,400 hectares under cultivation in June 2002, a 23% increase from June 2001; intermediate coca products and cocaine exported to or through Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile to the US and other international drug markets; eradication and alternative crop programs under the SANCHEZ DE LOZADA administration have been unable to keep pace with farmers' attempts to increase cultivation after significant reductions in 1998 and 1999; money-laundering activity related to narcotics trade, especially along the borders with Brazil and Paraguay
Bosnia and Herzegovina Background Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October 1991, was followed by a declaration of independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed a peace agreement that brought to a halt three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Agreement retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a joint multi-ethnic and democratic government. This national government was charged with conducting foreign, economic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government comprised of two entities roughly equal in size: the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments were charged with overseeing internal functions. In 1995-96, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission is to deter renewed hostilities. SFOR remains in place although troop levels were reduced to approximately 12,000 by the close of 2002.
Bosnia and Herzegovina Location Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia
Bosnia and Herzegovina Geographic coordinates 44 00 N, 18 00 E
Bosnia and Herzegovina Map references Europe
Bosnia and Herzegovina Area total: 51,129 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 51,129 sq km
Bosnia and Herzegovina Area - comparative slightly smaller than West Virginia
Bosnia and Herzegovina Land boundaries total: 1,459 km border countries: Croatia 932 km, Serbia and Montenegro 527 km
Bosnia and Herzegovina Coastline 20 km
Bosnia and Herzegovina Maritime claims NA
Bosnia and Herzegovina Climate hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast
Bosnia and Herzegovina Terrain mountains and valleys
Bosnia and Herzegovina Elevation extremes lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m highest point: Maglic 2,386 m
Bosnia and Herzegovina Natural resources coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, forests, copper, chromium, lead, zinc, hydropower
Bosnia and Herzegovina Land use arable land: 9.8% permanent crops: 2.94% other: 87.26% (1998 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Irrigated land 20 sq km (1998 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Natural hazards destructive earthquakes
Bosnia and Herzegovina Environment - current issues air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; water shortages and destruction of infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife
Bosnia and Herzegovina Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Bosnia and Herzegovina Geography - note within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro (Montenegro), and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an ethnic Serb majority in the east
Bosnia and Herzegovina Population 3,989,018 (July 2003 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Age structure 0-14 years: 19.4% (male 397,810; female 377,005) 15-64 years: 70.5% (male 1,439,383; female 1,372,891) 65 years and over: 10.1% (male 171,643; female 230,286) (2003 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Median age total: 35.5 years male: 35.1 years female: 35.9 years (2002)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Population growth rate 0.48% (2003 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Birth rate 12.65 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Death rate 8.21 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Net migration rate 0.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Sex ratio at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Infant mortality rate total: 22.7 deaths/1,000 live births female: 19.85 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 25.37 deaths/1,000 live births
Bosnia and Herzegovina Life expectancy at birth total population: 72.29 years male: 69.56 years female: 75.22 years (2003 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Total fertility rate 1.71 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
Bosnia and Herzegovina HIV/AIDS - deaths 100 (2001 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Nationality noun: Bosnian(s) adjective: Bosnian
Bosnia and Herzegovina Ethnic groups Serb 37.1%, Bosniak 48%, Croat 14.3%, other 0.6% (2000) note: Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam
Bosnia and Herzegovina Religions Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%, other 10%
Bosnia and Herzegovina Languages Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian
Bosnia and Herzegovina Literacy definition: NA total population: NA% male: NA% female: NA%
Bosnia and Herzegovina Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina local long form: none local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina Government type emerging federal democratic republic
Bosnia and Herzegovina Capital Sarajevo
Bosnia and Herzegovina Administrative divisions there are two first-order administrative divisions and one internationally supervised district* - Brcko district (Brcko Distrikt)*, the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska; note - Brcko district is in northeastern Bosnia and is an administrative unit under the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina; the district remains under international supervision
Bosnia and Herzegovina Independence 1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia; referendum for independence was completed 1 March 1992; independence was declared 3 March 1992)
Bosnia and Herzegovina National holiday National Day, 25 November (1943)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Constitution the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995, included a new constitution now in force; note - each of the entities also has its own constitution
Bosnia and Herzegovina Legal system based on civil law system
Bosnia and Herzegovina Suffrage 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal
Bosnia and Herzegovina Executive branch chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Dragan COVIC (chairman since 27 June 2003; presidency member since 5 October 2002 - Croat) other members of the three-member rotating (every eight months) presidency: Sulejman TIHIC (since 5 October 2002 - Bosniak) and Borislav PARAVAC (since 10 April 2003 - Serb); note - Mirko SAROVIC resigned 2 April 2003 elections: the three members of the presidency (one Bosniak, one Croat, one Serb) are elected by popular vote for a four-year term; the member with the most votes becomes the chairman unless he or she was the incumbent chairman at the time of the election, but the chairmanship rotates every eight months; election last held 5 October 2002 (next to be held NA 2006); the chairman of the Council of Ministers is appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the National House of Representatives head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Adnan TERZIC (since 20 December 2002), cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman; approved by the National House of Representatives election results: percent of vote - Mirko SAROVIC with 35.5% of the Serb vote was elected chairman of the collective presidency for the first eight months; Dragan COVIC received 61.5% of the Croat vote; Sulejman TIHIC received 37% of the Bosniak vote note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Niko LOZANCIC (since 27 January 2003); Vice Presidents Sahbaz DZIHANOVIC (since NA 2003) and Desnica RADIVOJEVIC (since NA 2003); President of the Republika Srpska: Dragan COVIC (since 28 November 2002)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Legislative branch bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina consists of the National House of Representatives or Predstavnicki Dom (42 seats - elected by proportional representation, 28 seats allocated from the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 14 seats from the Republika Srpska; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the House of Peoples or Dom Naroda (15 seats - 5 Bosniak, 5 Croat, 5 Serb; members elected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives and the Republika Srpska's National Assembly to serve four-year terms); note - Bosnia's election law specifies four-year terms for the state and first-order administrative division entity legislatures election results: National House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - SDA 21.9%, SDS 14.0%, SBiH 10.5%, SDP 10.4%, SNSD 9.8%, HDZ 9.5%, PDP 4.6%, others 19.3%; seats by party/coalition - SDA 10, SDS 5, SBiH 6, SDP 4, SNSD 3, HDZ 5, PDP 2, others 7; House of Peoples - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA%; seats by party/coalition - NA elections: National House of Representatives - elections last held 5 October 2002 (next to be held in NA 2006); House of Peoples - last constituted NA January 2003 (next to be constituted in 2007) note: the Bosniak/Croat Federation has a bicameral legislature that consists of a House of Representatives (98 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 5 October 2002 (next to be held NA October 2006); percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party/coalition - SDA 32, HDZ-BiH 16, SDP 15, SBiH 15, other 20; and a House of Peoples (60 seats - 30 Bosniak, 30 Croat); last constituted December 2002; the Republika Srpska has a National Assembly (83 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 5 October 2002 (next to be held in the fall of 2006); percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party/coalition - SDS 26, SNSD 19, PDP 9, SDA 6, SRS 4, SPRS 3, DNZ 3, SBiH 4, SDP 3, others 6; as a result of the 2002 constitutional reform process, a 28-member Republika Srpska Council of Peoples (COP) was established in the Republika Srpska National Assembly; each constituent nation and "others" will have eight delegates
Bosnia and Herzegovina Judicial branch BiH Constitutional Court (consists of nine members: four members are selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives, two members by the Republika Srpska's National Assembly, and three non-Bosnian members by the president of the European Court of Human Rights); BiH State Court (consists of nine judges and three divisions - Administrative, Appellate and Criminal - having jurisdiction over cases related to state-level law and appellate jurisdiction over cases initiated in the entities; note - a War Crimes Chamber may be added at a future date) note: the entities each have a Supreme Court; each entity also has a number of lower courts; there are 10 cantonal courts in the Federation, plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska has five municipal courts
Bosnia and Herzegovina Political parties and leaders Alliance of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK]; Bosnian Party or BOSS [Mirnes AJANOVIC]; Civic Democratic Party or GDS [Ilija SIMIC]; Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HDZ [Barisa COLAK (acting)]; Croat Christian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HKDU [Mijo IVANIC-LONIC]; Croat Party of Rights or HSP [Zdravko HRISTIC]; Croat Peasants Party or HSS [Ilija SIMIC]; Democratic National Union or DNZ [Fikret ABDIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDS [Rasim KADIC]; New Croat Initiative or NHI [Kresimir ZUBAK]; Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina or SBiH [Safet HALILOVIC]; Party of Democratic Action or SDA [Sulejman TIHIC]; Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Mladen IVANIC]; Pro-European People's Party or PROENS [Jadranko PRLIC]; Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Dragan KALINIC]; Serb Radical Party of the Republika Srpska or SRS-RS [Radislav KANJERIC]; Social Democratic Party of BIH or SDP [Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA]; Socialist Party of Republika Srpska or SPRS [Petar DJOKIC]
Bosnia and Herzegovina Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Bosnia and Herzegovina International organization participation BIS, CE, CEI, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Igor DAVIDOVIC chancery: 2109 E Street NW, Washington, DC 20037 telephone: [1] (202) 337-1500 consulate(s) general: New York FAX: [1] (202) 337-1502
Bosnia and Herzegovina Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Clifford G. BOND embassy: Alipasina 43, 71000 Sarajevo mailing address: use street address telephone: [387] (33) 445-700 FAX: [387] (33) 659-722 branch office(s): Banja Luka, Mostar
Bosnia and Herzegovina Flag description a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle
Bosnia and Herzegovina Government - note The Dayton Agreement, signed in Paris on 14 December 1995, retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's exterior border and created a joint multi-ethnic and democratic government. This national government - based on proportional representation similar to that which existed in the former socialist regime - is charged with conducting foreign, economic, and fiscal policy. The Dayton Agreement also recognized a second tier of government, comprised of two entities - a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb Republika Srpska (RS) - each presiding over roughly one-half the territory. The Federation and RS governments are charged with overseeing internal functions. The Bosniak/Croat Federation is further divided into 10 cantons. The Dayton Agreement established the Office of the High Representative (OHR) to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement.
Bosnia and Herzegovina Economy - overview Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture is almost all in private hands, farms are small and inefficient, and the republic traditionally is a net importer of food. Industry has been greatly overstaffed, one reflection of the socialist economic structure of Yugoslavia. TITO had pushed the development of military industries in the republic with the result that Bosnia hosted a number of Yugoslavia's defense plants. The bitter interethnic warfare in Bosnia caused production to plummet by 80% from 1990 to 1995, unemployment to soar, and human misery to multiply. With an uneasy peace in place, output recovered in 1996-99 at high percentage rates from a low base; but output growth slowed in 2000-02. GDP remains far below the 1990 level. Economic data are of limited use because, although both entities issue figures, national-level statistics are limited. Moreover, official data do not capture the large share of black market activity. The marka - the national currency introduced in 1998 - is now pegged to the euro, and the Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina has dramatically increased its reserve holdings. Implementation of privatization, however, has been slow, and local entities only reluctantly support national-level institutions. Banking reform accelerated in 2001 as all the Communist-era payments bureaus were shut down. The country receives substantial amounts of reconstruction assistance and humanitarian aid from the international community but will have to prepare for an era of declining assistance.
Bosnia and Herzegovina GDP purchasing power parity - $7.3 billion (2002 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina GDP - real growth rate 2.3% (2002 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,900 (2002 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 13% industry: 40.9% services: 46.1% (2001 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Population below poverty line NA%
Bosnia and Herzegovina Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Bosnia and Herzegovina Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.5% (2002 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Labor force 1.026 million
Bosnia and Herzegovina Labor force - by occupation agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Bosnia and Herzegovina Unemployment rate 40% (2002 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Budget revenues: $1.9 billion expenditures: $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Industries steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining (2001)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Industrial production growth rate 7% (2002 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Electricity - production 9.979 billion kWh (2001)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 53.5% hydro: 46.5% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Bosnia and Herzegovina Electricity - consumption 8.116 billion kWh (2001)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Electricity - exports 2.569 billion kWh (2001)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Electricity - imports 1.405 billion kWh (2001)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Oil - consumption 20,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Oil - exports NA (2001)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Oil - imports NA (2001)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Natural gas - production 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Natural gas - consumption 300 million cu m (2001 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Natural gas - imports 300 million cu m (2001 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Agriculture - products wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock
Bosnia and Herzegovina Exports $1.15 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Exports - commodities metals, clothing, wood products
Bosnia and Herzegovina Exports - partners Italy 31.6%, Croatia 18%, Germany 12.9%, Austria 10.1%, Slovenia 6.9%, Greece 4.3% (2002)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Imports $2.8 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
Bosnia and Herzegovina Imports - partners Croatia 23.7%, Slovenia 14.8%, Germany 14%, Italy 13.1%, Hungary 8%, Austria 7.7% (2002)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Debt - external $2.8 billion (2001)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Economic aid - recipient $650 million (2001 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Currency marka (BAM)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Currency code BAM
Bosnia and Herzegovina Exchange rates marka per US dollar - NA (2002), 2.19 (2001), 2.12 (2000), 1.84 (1999), 1.76 (1998)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Fiscal year calendar year
Bosnia and Herzegovina Telephones - main lines in use 303,000 (1997)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Telephones - mobile cellular 9,000 (1997)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Telephone system general assessment: telephone and telegraph network needs modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average as contrasted with services in other former Yugoslav republics domestic: NA international: no satellite earth stations
Bosnia and Herzegovina Radio broadcast stations AM 8, FM 16, shortwave 1 (1998)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Television broadcast stations 33 (plus 277 repeaters) (September 1995)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Internet country code .ba
Bosnia and Herzegovina Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 3 (2000)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Internet users 45,000 (2002)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Railways total: 1,021 km (795 km electrified) standard gauge: 1,021 km 1.435-m gauge (2002)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Highways total: 21,846 km paved: 11,424 km unpaved: 10,422 km (1999 est)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Waterways NA km; large sections of the Sava blocked by downed bridges, silt, and debris
Bosnia and Herzegovina Pipelines gas 170 km; oil 9 km (2003)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Ports and harbors Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac, and Brcko (all inland waterway ports on the Sava), Orasje
Bosnia and Herzegovina Merchant marine none (2002 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Airports 32 (2002)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Airports - with paved runways total: 14 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 under 914 m: 3 (2002) 914 to 1523 m: 1
Bosnia and Herzegovina Airports - with unpaved runways total: 18 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 7 under 914 m: 10 (2002)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Heliports 5 (2002)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Military branches VF Army (the air and air defense forces are subordinate commands within the Army), VRS Army (the air and air defense forces are subordinate commands within the Army)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Military manpower - military age 19 years of age (2003 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 1,132,476 (2003 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 897,856 (2003 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 29,861 (2003 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Military expenditures - dollar figure $234.3 million (FY02)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Military expenditures - percent of GDP 4.5% (FY02)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Disputes - international Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia and Montenegro have delimited about half of their boundary, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute; discussions continue with Croatia on problem sections of the Una River and villages at the base of Mount Pljesevica
Bosnia and Herzegovina Illicit drugs minor transit point for marijuana and opiate trafficking routes to Western Europe; organized crime launders money, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center
Botswana Background Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name upon independence in 1966. Four decades of uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and significant capital investment have created one of the most dynamic economies in Africa. Mineral extraction, principally diamond mining, dominates economic activity, though tourism is a growing sector due to the country's conservation practices and extensive nature preserves. Botswana has the world's highest known rate of HIV/AIDS infection, but also one of Africa's most progressive and comprehensive programs for dealing with the disease.
Botswana Location Southern Africa, north of South Africa
Botswana Geographic coordinates 22 00 S, 24 00 E
Botswana Map references Africa
Botswana Area total: 600,370 sq km water: 15,000 sq km land: 585,370 sq km
Botswana Area - comparative slightly smaller than Texas
Botswana Land boundaries total: 4,013 km border countries: Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe 813 km
Botswana Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Botswana Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Botswana Climate semiarid; warm winters and hot summers
Botswana Terrain predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwest
Botswana Elevation extremes lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m highest point: Tsodilo Hills 1,489 m
Botswana Natural resources diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver
Botswana Land use arable land: 0.61% permanent crops: 0.01% other: 99.38% (1998 est.)
Botswana Irrigated land 10 sq km (1998 est.)
Botswana Natural hazards periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure visibility
Botswana Environment - current issues overgrazing; desertification; limited fresh water resources
Botswana Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Botswana Geography - note landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country
Botswana Population 1,573,267 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2003 est.)
Botswana Age structure 0-14 years: 39.5% (male 314,764; female 307,024) 15-64 years: 56% (male 424,726; female 455,967) 65 years and over: 4.5% (male 30,599; female 40,187) (2003 est.)
Botswana Median age total: 19.1 years male: 18.4 years female: 19.8 years (2002)
Botswana Population growth rate -0.55% (2003 est.)
Botswana Birth rate 25.5 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Botswana Death rate 31 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Botswana Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Botswana Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Botswana Infant mortality rate total: 67.34 deaths/1,000 live births female: 66.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 68.36 deaths/1,000 live births
Botswana Life expectancy at birth total population: 32.26 years male: 32.2 years female: 32.32 years (2003 est.)
Botswana Total fertility rate 3.27 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Botswana HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 38.8% (2001 est.)
Botswana HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 330,000 (2001 est.)
Botswana HIV/AIDS - deaths 26,000 (2001 est.)
Botswana Nationality noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural) adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
Botswana Ethnic groups Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including Kgalagadi and white 7%
Botswana Religions indigenous beliefs 85%, Christian 15%
Botswana Languages English (official), Setswana
Botswana Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 79.8% male: 76.9% female: 82.4% (2003 est.)
Botswana Country name conventional long form: Republic of Botswana conventional short form: Botswana former: Bechuanaland
Botswana Government type parliamentary republic
Botswana Capital Gaborone
Botswana Administrative divisions 9 districts and four town councils*; Central, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*, Northwest, Northeast, Selebi-Pikwe*, Southeast, Southern
Botswana Independence 30 September 1966 (from UK)
Botswana National holiday Independence Day (Botswana Day), 30 September (1966)
Botswana Constitution March 1965, effective 30 September 1966
Botswana Legal system based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Botswana Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Botswana Executive branch chief of state: President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 16 October 1999 (next to be held NA October 2004); vice president appointed by the president election results: Festus MOGAE elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 54.3%
Botswana Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Chiefs (a largely advisory 15-member body consisting of the chiefs of the eight principal tribes, four elected subchiefs, and three members selected by the other 12 members) and the National Assembly (44 seats, 40 members are directly elected by popular vote and 4 are appointed by the majority party; members serve five-year terms) elections: National Assembly elections last held 16 October 1999 (next to be held NA October 2004) election results: percent of vote by party - BDP 54.3%, BNF 24.7%, other 21%; seats by party - BDP 33, BNF 6, other 1
Botswana Judicial branch High Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrates' Courts (one in each district)
Botswana Political parties and leaders Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Festus MOGAE]; Botswana National Front or BNF [Otswoletse MOUPO]; Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Mokgweetsi KGOSIPULA]; Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO] note: a number of minor parties joined forces in 1999 to form the BAM but did not capture any parliamentary seats; the BAM parties are: the United Action Party [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO], the Independence Freedom Party or IFP [Motsamai MPHO], and the Botswana Progressive Union [D. K. KWELE]
Botswana Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Botswana International organization participation ACP, AfDB, C, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Botswana Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Lapologang Caesar LEKOA chancery: 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164 telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990
Botswana Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph HUGGINS embassy: address NA, Gaborone mailing address: Embassy Enclave, P. O. Box 90, Gaborone telephone: [267] 353982 FAX: [267] 312782
Botswana Flag description light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center
Botswana Economy - overview Botswana has maintained one of the world's highest growth rates since independence in 1966. Through fiscal discipline and sound management, Botswana has transformed itself from one of the poorest countries in the world to a middle-income country with a per capita GDP of $9,500 in 2002. Two major investment services rank Botswana as the best credit risk in Africa. Diamond mining has fueled much of the expansion and currently accounts for more than one-third of GDP and for nine-tenths of export earnings. Tourism, subsistence farming, and cattle raising are other key sectors. On the downside, the government must deal with high rates of unemployment and poverty. Unemployment officially is 21%, but unofficial estimates place it closer to 40%. HIV/AIDS infection rates are the highest in the world and threaten Botswana's impressive economic gains. Long-term prospects are overshadowed by the prospects of a leveling off in diamond mining production.
Botswana GDP purchasing power parity - $13.48 billion (2002 est.)
Botswana GDP - real growth rate 4.2% (2002 est.)
Botswana GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $8,500 (2002 est.)
Botswana GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 4% industry: 44% (including 36% mining) services: 52% (2001 est.)
Botswana Population below poverty line 47%
Botswana Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Botswana Inflation rate (consumer prices) 8.1% (2002 est.)
Botswana Labor force 264,000 formal sector employees (2000)
Botswana Labor force - by occupation NA
Botswana Unemployment rate 40% (official rate is 21%) (2001 est.)
Botswana Budget revenues: $2.3 billion expenditures: $2.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY 01/02)
Botswana Industries diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash; livestock processing; textiles
Botswana Industrial production growth rate 2.4% (2001 est.)
Botswana Electricity - production 409.8 million kWh (2001)
Botswana Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Botswana Electricity - consumption 1.564 billion kWh (2001)
Botswana Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Botswana Electricity - imports 1.183 billion kWh (2001)
Botswana Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Botswana Oil - consumption 16,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Botswana Oil - exports NA (2001)
Botswana Oil - imports NA (2001)
Botswana Agriculture - products livestock, sorghum, maize, millet, beans, sunflowers, groundnuts
Botswana Exports $2.4 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Botswana Exports - commodities diamonds 90%, copper, nickel, soda ash, meat, textiles
Botswana Exports - partners European Free Trade Association (EFTA) 87%, Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 7%, Zimbabwe 4% (2000)
Botswana Imports $1.9 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Botswana Imports - commodities foodstuffs, machinery, electrical goods, transport equipment, textiles, fuel and petroleum products, wood and paper products, metal and metal products
Botswana Imports - partners Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 74%, EFTA 17%, Zimbabwe 4% (2000)
Botswana Debt - external $360 million (2002)
Botswana Economic aid - recipient $73 million (1995)
Botswana Currency pula (BWP)
Botswana Currency code BWP
Botswana Exchange rates pulas per US dollar - 6.33 (2002), 5.84 (2001), 5.1 (2000), 4.62 (1999), 4.23 (1998)
Botswana Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Botswana Telephones - main lines in use 131,000 (September 2001)
Botswana Telephones - mobile cellular 270,000 (September 2001)
Botswana Telephone system general assessment: the system is expanding with the growth of mobile cellular service and participation in regional development domestic: small system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay links, and a few radiotelephone communication stations; mobile cellular service is growing fast international: two international exchanges; digital microwave radio relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Botswana Radio broadcast stations AM 8, FM 13, shortwave 4 (2001)
Botswana Television broadcast stations 1 (2001)
Botswana Internet country code .bw
Botswana Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 11 (2001)
Botswana Internet users 33,000 (2001)
Botswana Railways total: 888 km narrow gauge: 888 km 1.067-m gauge (2002)
Botswana Highways total: 10,217 km paved: 5,619 km unpaved: 4,598 km (1999)
Botswana Waterways none
Botswana Ports and harbors none
Botswana Airports 86 (2002)
Botswana Airports - with paved runways total: 10 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)
Botswana Airports - with unpaved runways total: 76 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 55 under 914 m: 18 (2002)
Botswana Military branches Botswana Defense Force (including Army and Air Wing), Botswana National Police
Botswana Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Botswana Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 381,056 (2003 est.)
Botswana Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 201,402 (2003 est.)
Botswana Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 20,476 (2003 est.)
Botswana Military expenditures - dollar figure $207.3 million (FY02)
Botswana Military expenditures - percent of GDP 3.5% (FY02)
Botswana Disputes - international established a commission with Namibia to resolve small residual disputes along the Caprivi Strip, including the Situngu marshlands along the Linyanti River; downstream Botswana residents protest Namibia's planned construction of the Okavango hydroelectric dam on Popa Falls; dormant dispute remains where Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe boundaries converge
Bouvet Island Background This uninhabited volcanic island is almost entirely covered by glaciers and is difficult to approach. It was discovered in 1739 by a French naval officer after whom the island was named. No claim was made until 1825, when the British flag was raised. In 1928, the UK waived its claim in favor of Norway, which had occupied the island the previous year. In 1971, Bouvet Island and the adjacent territorial waters were designated a nature reserve. Since 1977, Norway has run an automated meteorological station on the island.
Bouvet Island Location island in the South Atlantic Ocean, southwest of the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa)
Bouvet Island Geographic coordinates 54 26 S, 3 24 E
Bouvet Island Map references Antarctic Region
Bouvet Island Area total: 58.5 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 58.5 sq km
Bouvet Island Area - comparative about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Bouvet Island Land boundaries 0 km
Bouvet Island Coastline 29.6 km
Bouvet Island Maritime claims territorial sea: 4 NM
Bouvet Island Climate antarctic
Bouvet Island Terrain volcanic; coast is mostly inaccessible
Bouvet Island Elevation extremes lowest point: South Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Olav Peak 935 m
Bouvet Island Natural resources none
Bouvet Island Land use arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (93% ice) (1998 est.)
Bouvet Island Irrigated land 0 sq km (1998 est.)
Bouvet Island Natural hazards NA
Bouvet Island Environment - current issues NA
Bouvet Island Geography - note covered by glacial ice; declared a nature reserve
Bouvet Island Population uninhabited (July 2003 est.)
Bouvet Island Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Bouvet Island
Bouvet Island Dependency status territory of Norway; administered by the Polar Department of the Ministry of Justice and Police from Oslo
Bouvet Island Legal system the laws of Norway, where applicable, apply
Bouvet Island Flag description the flag of Norway is used
Bouvet Island Economy - overview no economic activity; declared a nature reserve
Bouvet Island Internet country code .bv
Bouvet Island Communications - note automatic meteorological station
Bouvet Island Waterways none
Bouvet Island Ports and harbors none; offshore anchorage only
Bouvet Island Military - note defense is the responsibility of Norway
Bouvet Island Disputes - international none
Brazil Background Following three centuries under the rule of Portugal, Brazil became an independent nation in 1822. By far the largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil has overcome more than half a century of military intervention in the governance of the country to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of the interior. Exploiting vast natural resources and a large labor pool, Brazil is today South America's leading economic power and a regional leader. Highly unequal income distribution remains a pressing problem.
Brazil Location Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean
Brazil Geographic coordinates 10 00 S, 55 00 W
Brazil Map references South America
Brazil Area total: 8,511,965 sq km land: 8,456,510 sq km note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo water: 55,455 sq km
Brazil Area - comparative slightly smaller than the US
Brazil Land boundaries total: 14,691 km border countries: Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400 km, Colombia 1,643 km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay 1,290 km, Peru 1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela 2,200 km
Brazil Coastline 7,491 km
Brazil Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM continental shelf: 200 NM or to edge of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Brazil Climate mostly tropical, but temperate in south
Brazil Terrain mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt
Brazil Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Pico da Neblina 3,014 m
Brazil Natural resources bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber
Brazil Land use arable land: 6.3% permanent crops: 1.42% other: 92.28% (1998 est.)
Brazil Irrigated land 26,560 sq km (1998 est.)
Brazil Natural hazards recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south
Brazil Environment - current issues deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; there is a lucrative illegal wildlife trade; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills
Brazil Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Brazil Geography - note largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador
Brazil Population 182,032,604 note: Brazil took a count in August 2000, which reported a population of 169,799,170; that figure was about 3.3% lower than projections by the US Census Bureau, and is close to the implied underenumeration of 4.6% for the 1991 census; estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2003 est.)
Brazil Age structure 0-14 years: 27.1% (male 25,151,855; female 24,196,506) 15-64 years: 67.2% (male 60,667,014; female 61,683,580) 65 years and over: 5.7% (male 4,232,784; female 6,100,865) (2003 est.)
Brazil Median age total: 27 years male: 26.2 years female: 27.7 years (2002)
Brazil Population growth rate 1.15% (2003 est.)
Brazil Birth rate 17.67 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Brazil Death rate 6.13 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Brazil Net migration rate -0.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Brazil Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Brazil Infant mortality rate total: 31.74 deaths/1,000 live births female: 27.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 35.61 deaths/1,000 live births
Brazil Life expectancy at birth total population: 71.13 years male: 67.16 years female: 75.3 years (2003 est.)
Brazil Total fertility rate 2.01 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Brazil HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.7% (2001 est.)
Brazil HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 610,000 (2001 est.)
Brazil HIV/AIDS - deaths 8,400 (2001 est.)
Brazil Nationality noun: Brazilian(s) adjective: Brazilian
Brazil Ethnic groups white (includes Portuguese, German, Italian, Spanish, Polish) 55%, mixed white and black 38%, black 6%, other (includes Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 1%
Brazil Religions Roman Catholic (nominal) 80%
Brazil Languages Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French
Brazil Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 86.4% male: 86.1% female: 86.6% (2003 est.)
Brazil Country name conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil conventional short form: Brazil local short form: Brasil local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil
Brazil Government type federative republic
Brazil Capital Brasilia
Brazil Administrative divisions 26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins
Brazil Independence 7 September 1822 (from Portugal)
Brazil National holiday Independence Day, 7 September (1822)
Brazil Constitution 5 October 1988
Brazil Legal system based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Brazil Suffrage voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory over 18 and under 70 years of age
Brazil Executive branch chief of state: President Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1 January 2003); Vice President Jose ALENCAR (since 1 January 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government election results: in runoff election 27 October 2002, Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (PT) was elected with 61.3% of the vote; Jose SERRA (PSDB) 38.7% elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 6 October 2002 (next to be held NA October 2006); runoff election held 27 October 2002 cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president head of government: President Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1 January 2003); Vice President Jose ALENCAR (since 1 January 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Brazil Legislative branch bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; three members from each state or federal district elected according to the principle of majority to serve eight-year terms; one-third elected after a four-year period, two-thirds elected after the next four-year period) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve four-year terms) election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party PMBD 19, PFL 19, PT 14, PSDB 11, PDT 5, PSB 4, PL 3, PTB 3, PPS 1, PSD 1, PPB 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PT 91, PFL 84, PMDB 74, PSDB 71, PPB 49, PL 26, PTB 26, PSB 22, PDT 21, PPS 15, PCdoB 12, PRONA 6, PV 5, other 11 elections: Federal Senate - last held 6 October 2002 for two-thirds of the Senate (next to be held NA October 2006 for one-third of the Senate); Chamber of Deputies - last held 6 October 2002 (next to be held NA October 2006)
Brazil Judicial branch Supreme Federal Tribunal (11 ministers are appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate); Higher Tribunal of Justice; Regional Federal Tribunals (judges are appointed for life)
Brazil Political parties and leaders Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Michel TEMER]; Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Jose Carlos MARTINEZ]; Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Senator Jose ANIBAL]; Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Miguel ARRAES]; Brazilian Progressive Party or PPB [Paulo Salim MALUF]; Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Renato RABELLO]; Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Leonel BRIZOLA]; Green Party or PV [leader NA]; Liberal Front Party or PFL [Jorge BORNHAUSEN]; Liberal Party or PL [Deputy Valdemar COSTA Neto]; National Order Reconstruction Party or PRONA [Dr. Eneas CARNEIRO]; Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Senator Roberto FREIRE]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [leader NA]; Worker's Party or PT [Jose GENOINO]
Brazil Political pressure groups and leaders left wing of the Catholic Church; Landless Worker's Movement; labor unions allied to leftist Worker's Party
Brazil International organization participation AfDB, BIS, ECLAC, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMISET, UNMOP, UNMOVIC, UNU, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Brazil Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Rubens Antonio BARBOSA; note - Ambassador-Designate Roberto ABDENUR expected to arrive March 2004 FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827 consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700
Brazil Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Donna J. HRINAK embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Distrito Federal Cep 70403-900, Brasilia mailing address: Unit 3500, APO AA 34030 telephone: [55] (61) 312-7000 FAX: [55] (61) 225-9136 consulate(s) general: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo consulate(s): Recife
Brazil Flag description green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one for each state and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern as the night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)
Brazil Economy - overview Possessing large and well-developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, Brazil's economy outweighs that of all other South American countries and is expanding its presence in world markets. The maintenance of large current account deficits via capital account surpluses became problematic as investors became more risk averse to emerging markets as a consequence of the Asian financial crisis in 1997 and the Russian bond default in August 1998. After crafting a fiscal adjustment program and pledging progress on structural reform, Brazil received a $41.5 billion IMF-led international support program in November 1998. In January 1999, the Brazilian Central Bank announced that the real would no longer be pegged to the US dollar. The consequent devaluation helped moderate the downturn in economic growth in 1999, and the country posted moderate GDP growth in 2000. Economic growth slowed considerably in 2001-03 - to less than 2% - because of a slowdown in major markets and the hiking of interest rates by the Central Bank to combat inflationary pressures. New president DA SILVA, who took office 1 January 2003, has given priority to reforming the complex tax code, trimming the overblown civil service pension system, and continuing the fight against inflation.
Brazil GDP purchasing power parity - $1.376 trillion (2002 est.)
Brazil GDP - real growth rate 1.5% (2002 est.)
Brazil GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $7,600 (2002 est.)
Brazil GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 8% industry: 36% services: 56% (2001 est.)
Brazil Population below poverty line 22% (1998 est.)
Brazil Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 0.7% highest 10%: 48% (1998)
Brazil Distribution of family income - Gini index 60.7 (1998)
Brazil Inflation rate (consumer prices) 8.3% (2002)
Brazil Labor force 79 million (1999 est.)
Brazil Labor force - by occupation services 53%, agriculture 23%, industry 24%
Brazil Unemployment rate 6.4% (2001 est.)
Brazil Budget revenues: $100.6 billion expenditures: $91.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000)
Brazil Industries textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment
Brazil Industrial production growth rate 2.3% (2002 est.)
Brazil Electricity - production 321.2 billion kWh (2001)
Brazil Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 8.3% hydro: 82.7% other: 4.6% (2001) nuclear: 4.4%
Brazil Electricity - consumption 335.9 billion kWh (2001)
Brazil Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Brazil Electricity - imports 37.19 billion kWh; note - supplied by Paraguay (2001)
Brazil Oil - production 1.561 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Brazil Oil - consumption 2.199 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Brazil Oil - exports NA (2001)
Brazil Oil - imports NA (2001)
Brazil Oil - proved reserves 8.507 billion bbl (37257)
Brazil Natural gas - production 5.95 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Brazil Natural gas - consumption 9.59 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Brazil Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Brazil Natural gas - imports 3.64 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Brazil Natural gas - proved reserves 221.7 billion cu m (37257)
Brazil Agriculture - products coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef
Brazil Exports $59.4 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Brazil Exports - commodities transport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, autos
Brazil Exports - partners US 23.8%, Argentina 8.5%, Germany 5%, China 4.3%, Netherlands 4.2% (2002)
Brazil Imports $46.2 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Brazil Imports - commodities machinery, electrical, and transport equipment, chemical products, oil
Brazil Imports - partners US 23.3%, Argentina 12.6%, Germany 8.7%, France 5.2% (2002)
Brazil Debt - external $222.4 billion (2002)
Brazil Economic aid - recipient $30 billion IMF disbursement (2002)
Brazil Currency real (BRL)
Brazil Currency code BRL
Brazil Exchange rates reals per US dollar - 2.92 (2002), 2.36 (2001), 1.83 (2000), 1.81 (1999), 1.16 (1998) note: from October 1994 through 14 January 1999, the official rate was determined by a managed float; since 15 January 1999, the official rate floats independently with respect to the US dollar
Brazil Fiscal year calendar year
Brazil Telephones - main lines in use 17.039 million (1997)
Brazil Telephones - mobile cellular 4.4 million (1997)
Brazil Telephone system general assessment: good working system domestic: extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 64 earth stations international: 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station
Brazil Radio broadcast stations AM 1,365, FM 296, shortwave 161 (of which 91 are collocated with AM stations) (1999)
Brazil Television broadcast stations 138 (1997)
Brazil Internet country code .br
Brazil Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 50 (2000)
Brazil Internet users 13.98 million (2002)
Brazil Railways total: 31,543 km (1,981 km electrified) broad gauge: 4,961 km 1.600-m gauge (692 km electrified) narrow gauge: 25,992 km 1.000-m gauge (581 km electrified) dual gauge: 396 km 1.000-m and 1.600-m gauges (three rails) (78 km electrified) (2002) standard gauge: 194 km 1.440-m gauge (630 km electrified)
Brazil Highways total: 1,724,929 km paved: 94,871 km unpaved: 1,630,058 km (2000)
Brazil Waterways 50,000 km
Brazil Pipelines condensate/gas 243 km; gas 10,984 km; liquid petroleum gas 341 km; oil 5,113 km; refined products 4,800 km (2003)
Brazil Ports and harbors Belem, Fortaleza, Ilheus, Imbituba, Manaus, Paranagua, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, Salvador, Santos, Vitoria
Brazil Merchant marine total: 159 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 3,257,186 GRT/5,101,578 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Chile 2, Germany 6, Greece 1, Monaco 1 (2002 est.) ships by type: bulk 29, cargo 23, chemical tanker 7, combination ore/oil 7, container 12, liquefied gas 11, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 53, roll on/roll off 10, short-sea passenger 1
Brazil Airports 3,590 (2002)
Brazil Airports - with paved runways total: 665 over 3,047 m: 7 2,438 to 3,047 m: 23 1,524 to 2,437 m: 155 914 to 1,523 m: 435 under 914 m: 45 (2002)
Brazil Airports - with unpaved runways total: 2,925 1,524 to 2,437 m: 70 914 to 1,523 m: 1,384 under 914 m: 1,471 (2002)
Brazil Military branches Brazilian Army, Brazilian Navy (includes naval air and marines), Brazilian Air Force, Federal Police (paramilitary)
Brazil Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Brazil Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 51,381,048 (2003 est.)
Brazil Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 34,347,078 (2003 est.)
Brazil Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 1,744,148 (2003 est.)
Brazil Military expenditures - dollar figure $13.408 billion (FY99)
Brazil Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.9% (FY99)
Brazil Disputes - international unruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and drug trafficking, and harbors Islamist militants; uncontested dispute with Uruguay over certain islands in the Quarai/Cuareim and Invernada boundary streams and the resulting tripoint with Argentina
Brazil Illicit drugs illicit producer of cannabis; minor coca cultivation in the Amazon region, used for domestic consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment country for Colombian and Peruvian cocaine headed for the US and Europe; also used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics air transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in drug-related violence and weapons smuggling; important market for Colombian, Bolivian, and Peruvian cocaine; illicit narcotics proceeds earned in Brazil are often laundered through the financial system; significant illicit financial activity in the Tri-Border Area
British Indian Ocean Territory Background Established as a territory of the UK in 1965, a number of the British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT) islands were transferred to the Seychelles when it attained independence in 1976. Subsequently, BIOT has consisted only of the six main island groups comprising the Chagos Archipelago. The largest and most southerly of the islands, Diego Garcia, contains a joint UK-US naval support facility. All of the remaining islands are uninhabited. Former agricultural workers, earlier residents in the islands, were relocated primarily to Mauritius but also to the Seychelles, between 1967 and 1973. In 2000, a British High Court ruling invalidated the local immigration order that had excluded them from the archipelago, but upheld the special military status of Diego Garcia.
British Indian Ocean Territory Location archipelago in the Indian Ocean, south of India, about one-half the way from Africa to Indonesia
British Indian Ocean Territory Geographic coordinates 6 00 S, 71 30 E
British Indian Ocean Territory Map references Political Map of the World
British Indian Ocean Territory Area total: 60 sq km note: includes the entire Chagos Archipelago water: 0 sq km land: 60 sq km
British Indian Ocean Territory Area - comparative about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
British Indian Ocean Territory Land boundaries 0 km
British Indian Ocean Territory Coastline 698 km
British Indian Ocean Territory Maritime claims exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 3 NM
British Indian Ocean Territory Climate tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds
British Indian Ocean Territory Terrain flat and low (most areas do not exceed four meters in elevation)
British Indian Ocean Territory Elevation extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location on Diego Garcia 15 m
British Indian Ocean Territory Natural resources coconuts, fish, sugarcane
British Indian Ocean Territory Land use arable land: NEGL permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (1998 est.)
British Indian Ocean Territory Irrigated land 0 sq km (1998 est.)
British Indian Ocean Territory Natural hazards NA
British Indian Ocean Territory Environment - current issues NA
British Indian Ocean Territory Geography - note archipelago of 2,300 islands; Diego Garcia, largest and southernmost island, occupies strategic location in central Indian Ocean; island is site of joint US-UK military facility
British Indian Ocean Territory Population no indigenous inhabitants note: approximately 1,200 former agricultural workers resident in the Chagos Archipelago, often referred to as Chagossians or Ilois, were relocated to Mauritius and the Seychelles in the 1960's and 1970's, in November 2000 they were granted the right of return by a British High Court ruling, though no timetable has been set; in 2001, there were approximately 1,500 UK and US military personnel and 2,000 civilian contractors living on the island of Diego Garcia (July 2003 est.)
British Indian Ocean Territory Country name conventional long form: British Indian Ocean Territory conventional short form: none abbreviation: BIOT
British Indian Ocean Territory Dependency status overseas territory of the UK; administered by a commissioner, resident in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in London
British Indian Ocean Territory Legal system the laws of the UK, where applicable, apply
British Indian Ocean Territory Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) head of government: Commissioner Alan HUCKLE (since 2001); Administrator Louise SAVILL (since NA); note - both reside in the UK elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; commissioner and administrator appointed by the monarch cabinet: NA
British Indian Ocean Territory Diplomatic representation in the US none (overseas territory of the UK)
British Indian Ocean Territory Diplomatic representation from the US none (overseas territory of the UK)
British Indian Ocean Territory Flag description white with six blue wavy horizontal stripes; the flag of the UK is in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the striped section bears a palm tree and yellow crown centered on the outer half of the flag
British Indian Ocean Territory Economy - overview All economic activity is concentrated on the largest island of Diego Garcia, where joint UK-US defense facilities are located. Construction projects and various services needed to support the military installations are done by military and contract employees from the UK, Mauritius, the Philippines, and the US. There are no industrial or agricultural activities on the islands. When the Ilois return, they plan to reestablish sugarcane production and fishing.
British Indian Ocean Territory Electricity - production NA kWh; note - electricity supplied by the US military
British Indian Ocean Territory Electricity - consumption NA kWh
British Indian Ocean Territory Telephones - main lines in use NA
British Indian Ocean Territory Telephone system general assessment: separate facilities for military and public needs are available domestic: all commercial telephone services are available, including connection to the Internet international: international telephone service is carried by satellite (2000)
British Indian Ocean Territory Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)
British Indian Ocean Territory Television broadcast stations 1 (1997)
British Indian Ocean Territory Internet country code .io
British Indian Ocean Territory Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
British Indian Ocean Territory Highways total: NA km paved: short section of paved road between port and airfield on Diego Garcia unpaved: NA km
British Indian Ocean Territory Waterways none
British Indian Ocean Territory Ports and harbors Diego Garcia
British Indian Ocean Territory Airports 1 (2002)
British Indian Ocean Territory Airports - with paved runways total: 1 over 3,047 m: 1 (2002)
British Indian Ocean Territory Military - note defense is the responsibility of the UK; the US lease on Diego Garcia expires in 2016
British Indian Ocean Territory Disputes - international Mauritius and Seychelles claim the Chagos Archipelago and its former inhabitants, who reside chiefly in Mauritius, but in 2001 were granted UK citizenship and the right to repatriation since eviction in 1965; repatriation is complicated by the US military lease of Diego Garcia, the largest island in the chain
British Virgin Islands Background First settled by the Dutch in 1648, the islands were annexed in 1672 by the English. The economy is closely tied to the larger and more populous US Virgin Islands to the west; the US dollar is the legal currency.
British Virgin Islands Location Caribbean, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of Puerto Rico
British Virgin Islands Geographic coordinates 18 30 N, 64 30 W
British Virgin Islands Map references Central America and the Caribbean
British Virgin Islands Area total: 153 sq km note: comprised of 16 inhabited and more than 20 uninhabited islands; includes the island of Anegada water: 0 sq km land: 153 sq km
British Virgin Islands Area - comparative about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC
British Virgin Islands Land boundaries 0 km
British Virgin Islands Coastline 80 km
British Virgin Islands Maritime claims exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 3 NM
British Virgin Islands Climate subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds
British Virgin Islands Terrain coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep, hilly
British Virgin Islands Elevation extremes lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Mount Sage 521 m
British Virgin Islands Natural resources NEGL
British Virgin Islands Land use arable land: 20% permanent crops: 6.67% other: 73.33% (1998 est.)
British Virgin Islands Irrigated land NA sq km
British Virgin Islands Natural hazards hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October)
British Virgin Islands Environment - current issues limited natural fresh water resources (except for a few seasonal streams and springs on Tortola, most of the islands' water supply comes from wells and rainwater catchments)
British Virgin Islands Geography - note strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico
British Virgin Islands Population 21,730 (July 2003 est.)
British Virgin Islands Age structure 0-14 years: 21.9% (male 2,401; female 2,358) 15-64 years: 73.1% (male 8,181; female 7,709) 65 years and over: 5% (male 578; female 503) (2003 est.)
British Virgin Islands Median age total: 30.7 years male: 31 years female: 30.4 years (2002)
British Virgin Islands Population growth rate 2.1% (2003 est.)
British Virgin Islands Birth rate 15 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
British Virgin Islands Death rate 4.46 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
British Virgin Islands Net migration rate 10.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
British Virgin Islands Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.15 male(s)/female total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
British Virgin Islands Infant mortality rate total: 18.8 deaths/1,000 live births female: 15.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 21.86 deaths/1,000 live births
British Virgin Islands Life expectancy at birth total population: 76.06 years male: 75.07 years female: 77.1 years (2003 est.)
British Virgin Islands Total fertility rate 1.72 children born/woman (2003 est.)
British Virgin Islands HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate NA%
British Virgin Islands HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
British Virgin Islands HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
British Virgin Islands Nationality noun: British Virgin Islander(s) adjective: British Virgin Islander
British Virgin Islands Ethnic groups black 83%, white, Indian, Asian and mixed
British Virgin Islands Religions Protestant 86% (Methodist 33%, Anglican 17%, Church of God 9%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6%, Baptist 4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2%, other 15%), Roman Catholic 10%, none 2%, other 2% (1991)
British Virgin Islands Languages English (official)
British Virgin Islands Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 97.8% (1991 est.) male: NA% female: NA%
British Virgin Islands Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: British Virgin Islands abbreviation: BVI
British Virgin Islands Dependency status overseas territory of the UK; internal self-governing
British Virgin Islands Government type NA
British Virgin Islands Capital Road Town
British Virgin Islands Administrative divisions none (overseas territory of the UK)
British Virgin Islands Independence none (overseas territory of the UK)
British Virgin Islands National holiday Territory Day, 1 July
British Virgin Islands Constitution 1 June 1977
British Virgin Islands Legal system English law
British Virgin Islands Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
British Virgin Islands Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Tom MACAN (since 14 October 2002) elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed chief minister by the governor head of government: Chief Minister Orlando SMITH (since 17 June 2003) cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from members of the Legislative Council
British Virgin Islands Legislative branch unicameral Legislative Council (13 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, one member from each of 9 electoral districts, four at-large members; members serve four-year terms) elections: last held 16 May 2003 (next to be held NA 2007) election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NDP 8, VIP 5
British Virgin Islands Judicial branch Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, consisting of the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeal (one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the High Court); Magistrate's Court; Juvenile Court; Court of Summary Jurisdiction
British Virgin Islands Political parties and leaders Concerned Citizens Movement or CCM [Ethlyn SMITH]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Orlando SMITH]; United Party or UP [Gregory MADURO]; Virgin Islands Party or VIP [Ralph T. O'NEAL]
British Virgin Islands Political pressure groups and leaders NA
British Virgin Islands International organization participation Caricom (associate), CDB, ECLAC (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, OECS (associate), UNESCO (associate)
British Virgin Islands Diplomatic representation in the US none (overseas territory of the UK)
British Virgin Islands Diplomatic representation from the US none (overseas territory of the UK)
British Virgin Islands Flag description blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Virgin Islander coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts a woman flanked on either side by a vertical column of six oil lamps above a scroll bearing the Latin word VIGILATE (Be Watchful)
British Virgin Islands Economy - overview The economy, one of the most stable and prosperous in the Caribbean, is highly dependent on tourism, generating an estimated 45% of the national income. An estimated 350,000 tourists, mainly from the US, visited the islands in 1998. Tourism suffered in 2002 because of the lackluster US economy. In the mid-1980s, the government began offering offshore registration to companies wishing to incorporate in the islands, and incorporation fees now generate substantial revenues. Roughly 400,000 companies were on the offshore registry by yearend 2000. The adoption of a comprehensive insurance law in late 1994, which provides a blanket of confidentiality with regulated statutory gateways for investigation of criminal offenses, is expected to make the British Virgin Islands even more attractive to international business. Livestock raising is the most important agricultural activity; poor soils limit the islands' ability to meet domestic food requirements. Because of traditionally close links with the US Virgin Islands, the British Virgin Islands has used the dollar as its currency since 1959.
British Virgin Islands GDP purchasing power parity - $320 million (2002 est.)
British Virgin Islands GDP - real growth rate 1% (2002 est.)
British Virgin Islands GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $16,000 (2002 est.)
British Virgin Islands GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 1.8% industry: 6.2% services: 92% (1996 est.)
British Virgin Islands Population below poverty line NA%
British Virgin Islands Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
British Virgin Islands Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.5% (2002)
British Virgin Islands Labor force 4,911 (1980)
British Virgin Islands Labor force - by occupation agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
British Virgin Islands Unemployment rate 3% (1995)
British Virgin Islands Budget revenues: $121.5 million expenditures: $115.5 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997)
British Virgin Islands Industries tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete block, offshore financial center
British Virgin Islands Industrial production growth rate NA
British Virgin Islands Electricity - production 38.1 million kWh (2001)
British Virgin Islands Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
British Virgin Islands Electricity - consumption 35.43 million kWh (2001)
British Virgin Islands Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
British Virgin Islands Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
British Virgin Islands Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
British Virgin Islands Oil - consumption 420 bbl/day (2001 est.)
British Virgin Islands Oil - exports NA (2001)
British Virgin Islands Oil - imports NA (2001)
British Virgin Islands Agriculture - products fruits, vegetables; livestock, poultry; fish
British Virgin Islands Exports $25.3 million (2002)
British Virgin Islands Exports - commodities rum, fresh fish, fruits, animals; gravel, sand
British Virgin Islands Exports - partners Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US
British Virgin Islands Imports $187 million (2002 est.)
British Virgin Islands Imports - commodities building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs, machinery
British Virgin Islands Imports - partners Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US
British Virgin Islands Debt - external $36.1 million (1997)
British Virgin Islands Economic aid - recipient NA%
British Virgin Islands Currency US dollar (USD)
British Virgin Islands Currency code USD
British Virgin Islands Exchange rates the US dollar is used
British Virgin Islands Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
British Virgin Islands Telephones - main lines in use 10,000 (1996)
British Virgin Islands Telephones - mobile cellular NA
British Virgin Islands Telephone system general assessment: worldwide telephone service domestic: NA international: submarine cable to Bermuda
British Virgin Islands Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)
British Virgin Islands Television broadcast stations 1 (plus one cable company) (1997)
British Virgin Islands Internet country code .vg
British Virgin Islands Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 16 (2000)
British Virgin Islands Internet users NA
British Virgin Islands Railways 0 km
British Virgin Islands Highways total: 177 km paved: 177 km unpaved: 0 km (2000)
British Virgin Islands Waterways none
British Virgin Islands Ports and harbors Road Town
British Virgin Islands Merchant marine total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) 19,203 GRT/28,864 DWT ships by type: cargo 1 (2002 est.)
British Virgin Islands Airports 3 (2002)
British Virgin Islands Airports - with paved runways total: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2002)
British Virgin Islands Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)
British Virgin Islands Military - note defense is the responsibility of the UK
British Virgin Islands Disputes - international none
British Virgin Islands Illicit drugs transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the US and Europe; large offshore financial center
Brunei Background The Sultanate of Brunei's influence peaked between the 15th and 17th centuries when its control extended over coastal areas of northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was achieved in 1984. The same family has ruled Brunei for over six centuries. Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields, the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in the developing world.
Brunei Location Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia
Brunei Geographic coordinates 4 30 N, 114 40 E
Brunei Map references Southeast Asia
Brunei Area total: 5,770 sq km water: 500 sq km land: 5,270 sq km
Brunei Area - comparative slightly smaller than Delaware
Brunei Land boundaries total: 381 km border countries: Malaysia 381 km
Brunei Coastline 161 km
Brunei Maritime claims exclusive economic zone: 200 NM or to median line territorial sea: 12 NM
Brunei Climate tropical; hot, humid, rainy
Brunei Terrain flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west
Brunei Elevation extremes lowest point: South China Sea 0 m highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m
Brunei Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, timber
Brunei Land use arable land: 0.57% permanent crops: 0.76% other: 98.67% (1998 est.)
Brunei Irrigated land 10 sq km (1998 est.)
Brunei Natural hazards typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare
Brunei Environment - current issues seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
Brunei Environment - international agreements party to: Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Brunei Geography - note close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave of Malaysia
Brunei Population 358,098 (July 2003 est.)
Brunei Age structure 0-14 years: 29.6% (male 54,118; female 51,902) 15-64 years: 67.6% (male 128,421; female 113,480) 65 years and over: 2.8% (male 4,804; female 5,373) (2003 est.)
Brunei Median age total: 26.4 years male: 27 years female: 25.7 years (2002)
Brunei Population growth rate 2% (2003 est.)
Brunei Birth rate 19.68 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Brunei Death rate 3.39 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Brunei Net migration rate 3.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Brunei Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.13 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female total population: 1.1 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Brunei Infant mortality rate total: 13.5 deaths/1,000 live births female: 9.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 17.09 deaths/1,000 live births
Brunei Life expectancy at birth total population: 74.3 years male: 71.9 years female: 76.82 years (2003 est.)
Brunei Total fertility rate 2.37 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Brunei HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.2% (2001 est.)
Brunei HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS less than 100 (2001 est.)
Brunei HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Brunei Nationality noun: Bruneian(s) adjective: Bruneian
Brunei Ethnic groups Malay 67%, Chinese 15%, indigenous 6%, other 12%
Brunei Religions Muslim (official) 67%, Buddhist 13%, Christian 10%, indigenous beliefs and other 10%
Brunei Languages Malay (official), English, Chinese
Brunei Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 91.8% male: 94.8% female: 88.5% (2003 est.)
Brunei Country name conventional long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam conventional short form: Brunei
Brunei Government type constitutional sultanate
Brunei Capital Bandar Seri Begawan
Brunei Administrative divisions 4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong
Brunei Independence 1 January 1984 (from UK)
Brunei National holiday National Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January 1984 was the date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the date of independence from British protection
Brunei Constitution 29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January 1984)
Brunei Legal system based on English common law; for Muslims, Islamic Shari'a law supersedes civil law in a number of areas
Brunei Suffrage none
Brunei Executive branch chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by the monarch; deals with executive matters; note - there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the monarch) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the monarch) that deals with constitutional matters, and the Council of Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that determines the succession to the throne if the need arises elections: none; the monarch is hereditary
Brunei Legislative branch unicameral Legislative Council or Majlis Masyuarat Megeri (a privy council that serves only in a consultative capacity; NA seats; members appointed by the monarch) elections: last held in March 1962 note: in 1970 the Council was changed to an appointive body by decree of the monarch; an elected Legislative Council is being considered as part of constitutional reform, but elections are unlikely for several years
Brunei Judicial branch Supreme Court (chief justice and judges are sworn in by the monarch for three-year terms)
Brunei Political parties and leaders Brunei Solidarity National Party or PPKB in Malay [Haji Mohd HATTA bin Haji Zainal Abidin, president]; note - the PPKB is the only legal political party in Brunei; it was registered in 1985 but became largely inactive after 1988; it was revived in 1995 and again in 1998; it has less than 200 registered party members; other parties include Brunei People's Party or PRB (banned in 1962) and Brunei National Democratic Party (registered in May 1965, deregistered by the Brunei Government in 1988)
Brunei Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Brunei International organization participation APEC, ARF, ASEAN, C, ESCAP, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFRCS, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Brunei Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Anak Dato Haji PUTEH FAX: [1] (202) 885-0560 telephone: [1] (202) 237-1838 chancery: 3520 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
Brunei Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Gene B. CHRISTY embassy: Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri Begawan mailing address: PSC 470 (BSB), FPO AP 96507 telephone: [673] (2) 229670 FAX: [673] (2) 225293
Brunei Flag description yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands
Brunei Economy - overview This small, wealthy economy encompasses a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation, welfare measures, and village tradition. Crude oil and natural gas production account for nearly half of GDP. Per capita GDP is far above most other Third World countries, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. The government provides for all medical services and subsidizes rice and housing. Brunei's leaders are concerned that steadily increased integration in the world economy will undermine internal social cohesion, although it became a more prominent player by serving as chairman for the 2000 APEC (Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation) forum. Plans for the future include upgrading the labor force, reducing unemployment, strengthening the banking and tourist sectors, and, in general, further widening the economic base beyond oil and gas.
Brunei GDP purchasing power parity - $6.5 billion (2002 est.)
Brunei GDP - real growth rate 3% (2002 est.)
Brunei GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $18,600 (2002 est.)
Brunei GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 5% industry: 45% services: 50% (2001 est.)
Brunei Population below poverty line NA%
Brunei Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Brunei Inflation rate (consumer prices) -2% (2002 est.)
Brunei Labor force 143,400 note: includes foreign workers and military personnel; temporary residents make up about 40% of labor force (1999 est.)
Brunei Labor force - by occupation government 48%, production of oil, natural gas, services, and construction 42%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 10% (1999 est.)
Brunei Unemployment rate 10% (2001 est.)
Brunei Budget revenues: $2.5 billion expenditures: $2.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.35 billion (1997 est.)
Brunei Industries petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction
Brunei Industrial production growth rate 5% (2002 est.)
Brunei Electricity - production 2.497 billion kWh (2001)
Brunei Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Brunei Electricity - consumption 2.322 billion kWh (2001)
Brunei Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Brunei Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Brunei Oil - production 217,200 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Brunei Oil - consumption 13,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Brunei Oil - exports NA (2001)
Brunei Oil - imports NA (2001)
Brunei Oil - proved reserves 1.255 billion bbl (37257)
Brunei Natural gas - production 10.35 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Brunei Natural gas - consumption 1.35 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Brunei Natural gas - exports 9 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Brunei Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Brunei Natural gas - proved reserves 315 billion cu m (37257)
Brunei Agriculture - products rice, vegetables, fruits, chickens, water buffalo
Brunei Exports $3 billion f.o.b. (2000 est.)
Brunei Exports - commodities crude oil, natural gas, refined products
Brunei Exports - partners Japan 40.3%, South Korea 12.3%, Thailand 12.1%, Australia 9.2%, US 8.1%, China 6.4%, Singapore 5.7% (2002)
Brunei Imports $1.4 billion c.i.f. (2000 est.)
Brunei Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals
Brunei Imports - partners Singapore 30.6%, Japan 21.5%, Malaysia 17.4%, UK 6.1%, Hong Kong 4% (2002)
Brunei Debt - external $0
Brunei Economic aid - recipient $4.3 million (1995)
Brunei Currency Bruneian dollar (BND)
Brunei Currency code BND
Brunei Exchange rates Bruneian dollars per US dollar - 1.79 (2002), 1.79 (2001), 1.72 (2000), 1.69 (1999), 1.67 (1998)
Brunei Fiscal year calendar year
Brunei Telephones - main lines in use 79,000 (1996)
Brunei Telephones - mobile cellular 43,524 (1996)
Brunei Telephone system general assessment: service throughout the country is excellent; international service is good to East Asia, Europe, and the US domestic: every service available international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean); digital submarine cable links to Malaysia, the Philippines, and Singapore (2001)
Brunei Radio broadcast stations AM 3, FM 10, shortwave 0 (1998)
Brunei Television broadcast stations 2 (1997)
Brunei Internet country code .bn
Brunei Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 2 (2000)
Brunei Internet users 35,000 (2002)
Brunei Railways total: 13 km (private line) narrow gauge: 13 km 0.610-m gauge (2001 est.)
Brunei Highways total: 2,525 km paved: 2,525 km unpaved: 0 km (2000)
Brunei Waterways 209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m
Brunei Pipelines gas 665 km; oil 439 km (2003)
Brunei Ports and harbors Bandar Seri Begawan, Kuala Belait, Muara, Seria, Tutong
Brunei Merchant marine total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 465,937 GRT/413,393 DWT ships by type: liquefied gas 8 note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: UK 7 (2002 est.)
Brunei Airports 2 (2002)
Brunei Airports - with paved runways total: 1 over 3,047 m: 1 (2002)
Brunei Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)
Brunei Heliports 3 (2002)
Brunei Military branches Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Royal Brunei Police
Brunei Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Brunei Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 110,888 (2003 est.)
Brunei Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 63,966 (2003 est.)
Brunei Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 3,277 (2003 est.)
Brunei Military expenditures - dollar figure $329.7 million (FY02)
Brunei Military expenditures - percent of GDP 5% (FY02)
Brunei Disputes - international Involved in dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam; Brunei established an exclusive economic fishing zone encompassing Louisa Reef in southern Spratly Islands in 1984 but makes no public territorial claim to the offshore reefs; claimants in November 2002 signed the "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea", a mechanism to ease tension but which fell short of a legally binding "code of conduct"
Brunei Illicit drugs drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled substances are serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death penalty
Bulgaria Background The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic tribe, merged with the local Slavic inhabitants in the late 7th century to form the first Bulgarian state. In succeeding centuries, Bulgaria struggled with the Byzantine Empire to assert its place in the Balkans, but by the end of the 14th century the country was overrun by the Ottoman Turks. Bulgaria regained its independence in 1878, but having fought on the losing side in both World Wars, it fell within the Soviet sphere of influence and became a People's Republic in 1946. Communist domination ended in 1990, when Bulgaria held its first multiparty election since World War II and began the contentious process of moving toward political democracy and a market economy while combating inflation, unemployment, corruption, and crime. Today, reforms and democratization keep Bulgaria on a path toward eventual integration into NATO and the EU - with which it began accession negotiations in 2000.
Bulgaria Location Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and Turkey
Bulgaria Geographic coordinates 43 00 N, 25 00 E
Bulgaria Map references Europe
Bulgaria Area total: 110,910 sq km water: 360 sq km land: 110,550 sq km
Bulgaria Area - comparative slightly larger than Tennessee
Bulgaria Land boundaries total: 1,808 km border countries: Greece 494 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia and Montenegro 318 km, Turkey 240 km
Bulgaria Coastline 354 km
Bulgaria Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
Bulgaria Climate temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers
Bulgaria Terrain mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast
Bulgaria Elevation extremes lowest point: Black Sea 0 m highest point: Musala 2,925 m
Bulgaria Natural resources bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land
Bulgaria Land use arable land: 39% permanent crops: 1.8% other: 59.2% (1998 est.)
Bulgaria Irrigated land 8,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Bulgaria Natural hazards earthquakes, landslides
Bulgaria Environment - current issues air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants and industrial wastes
Bulgaria Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Bulgaria Geography - note strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia
Bulgaria Population 7,537,929 (July 2003 est.)
Bulgaria Age structure 0-14 years: 14.2% (male 549,142; female 520,057) 15-64 years: 68.8% (male 2,551,548; female 2,632,978) 65 years and over: 17% (male 535,165; female 749,039) (2003 est.)
Bulgaria Median age total: 40.5 years male: 38.4 years female: 42.4 years (2002)
Bulgaria Population growth rate -1.09% (2003 est.)
Bulgaria Birth rate 8.02 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bulgaria Death rate 14.34 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bulgaria Net migration rate -4.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bulgaria Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Bulgaria Infant mortality rate total: 13.7 deaths/1,000 live births female: 11.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 15.43 deaths/1,000 live births
Bulgaria Life expectancy at birth total population: 71.8 years male: 68.26 years female: 75.56 years (2003 est.)
Bulgaria Total fertility rate 1.13 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Bulgaria HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate less than 0.1% - note: no country specific models provided (2001 est.)
Bulgaria HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 346 (2001 est.)
Bulgaria HIV/AIDS - deaths 100 (2001 est.)
Bulgaria Nationality noun: Bulgarian(s) adjective: Bulgarian
Bulgaria Ethnic groups Bulgarian 83.6%, Turk 9.5%, Roma 4.6%, other 2.3% (including Macedonian, Armenian, Tatar, Circassian) (1998)
Bulgaria Religions Bulgarian Orthodox 83.8%, Muslim 12.1%, Roman Catholic 1.7%, Jewish 0.1%, Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian, and other 2.3% (1998)
Bulgaria Languages Bulgarian, secondary languages closely correspond to ethnic breakdown
Bulgaria Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 98.6% male: 99.1% female: 98.2% (2003 est.)
Bulgaria Country name conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria conventional short form: Bulgaria
Bulgaria Government type parliamentary democracy
Bulgaria Capital Sofia
Bulgaria Administrative divisions 28 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast); Blagoevgrad, Burgas, Dobrich, Gabrovo, Khaskovo, Kurdzhali, Kyustendil, Lovech, Montana, Pazardzhik, Pernik, Pleven, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Ruse, Shumen, Silistra, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofiya, Sofiya-Grad, Stara Zagora, Turgovishte, Varna, Veliko Turnovo, Vidin, Vratsa, Yambol
Bulgaria Independence 3 March 1878 (from Ottoman Empire)
Bulgaria National holiday Liberation Day, 3 March (1878)
Bulgaria Constitution adopted 12 July 1991
Bulgaria Legal system civil law and criminal law based on Roman law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Bulgaria Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Bulgaria Executive branch chief of state: President Georgi PURVANOV (since 22 January 2002); Vice President Angel MARIN (since 22 January 2002) head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) Simeon SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA (since 24 July 2001); Deputy Prime Ministers Nikolay VASILEV (since 24 July 2001), and Lidiya SHULEVA (since 24 July 2001), Plamen PANAYOTOV (since 17 July 2003) cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 11 November and 18 November 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister) nominated by the president; deputy prime ministers nominated by the prime minister election results: Georgi PURVANOV elected president; percent of vote - Georgi PURVANOV 54.13%, Petar STOYANOV 45.87%
Bulgaria Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sobranie (240 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 17 June 2001 (next to be held NA June 2005) election results: percent of vote by party - NMS2 42.74%, UtdDF 18.18%, CfB 17.15%, MRF 7.45%; seats by party - NMS2 120, UtdDF 51, CfB 48, MRF 21; note - seating as of March 2003 - NMS2 110, UtdDF 50, CfB 48, MRF 20, independents 12
Bulgaria Judicial branch Supreme Administrative Court; Supreme Court of Cassation; Constitutional Court (12 justices appointed or elected for nine-year terms); Supreme Judicial Council (consists of the chairmen of the two Supreme Courts, the Chief Prosecutor, and 22 other members; responsible for appointing the justices, prosecutors, and investigating magistrates in the justice system; members of the Supreme Judicial Council elected for five-year terms, 11 elected by the National Assembly and 11 by bodies of the judiciary)
Bulgaria Political parties and leaders Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Sergei STANISHEV]; Coalition for Bulgaria or CfB (coalition of parties dominated by BSP) [Sergei STANISHEV]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization or VMRO [Krasimir KARAKACHANOV]; Movement for Rights and Freedoms or MRF [Ahmed DOGAN]; National Movement for Simeon II or NMS2 [Simeon SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA]; Union of Democratic Forces or UDF [Nadezhda MIKHAYLOVA]; Union of Free Democrats or UFD [Stefan SOFIYANSKI]; United Democratic Forces or UtdDF (a coalition between the UDF and other center-right parties)
Bulgaria Political pressure groups and leaders agrarian movement; Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB; Podkrepa Labor Confederation; numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas
Bulgaria International organization participation ACCT, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Bulgaria Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Elena B. POPTODOROVA consulate(s): New York FAX: [1] (202) 234-7973 telephone: [1] (202) 387-0174 chancery: 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Bulgaria Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador James William PARDEW embassy: 1 Suborna Street, Sofia 1000 mailing address: American Embassy Sofia, Department of State, 5740 Sofia Place, Washington, DC 20521-5740 telephone: [359] (2) 937-5100 FAX: [359] (2) 981-89-77
Bulgaria Flag description three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; the national emblem formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe has been removed - it contained a rampant lion within a wreath of wheat ears below a red five-pointed star and above a ribbon bearing the dates 681 (first Bulgarian state established) and 1944 (liberation from Nazi control)
Bulgaria Economy - overview Bulgaria, a former communist country striving to enter the European Union, has experienced macroeconomic stability and strong growth since a major economic downturn in 1996 led to the fall of the then socialist government. As a result, the government became committed to economic reform and responsible fiscal planning. A $300 million stand-by agreement negotiated with the IMF at the end of 2001 has supported government efforts to overcome high rates of poverty and unemployment.
Bulgaria GDP purchasing power parity - $49.23 billion (2002 est.)
Bulgaria GDP - real growth rate 4.8% (2002 est.)
Bulgaria GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $6,500 (2002 est.)
Bulgaria GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 13.7% industry: 28.5% services: 57.9% (2001)
Bulgaria Population below poverty line 12.6% (2001 est.)
Bulgaria Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 4.5% highest 10%: 22.8% (1997)
Bulgaria Distribution of family income - Gini index 26.4 (2001)
Bulgaria Inflation rate (consumer prices) 5.9% (2002 est.)
Bulgaria Labor force 3.83 million (2000 est.)
Bulgaria Labor force - by occupation agriculture 26%, industry 31%, services 43% (1998 est.)
Bulgaria Unemployment rate 18% (2002 est.)
Bulgaria Budget revenues: $5.57 billion expenditures: $5.68 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Bulgaria Industries electricity, gas and water; food, beverages and tobacco; machinery and equipment, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined petroleum, nuclear fuel
Bulgaria Industrial production growth rate 2% (2002 est.)
Bulgaria Electricity - production 41.38 billion kWh (2001)
Bulgaria Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 47.8% hydro: 8.1% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 44.1%
Bulgaria Electricity - consumption 32.52 billion kWh (2001)
Bulgaria Electricity - exports 6.79 billion kWh (2001)
Bulgaria Electricity - imports 830 million kWh (2001)
Bulgaria Oil - production 603 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bulgaria Oil - consumption 94,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bulgaria Oil - exports NA (2001)
Bulgaria Oil - imports NA (2001)
Bulgaria Oil - proved reserves 8.1 million bbl (37257)
Bulgaria Natural gas - production 4 million cu m (2001 est.)
Bulgaria Natural gas - consumption 5.804 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Bulgaria Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Bulgaria Natural gas - imports 5.8 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Bulgaria Natural gas - proved reserves 3.724 billion cu m (37257)
Bulgaria Agriculture - products vegetables, fruits, tobacco, livestock, wine, wheat, barley, sunflowers, sugar beets
Bulgaria Exports $5.3 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Bulgaria Exports - commodities clothing, footwear, iron and steel, machinery and equipment, fuels
Bulgaria Exports - partners Italy 15.5%, Germany 9.6%, Turkey 9.4%, Greece 9.2%, France 5.3%, US 4.8% (2002)
Bulgaria Imports $6.9 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Bulgaria Imports - commodities fuels, minerals, and raw materials; machinery and equipment; metals and ores; chemicals and plastics; food, textiles
Bulgaria Imports - partners Russia 14.6%, Germany 14.4%, Italy 11.4%, Greece 6.1%, France 5.7%, Turkey 5% (2002)
Bulgaria Debt - external $10.3 billion (yearend 2002)
Bulgaria Economic aid - recipient $300 million (2000 est.)
Bulgaria Currency lev (BGL)
Bulgaria Currency code BGN
Bulgaria Exchange rates leva per US dollar - 2.08 (2002), 2.18 (2001), 2.12 (2000), 1.84 (1999), 1.76 (1998) note: on 5 July 1999, the lev was redenominated; the post-5 July 1999 lev is equal to 1,000 of the pre-5 July 1999 lev
Bulgaria Fiscal year calendar year
Bulgaria Telephones - main lines in use 3,186,731 (2001)
Bulgaria Telephones - mobile cellular 1.054 million (2001)
Bulgaria Telephone system general assessment: extensive but antiquated domestic: more than two-thirds of the lines are residential; telephone service is available in most villages; a fairly modern digital cable trunk line now connects switching centers in most of the regions, the others are connected by digital microwave radio relay international: direct dialing to 58 countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); 2 Intelsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions)
Bulgaria Radio broadcast stations AM 31, FM 63, shortwave 2 (2001)
Bulgaria Television broadcast stations 39 (plus 1,242 repeaters) (2001)
Bulgaria Internet country code .bg
Bulgaria Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 200 (2001)
Bulgaria Internet users 585,000 (2001)
Bulgaria Railways total: 4,294 km standard gauge: 4,049 km 1.435-m gauge (2,710 km electrified) narrow gauge: 245 km 0.760-m gauge (2002)
Bulgaria Highways total: 37,286 km paved: 35,049 km (including 324 km of expressways) unpaved: 2,237 km (2000)
Bulgaria Waterways 470 km (1987)
Bulgaria Pipelines gas 2,425 km; oil 339 km; refined products 156 km (2003)
Bulgaria Ports and harbors Burgas, Lom, Nesebur, Ruse, Varna, Vidin
Bulgaria Merchant marine total: 69 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 829,421 GRT/1,252,496 DWT ships by type: bulk 42, cargo 10, chemical tanker 4, container 2, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 4, railcar carrier 2, roll on/roll off 2, short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 1 (2002 est.)
Bulgaria Airports 216 (2002)
Bulgaria Airports - with paved runways total: 128 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 20 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 92 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
Bulgaria Airports - with unpaved runways total: 88 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 10 under 914 m: 74 (2002)
Bulgaria Heliports 1 (2002)
Bulgaria Military branches Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces (subordinate to Ministry of Defense), Internal Forces (subordinate to Ministry of Interior), Civil Defense Forces (subordinate to the president)
Bulgaria Military manpower - military age 19 years of age (2003 est.)
Bulgaria Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 1,854,049 (2003 est.)
Bulgaria Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,551,485 (2003 est.)
Bulgaria Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 54,107 (2003 est.)
Bulgaria Military expenditures - dollar figure $356 million (FY02)
Bulgaria Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.7% (FY02)
Bulgaria Disputes - international joint boundary commission is rectifying boundary with Romania based on shifts in Danube since last delimitation in 1920
Bulgaria Illicit drugs major European transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and, to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the European market; limited producer of precursor chemicals; some money laundering of drug-related proceeds through financial institutions
Burkina Faso Background Independence from France came to Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) in 1960. Repeated military coups during the 1970s and 1980s were followed by multiparty elections in the early 1990s. Burkina Faso's high population density and limited natural resources result in poor economic prospects for the majority of its citizens. Every year, several hundred thousand seasonal farm workers seek employment in Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana and are adversely affected by instability in those regions.
Burkina Faso Location Western Africa, north of Ghana
Burkina Faso Geographic coordinates 13 00 N, 2 00 W
Burkina Faso Map references Africa
Burkina Faso Area total: 274,200 sq km water: 400 sq km land: 273,800 sq km
Burkina Faso Area - comparative slightly larger than Colorado
Burkina Faso Land boundaries total: 3,193 km border countries: Benin 306 km, Cote d'Ivoire 584 km, Ghana 549 km, Mali 1,000 km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km
Burkina Faso Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Burkina Faso Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Burkina Faso Climate tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers
Burkina Faso Terrain mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and southeast
Burkina Faso Elevation extremes lowest point: Mouhoun (Black Volta) River 200 m highest point: Tena Kourou 749 m
Burkina Faso Natural resources manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of gold, antimony, copper, nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphates, zinc, silver
Burkina Faso Land use arable land: 12.43% permanent crops: 0.18% other: 87.39% (1998 est.)
Burkina Faso Irrigated land 250 sq km (1998 est.)
Burkina Faso Natural hazards recurring droughts
Burkina Faso Environment - current issues recent droughts and desertification severely affecting agricultural activities, population distribution, and the economy; overgrazing; soil degradation; deforestation
Burkina Faso Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban
Burkina Faso Geography - note landlocked savanna cut by the three principal rivers of the Black, Red, and White Voltas
Burkina Faso Population 13,228,460 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2003 est.)
Burkina Faso Age structure 0-14 years: 46.1% (male 3,057,855; female 3,036,705) 15-64 years: 51% (male 3,296,726; female 3,455,817) 65 years and over: 2.9% (male 161,914; female 219,443) (2003 est.)
Burkina Faso Median age total: 16.8 years male: 16.4 years female: 17.2 years (2002)
Burkina Faso Population growth rate 2.6% (2003 est.)
Burkina Faso Birth rate 44.78 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Burkina Faso Death rate 18.76 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Burkina Faso Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Burkina Faso Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Burkina Faso Infant mortality rate total: 99.78 deaths/1,000 live births female: 91.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 107.87 deaths/1,000 live births
Burkina Faso Life expectancy at birth total population: 44.46 years male: 43.02 years female: 45.94 years (2003 est.)
Burkina Faso Total fertility rate 6.34 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Burkina Faso HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 6.5% (2001 est.)
Burkina Faso HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 440,000 (2001 est.)
Burkina Faso HIV/AIDS - deaths 44,000 (2001 est.)
Burkina Faso Nationality noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural) adjective: Burkinabe
Burkina Faso Ethnic groups Mossi over 40%, Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande, Fulani
Burkina Faso Religions indigenous beliefs 40%, Muslim 50%, Christian (mainly Roman Catholic) 10%
Burkina Faso Languages French (official), native African languages belonging to Sudanic family spoken by 90% of the population
Burkina Faso Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 26.6% male: 36.9% female: 16.6% (2003 est.)
Burkina Faso Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Burkina Faso former: Upper Volta, Republic of Upper Volta
Burkina Faso Government type parliamentary republic
Burkina Faso Capital Ouagadougou
Burkina Faso Administrative divisions 45 provinces; Bale, Bam, Banwa, Bazega, Bougouriba, Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Comoe, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Ioba, Kadiogo, Kenedougou, Komondjari, Kompienga, Kossi, Koulpelogo, Kouritenga, Kourweogo, Leraba, Loroum, Mouhoun, Namentenga, Nahouri, Nayala, Noumbiel, Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie, Sanmatenga, Seno, Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Tuy, Yagha, Yatenga, Ziro, Zondoma, Zoundweogo
Burkina Faso Independence 5 August 1960 (from France)
Burkina Faso National holiday Republic Day, 11 December (1958)
Burkina Faso Constitution 2 June 1991 approved by referendum; 11 June 1991 formally adopted
Burkina Faso Legal system based on French civil law system and customary law
Burkina Faso Suffrage universal
Burkina Faso Executive branch chief of state: President Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October 1987) head of government: Prime Minister Ernest Paramanga YONLI (since 6 November 2000) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 15 November 1998 (next to be held NA 2005); in April 2000, the constitution was amended reducing the presidential term from seven to five years, enforceable as of 2005, and allowing the president to be reelected only once; it is unclear whether this amendment will be applied retroactively or not; prime minister appointed by the president with the consent of the legislature note: President COMPAORE faces an increasingly well-coordinated opposition; recent charges against a former member of his Presidential Guard in the 1998 assassination of a newspaper editor signify an attempt to defuse chronic areas of dissatisfaction election results: Blaise COMPAORE reelected president with 87.5% percent of the vote
Burkina Faso Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (111 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CDP 57, RDA-ADF 17, PDP/PS 10, CFD 5, PAI 5, others 17 elections: National Assembly election last held 5 May 2002 (next to be held NA May 2007)
Burkina Faso Judicial branch Supreme Court; Appeals Court
Burkina Faso Political parties and leaders African Democratic Rally-Alliance for Democracy and Federation or RDA-ADF [Herman YAMEOGO]; Confederation for Federation and Democracy or CFD [Amadou Diemdioda DICKO]; Congress for Democracy and Progress or CDP [Roch Marc-Christian KABORE]; Movement for Tolerance and Progress or MTP [Nayabtigungou Congo KABORE]; Party for African Independence or PAI [Philippe OUEDRAOGO]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Joseph KI-ZERBO]; Union of Greens for the Development of Burkina Faso or UVDB [Ram OVEDRAGO]
Burkina Faso Political pressure groups and leaders Burkinabe General Confederation of Labor or CGTB; Burkinabe Movement for Human Rights or MBDHP; Group of 14 February; National Confederation of Burkinabe Workers or CNTB; National Organization of Free Unions or ONSL; watchdog/political action groups throughout the country in both organizations and communities
Burkina Faso International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Burkina Faso Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Tertius ZONGO chancery: 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 FAX: [1] (202) 667-1882 telephone: [1] (202) 332-5577
Burkina Faso Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Anthony HOLMES embassy: 602 Avenue Raoul Follereau, Koulouba, Secteur 4 mailing address: 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou 01; pouch mail - U. S. Department of State, 2440 Ouagadougou Place, Washington, DC 20521-2440 telephone: [226] 306723 FAX: [226] 303890
Burkina Faso Flag description two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
Burkina Faso Economy - overview One of the poorest countries in the world, landlocked Burkina Faso has few natural resources, a fragile soil, and a highly unequal distribution of income. About 90% of the population is engaged in (mainly subsistence) agriculture, which is vulnerable to variations in rainfall. Industry remains dominated by unprofitable government-controlled corporations. Following the African franc currency devaluation in January 1994 the government updated its development program in conjunction with international agencies, and exports and economic growth have increased. Maintenance of macroeconomic progress depends on continued low inflation, reduction in the trade deficit, and reforms designed to encourage private investment. The internal crisis in neighboring Cote d'Ivoire continues to hurt trade and industrial prospects and deepens the need for international assistance.
Burkina Faso GDP purchasing power parity - $14.51 billion (2002 est.)
Burkina Faso GDP - real growth rate 4.6% (2002 est.)
Burkina Faso GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,100 (2002 est.)
Burkina Faso GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 35% industry: 17% services: 48% (2001)
Burkina Faso Population below poverty line 45% (2001 est.)
Burkina Faso Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2% highest 10%: 46.8% (1994)
Burkina Faso Distribution of family income - Gini index 48.2 (1994)
Burkina Faso Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.5% (2001 est.)
Burkina Faso Labor force 5 million note: a large part of the male labor force migrates annually to neighboring countries for seasonal employment (2002)
Burkina Faso Labor force - by occupation agriculture 90% (2000 est.)
Burkina Faso Unemployment rate NA%
Burkina Faso Budget revenues: $316 million expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001)
Burkina Faso Industries cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes, textiles, gold
Burkina Faso Industrial production growth rate 14% (2001 est.)
Burkina Faso Electricity - production 279.2 million kWh (2001)
Burkina Faso Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 69.9% hydro: 30.1% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Burkina Faso Electricity - consumption 259.6 million kWh (2001)
Burkina Faso Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Burkina Faso Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Burkina Faso Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Burkina Faso Oil - consumption 8,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Burkina Faso Oil - exports NA (2001)
Burkina Faso Oil - imports NA (2001)
Burkina Faso Agriculture - products cotton, peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, sorghum, millet, corn, rice; livestock
Burkina Faso Exports $250 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Burkina Faso Exports - commodities cotton, livestock, gold
Burkina Faso Exports - partners Singapore 14.7%, Italy 11.3%, Colombia 8.6%, France 7.7%, India 6.9%, Ghana 6%, Japan 4.4%, Thailand 4.3% (2002)
Burkina Faso Imports $525 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Burkina Faso Imports - commodities capital goods, foodstuffs, petroleum
Burkina Faso Imports - partners France 27.7%, Cote d'Ivoire 23%, Togo 4.3% (2002)
Burkina Faso Debt - external $1.3 billion (2000)
Burkina Faso Economic aid - recipient $484.1 million (1995)
Burkina Faso Currency Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Burkina Faso Currency code XOF
Burkina Faso Exchange rates Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 696.99 (2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.7 (1999), 589.95 (1998)
Burkina Faso Fiscal year calendar year
Burkina Faso Telephones - main lines in use 53,200 (2000)
Burkina Faso Telephones - mobile cellular 25,200 (2000)
Burkina Faso Telephone system general assessment: all services only fair domestic: microwave radio relay, open-wire, and radiotelephone communication stations international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Burkina Faso Radio broadcast stations AM 3, FM 17, shortwave 3 (2002)
Burkina Faso Television broadcast stations 1 (2002)
Burkina Faso Internet country code .bf
Burkina Faso Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2002)
Burkina Faso Internet users 25,000 (2002)
Burkina Faso Railways total: 622 km narrow gauge: 622 km 1.000-m gauge note:: another 660 km of this railway extends into Cote D'Ivoire (2002)
Burkina Faso Highways total: 12,506 km paved: 2,001 km unpaved: 10,505 km (1999)
Burkina Faso Waterways none
Burkina Faso Ports and harbors none
Burkina Faso Airports 33 (2002)
Burkina Faso Airports - with paved runways total: 2 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2002)
Burkina Faso Airports - with unpaved runways total: 31 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 11 under 914 m: 17 (2002)
Burkina Faso Military branches Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Police, People's Militia
Burkina Faso Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,957,710 (2003 est.)
Burkina Faso Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,506,944 (2003 est.)
Burkina Faso Military expenditures - dollar figure $45.83 million (FY02)
Burkina Faso Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.4% (FY02)
Burkina Faso Disputes - international two villages are in dispute along the border with Benin; Burkina Faso border regions have become a staging area for Liberia and Cote d'Ivoire rebels and an asylum for refugees caught in regional fighting; the Ivorian Government accuses Burkina Faso of supporting Ivorian rebels
Burma Background Britain conquered Burma over a period of 62 years (1824-1886) and incorporated it into its Indian Empire. Burma was administered as a province of India until 1937 when it became a separate, self-governing colony; independence outside of the Commonwealth was attained in 1948. Gen. NE WIN dominated the government from 1962 to 1988, first as military ruler, then as president, and later as political kingmaker. Despite multiparty elections in 1990 that resulted in the main opposition party winning a decisive victory, the ruling military junta refused to hand over power. Key opposition leader and Nobel Peace Prize recipient AUNG SAN SUU KYI, under house arrest from 1989 to 1995, was again placed under house detention from September 2000 to May 2002 and again in May 2003; her supporters are routinely harassed or jailed.
Burma Location Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Bangladesh and Thailand
Burma Geographic coordinates 22 00 N, 98 00 E
Burma Map references Southeast Asia
Burma Area total: 678,500 sq km land: 657,740 sq km water: 20,760 sq km
Burma Area - comparative slightly smaller than Texas
Burma Land boundaries total: 5,876 km border countries: Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km, Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km
Burma Coastline 1,930 km
Burma Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Burma Climate tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April)
Burma Terrain central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands
Burma Elevation extremes lowest point: Andaman Sea 0 m highest point: Hkakabo Razi 5,881 m
Burma Natural resources petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas, hydropower
Burma Land use arable land: 14.53% permanent crops: 0.9% other: 84.57% (1998 est.)
Burma Irrigated land 15,920 sq km (1998 est.)
Burma Natural hazards destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides common during rainy season (June to September); periodic droughts
Burma Environment - current issues deforestation; industrial pollution of air, soil, and water; inadequate sanitation and water treatment contribute to disease
Burma Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94 signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Burma Geography - note strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes
Burma Population 42,510,537 note: estimates for this country take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2003 est.)
Burma Age structure 0-14 years: 28.1% (male 6,091,220; female 5,840,968) 15-64 years: 67% (male 14,162,190; female 14,347,751) 65 years and over: 4.9% (male 916,702; female 1,151,706) (2003 est.)
Burma Median age total: 25.3 years male: 24.8 years female: 25.9 years (2002)
Burma Population growth rate 0.52% (2003 est.)
Burma Birth rate 19.15 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Burma Death rate 12.17 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Burma Net migration rate -1.81 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Burma Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Burma Infant mortality rate total: 70.35 deaths/1,000 live births female: 63.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 76.48 deaths/1,000 live births
Burma Life expectancy at birth total population: 55.79 years male: 54.12 years female: 57.56 years (2003 est.)
Burma Total fertility rate 2.15 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Burma HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 1.99% (2001 est.)
Burma HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 530,000 (2001 est.)
Burma HIV/AIDS - deaths 65,000 (2001 est.)
Burma Nationality noun: Burmese (singular and plural) adjective: Burmese
Burma Ethnic groups Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Indian 2%, Mon 2%, other 5%
Burma Religions Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim 4%, animist 1%, other 2%
Burma Languages Burmese, minority ethnic groups have their own languages
Burma Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 83.1% male: 88.7% female: 77.7% (1995 est.) note: these are official statistics; estimates of functional literacy are likely closer to 30% (1999 est.)
Burma Country name conventional long form: Union of Burma conventional short form: Burma local short form: Myanma Naingngandaw local long form: Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the US Government as Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of Myanmar) former: Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma note: since 1989 the military authorities in Burma have promoted the name Myanmar as a conventional name for their state; this decision was not approved by any sitting legislature in Burma, and the US Government did not adopt the name, which is a derivative of the Burmese short-form name Myanma Naingngandaw
Burma Government type military regime
Burma Capital Rangoon (regime refers to the capital as Yangon)
Burma Administrative divisions 7 divisions* (taing-myar, singular - taing) and 7 states (pyi ne-myar, singular - pyi ne); Chin State, Ayeyarwady*, Bago*, Kachin State, Kayin State, Kayah State, Magway*, Mandalay*, Mon State, Rakhine State, Sagaing*, Shan State, Tanintharyi*, Yangon*
Burma Independence 4 January 1948 (from UK)
Burma National holiday Independence Day, 4 January (1948)
Burma Constitution 3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988); national convention started on 9 January 1993 to draft a new constitution; progress has since been stalled
Burma Legal system has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Burma Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Burma Executive branch chief of state: Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Sr. Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992) head of government: Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Sr. Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992); note - the appointed Prime Minister, Gen. KNIN NYUNT (since 25 August 2003), is not the head of government cabinet: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC); military junta, so named 15 November 1997, which initially assumed power 18 September 1988 under the name State Law and Order Restoration Council; the SPDC oversees the cabinet elections: none
Burma Legislative branch unicameral People's Assembly or Pyithu Hluttaw (485 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 27 May 1990, but Assembly never convened election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NLD 392, SNLD 23, NUP 10, other 60
Burma Judicial branch remnants of the British-era legal system are in place, but there is no guarantee of a fair public trial; the judiciary is not independent of the executive
Burma Political parties and leaders National League for Democracy or NLD [AUNG SHWE, chairman, AUNG SAN SUU KYI, general secretary]; National Unity Party or NUP (proregime) [THA KYAW]; Shan Nationalities League for Democracy or SNLD [KHUN TUN OO]; Union Solidarity and Development Association or USDA (proregime, a social and political organization) [THAN AUNG, general secretary]; and other smaller parties
Burma Political pressure groups and leaders All Burma Student Democratic Front or ABSDF; Kachin Independence Army or KIA; Karen National Union or KNU; National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma or NCGUB [Dr. SEIN WIN] consists of individuals legitimately elected to the People's Assembly but not recognized by the military regime (the group fled to a border area and joined with insurgents in December 1990 to form a parallel government); several Shan factions; United Wa State Army or UWSA
Burma International organization participation ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Burma Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador LINN MYAING consulate(s) general: New York FAX: [1] (202) 332-9046 telephone: [1] (202) 332-9044 chancery: 2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Burma Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Permanent Charge d'Affaires Carmen M. MARTINEZ embassy: 581 Merchant Street, Rangoon (GPO 521) mailing address: Box B, APO AP 96546 telephone: [95] (1) 379 880, 379 881 FAX: [95] (1) 256 018
Burma Flag description red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing, all in white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel containing a stalk of rice; the 14 stars represent the 14 administrative divisions
Burma Economy - overview Burma is a resource-rich country that suffers from abject rural poverty. The military regime took steps in the early 1990s to liberalize the economy after decades of failure under the "Burmese Way to Socialism", but those efforts have since stalled. Burma has been unable to achieve monetary or fiscal stability, resulting in an economy that suffers from serious macroeconomic imbalances - including a steep inflation rate and an official exchange rate that overvalues the Burmese kyat by more than 100 times the market rate. In addition, most overseas development assistance ceased after the junta suppressed the democracy movement in 1988 and subsequently ignored the results of the 1990 election. Burma is data poor, and official statistics are often dated and inaccurate. Published estimates of Burma's foreign trade are greatly understated because of the size of the black market and border trade - often estimated to be one to two times the official economy.
Burma GDP purchasing power parity - $73.69 billion (2002 est.)
Burma GDP - real growth rate 5.3% (2002 est.)
Burma GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,700 (2002 est.)
Burma GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 60% industry: 9% services: 31% (2002 est.)
Burma Population below poverty line 25% (2000 est.)
Burma Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.8% highest 10%: 32.4% (1998)
Burma Inflation rate (consumer prices) 53.7% (2002 est.)
Burma Labor force 23.7 million (1999 est.)
Burma Labor force - by occupation agriculture 70%, industry 7%, services 23% (2001 est.)
Burma Unemployment rate 5.1% (2001 est.)
Burma Budget revenues: $7.9 billion expenditures: $12.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.7 billion (FY96/97)
Burma Industries agricultural processing; knit and woven apparel; wood and wood products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer
Burma Industrial production growth rate NA%
Burma Electricity - production 6.139 billion kWh (2001)
Burma Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 44.4% hydro: 55.6% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Burma Electricity - consumption 5.709 billion kWh (2001)
Burma Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Burma Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Burma Oil - production 14,170 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Burma Oil - consumption 38,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Burma Oil - exports NA (2001)
Burma Oil - imports NA (2001)
Burma Oil - proved reserves 142.5 million bbl (37257)
Burma Natural gas - production 7.35 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Burma Natural gas - consumption 2.15 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Burma Natural gas - exports 5.2 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Burma Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Burma Natural gas - proved reserves 314.4 billion cu m (37257)
Burma Agriculture - products rice, pulses, beans, sesame, groundnuts, sugarcane; hardwood; fish and fish products
Burma Exports $2.7 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Burma Exports - commodities gas, wood products, pulses, beans, fish, rice
Burma Exports - partners Thailand 31.4%, US 13%, India 7.4%, China 4.7% (2002)
Burma Imports $2.5 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Burma Imports - commodities machinery, transport equipment, construction materials, crude oil; food products
Burma Imports - partners China 27%, Singapore 19.5%, Thailand 12%, Malaysia 9.1%, Taiwan 6.3%, South Korea 5.3%, Japan 4.3% (2002)
Burma Debt - external $6.1 billion (2002 est.)
Burma Economic aid - recipient $99 million (FY98/99)
Burma Currency kyat (MMK)
Burma Currency code MMK
Burma Exchange rates kyats per US dollar - 6.64 (2002), 6.75 (2001), 6.52 (2000), 6.29 (1999), 6.34 (1998)
Burma Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Burma Telephones - main lines in use 250,000 (2000)
Burma Telephones - mobile cellular 8,492 (1997)
Burma Telephone system general assessment: meets minimum requirements for local and intercity service for business and government; international service is good domestic: NA international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Burma Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 3 (1998)
Burma Television broadcast stations 2 (1998)
Burma Internet country code .mm
Burma Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 note: as of September 2000, Internet connections were legal only for the government, tourist offices, and a few large businesses (2000)
Burma Internet users 10,000 (2002)
Burma Railways total: 3,955 km narrow gauge: 3,955 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)
Burma Highways total: 28,200 km paved: 3,440 km unpaved: 24,760 km (1996 est.)
Burma Waterways 12,800 km note: 3,200 km navigable by large commercial vessels
Burma Pipelines gas 2,056 km; oil 558 km (2003)
Burma Ports and harbors Bassein, Bhamo, Chauk, Mandalay, Moulmein, Myitkyina, Rangoon, Akyab (Sittwe), Tavoy
Burma Merchant marine total: 33 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 352,765 GRT/536,396 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Germany 5, Japan 4 (2002 est.) ships by type: bulk 7, cargo 21, container 1, passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 1
Burma Airports 80 (2002)
Burma Airports - with paved runways total: 8 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2002)
Burma Airports - with unpaved runways total: 72 under 914 m: 34 (2002) 914 to 1,523 m: 20 over 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
Burma Heliports 1 (2002)
Burma Military branches Army, Navy, Air Force
Burma Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Burma Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 12,349,921 note: both sexes liable for military service (2003 est.) females age 15-49: 12,358,507
Burma Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 6,566,122 females age 15-49: 6,553,458 (2003 est.)
Burma Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 453,420 females: 455,422 (2003 est.)
Burma Military expenditures - dollar figure $39 million (FY97)
Burma Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.1% (FY97)
Burma Disputes - international despite continuing border committee talks, significant differences remain with Thailand over boundary alignment and the handling of ethnic rebels, refugees, and illegal cross-border activities
Burma Illicit drugs world's second largest producer of illicit opium (potential production in 2002 - 630 metric tons, down 27% due to drought and, to a lesser extent, eradication; cultivation in 2002 - 77,000 hectares, a 27% decline from 2001); surrender of drug warlord KHUN SA's Mong Tai Army in January 1996 was hailed by Rangoon as a major counternarcotics success, but lack of government will and ability to take on major narcotrafficking groups and lack of serious commitment against money laundering continues to hinder the overall antidrug effort; major source of methamphetamine and heroin for regional consumption
Burundi Background Burundi's first democratically elected president was assassinated in October 1993 after only four months in office. Since then, some 200,000 Burundians have perished in widespread, often intense ethnic violence between Hutu and Tutsi factions. Hundreds of thousands have been internally displaced or have become refugees in neighboring countries. Burundi troops, seeking to secure their borders, intervened in the conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1998. More recently, many of these troops have been redeployed back to Burundi to deal with periodic upsurges in rebel activity. A new transitional government, inaugurated on 1 November 2001, was to be the first step toward holding national elections in three years. While the Government of Burundi signed a cease-fire agreement in December 2002 with three of Burundi's four Hutu rebel groups, implementation of the agreement has been problematic and one rebel group refuses to sign on, clouding prospects for a sustainable peace.
Burundi Location Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo
Burundi Geographic coordinates 3 30 S, 30 00 E
Burundi Map references Africa
Burundi Area total: 27,830 sq km water: 2,180 sq km land: 25,650 sq km
Burundi Area - comparative slightly smaller than Maryland
Burundi Land boundaries total: 974 km border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 233 km, Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km
Burundi Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Burundi Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Burundi Climate equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; wet seasons from February to May and September to November, and dry seasons from June to August and December to January
Burundi Terrain hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains
Burundi Elevation extremes lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m highest point: Mount Heha 2,670 m
Burundi Natural resources nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum (not yet exploited), vanadium, arable land, hydropower
Burundi Land use arable land: 29.98% permanent crops: 12.85% other: 57.17% (1998 est.)
Burundi Irrigated land 740 sq km (1998 est.)
Burundi Natural hazards flooding, landslides, drought
Burundi Environment - current issues soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
Burundi Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban
Burundi Geography - note landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed; the Kagera, which drains into Lake Victoria, is the most remote headstream of the White Nile
Burundi Population 6,096,156 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2003 est.)
Burundi Age structure 0-14 years: 46.7% (male 1,438,759; female 1,409,567) 15-64 years: 50.6% (male 1,516,833; female 1,564,513) 65 years and over: 2.7% (male 66,355; female 100,129) (2003 est.)
Burundi Median age total: 16.3 years male: 15.9 years female: 16.7 years (2002)
Burundi Population growth rate 2.18% (2003 est.)
Burundi Birth rate 39.72 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Burundi Death rate 17.8 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Burundi Net migration rate -0.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Burundi Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Burundi Infant mortality rate total: 71.54 deaths/1,000 live births female: 64.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 78.45 deaths/1,000 live births
Burundi Life expectancy at birth total population: 43.2 years male: 42.54 years female: 43.88 years (2003 est.)
Burundi Total fertility rate 5.99 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Burundi HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 8.3% (2001 est.)
Burundi HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 390,000 (2001 est.)
Burundi HIV/AIDS - deaths 40,000 (2001 est.)
Burundi Nationality noun: Burundian(s) adjective: Burundian
Burundi Ethnic groups Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000
Burundi Religions Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%), indigenous beliefs 23%, Muslim 10%
Burundi Languages Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)
Burundi Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 51.6% male: 58.5% female: 45.2% (2003 est.)
Burundi Country name conventional long form: Republic of Burundi conventional short form: Burundi local short form: Burundi local long form: Republika y'u Burundi former: Urundi
Burundi Government type republic
Burundi Capital Bujumbura
Burundi Administrative divisions 16 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Mwaro, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi
Burundi Independence 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)
Burundi National holiday Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
Burundi Constitution 13 March 1992; provided for establishment of a plural political system; supplanted on 6 June 1998 by a Transitional Constitution which enlarged the National Assembly and created two vice presidents
Burundi Legal system based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Burundi Suffrage NA years of age; universal adult
Burundi Executive branch chief of state: President Domitien NDAYIZEYE (since 30 April 2003); note - NDAYIZEYE, a Hutu, was sworn in as president for the second half of the three-year transitional government inaugurated on 1 November 2001; Vice President Alphonse KADEGE (since 30 April 2003); note - from the Tutsi minority head of government: President Domitien NDAYIZEYE (since 30 April 2003); note - NDAYIZEYE, a Hutu, was sworn in as president for the second half of the three-year transitional government inaugurated on 1 November 2001; Vice President Alphonse KADEGE (since 30 April 2003); note - from the Tutsi minority cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president elections: NA; current president assumed power on 30 April 2003 as part of the transitional government established by the 2000 Arusha Accord
Burundi Legislative branch bicameral, consists of a National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (expanded from 121 to approximately 140 seats under the transitional government inaugurated 1 November 2001; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and a Senate (54 seats; term length is undefined, the current senators will likely serve out the three-year transition period) elections: last held 29 June 1993 (next was scheduled to be held in 1998, but was suspended by presidential decree in 1996; elections are planned to follow the completion of the three-year transitional government) election results: percent of vote by party - FRODEBU 71.04%, UPRONA 21.4%, other 7.56%; seats by party - FRODEBU 65, UPRONA 16, civilians 27, other parties 13
Burundi Judicial branch Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court; Courts of Appeal (there are three in separate locations); Tribunals of First Instance (17 at the province level and 123 small local tribunals)
Burundi Political parties and leaders the two national, mainstream, governing parties are: Unity for National Progress or UPRONA [Alphonse KADEGE, president]; Burundi Democratic Front or FRODEBU [Jean MINANI, president] note: a multiparty system was introduced after 1998, included are: Burundi African Alliance for the Salvation or ABASA [Terrence NSANZE]; Rally for Democracy and Economic and Social Development or RADDES [Joseph NZEYIMANA]; Party for National Redress or PARENA [Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA]; People's Reconciliation Party or PRP [Mathias HITIMANA]
Burundi Political pressure groups and leaders loosely organized Hutu and Tutsi militias, often affiliated with Hutu and Tutsi extremist parties or subordinate to government security forces
Burundi International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Burundi Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Antoine NTAMOBWA chancery: Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007 FAX: [1] (202) 342-2578 telephone: [1] (202) 342-2574
Burundi Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador James Howard YELLIN embassy: Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura mailing address: B. P. 1720, Bujumbura telephone: [257] 223454 FAX: [257] 222926
Burundi Flag description divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a white disk superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above, two stars below)
Burundi Economy - overview Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country with an underdeveloped manufacturing sector. The economy is predominantly agricultural with roughly 90% of the population dependent on subsistence agriculture. Economic growth depends on coffee and tea exports, which account for 90% of foreign exchange earnings. The ability to pay for imports, therefore, rests primarily on weather conditions and international coffee and tea prices. The Tutsi minority, 14% of the population, dominates the government and the coffee trade at the expense of the Hutu majority, 85% of the population. Since October 1993 an ethnic-based war has resulted in the death of over 200,000 persons, sent 800,000 refugees into Tanzania, and displaced 525,000 others internally. Doubts about the prospects for sustainable peace continue to impede development. Only one in two children go to school, and approximately one in ten adults has HIV/AIDS. Food, medicine, and electricity remain in short supply.
Burundi GDP purchasing power parity - $3.146 billion (2002 est.)
Burundi GDP - real growth rate 4.5% (2002 est.)
Burundi GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $500 (2002 est.)
Burundi GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 50% industry: 19% services: 31% (2002 est.)
Burundi Population below poverty line 70% (2002 est.)
Burundi Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1.8% highest 10%: 32.9% (1998)
Burundi Distribution of family income - Gini index 42.5 (1998)
Burundi Inflation rate (consumer prices) 12% (2002 est.)
Burundi Labor force 3.7 million (2000)
Burundi Labor force - by occupation NA
Burundi Unemployment rate NA%
Burundi Budget revenues: $125 million expenditures: $176 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Burundi Industries light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing
Burundi Industrial production growth rate 18% (2001)
Burundi Electricity - production 155.4 million kWh (2001)
Burundi Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 0.6% hydro: 99.4% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Burundi Electricity - consumption 177.5 million kWh (2001)
Burundi Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Burundi Electricity - imports 33 million kWh; note - supplied by the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2001)
Burundi Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Burundi Oil - consumption 2,750 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Burundi Oil - exports NA (2001)
Burundi Oil - imports NA (2001)
Burundi Agriculture - products coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc (tapioca); beef, milk, hides
Burundi Exports $26 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Burundi Exports - commodities coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, hides
Burundi Exports - partners Switzerland 28.8%, Germany 20.2%, Belgium 9.4%, Kenya 7.8%, Rwanda 6.5%, Netherlands 4.6% (2002)
Burundi Imports $135 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Burundi Imports - commodities capital goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs
Burundi Imports - partners Belgium 12.4%, Saudi Arabia 12.3%, Tanzania 9.3%, Kenya 7.7%, France 7.4%, India 4.5% (2002)
Burundi Debt - external $1.14 billion (2001)
Burundi Economic aid - recipient $92.7 million (2000)
Burundi Currency Burundi franc (BIF)
Burundi Currency code BIF
Burundi Exchange rates Burundi francs per US dollar - NA (2002), 830.35 (2001), 720.67 (2000), 563.56 (1999), 447.77 (1998)
Burundi Fiscal year calendar year
Burundi Telephones - main lines in use 18,000 (2002)
Burundi Telephones - mobile cellular 30,000 (2002)
Burundi Telephone system general assessment: primitive system domestic: sparse system of open-wire, radiotelephone communications, and low-capacity microwave radio relay international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Burundi Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 4, shortwave 1 (2001)
Burundi Television broadcast stations 1 (2001)
Burundi Internet country code .bi
Burundi Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Burundi Internet users 6,000 (2002)
Burundi Railways 0 km
Burundi Highways total: 14,480 km paved: 1,028 km unpaved: 13,452 km (1999 est.)
Burundi Waterways Lake Tanganyika
Burundi Ports and harbors Bujumbura
Burundi Airports 7 (2002)
Burundi Airports - with paved runways total: 1 over 3,047 m: 1 (2002)
Burundi Airports - with unpaved runways total: 6 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 3 (2002)
Burundi Military branches Army (including naval and air units), Gendarmerie
Burundi Military manpower - military age 16 years of age (2003 est.)
Burundi Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 1,375,900 (2003 est.)
Burundi Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 723,516 (2003 est.)
Burundi Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 79,462 (2003 est.)
Burundi Military expenditures - dollar figure $42.13 million (FY02)
Burundi Military expenditures - percent of GDP 5.3% (FY02)
Burundi Disputes - international Tutsi, Hutu, and other conflicting ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces continue fighting in the Great Lakes region, transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda to gain control over populated and natural resource areas; government heads pledge to end conflict, but localized violence continues despite UN peacekeeping efforts
Cambodia Background Following a five-year struggle, Communist Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh in 1975 and ordered the evacuation of all cities and towns; over 1 million displaced people died from execution or enforced hardships. A 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge into the countryside and touched off almost 20 years of fighting. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy as did the rapid diminishment of the Khmer Rouge in the mid-1990s. A coalition government, formed after national elections in 1998, brought renewed political stability and the surrender of remaining Khmer Rouge forces in 1998.
Cambodia Location Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos
Cambodia Geographic coordinates 13 00 N, 105 00 E
Cambodia Map references Southeast Asia
Cambodia Area total: 181,040 sq km land: 176,520 sq km water: 4,520 sq km
Cambodia Area - comparative slightly smaller than Oklahoma
Cambodia Land boundaries total: 2,572 km border countries: Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km
Cambodia Coastline 443 km
Cambodia Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM continental shelf: 200 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Cambodia Climate tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation
Cambodia Terrain mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north
Cambodia Elevation extremes lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m
Cambodia Natural resources timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential
Cambodia Land use arable land: 20.96% permanent crops: 0.61% other: 78.43% (1998 est.)
Cambodia Irrigated land 2,700 sq km (1998 est.)
Cambodia Natural hazards monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts
Cambodia Environment - current issues illegal logging activities throughout the country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand have resulted in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil erosion; in rural areas, a majority of the population does not have access to potable water; toxic waste delivery from Taiwan sparked unrest in Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville) in December 1998
Cambodia Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
Cambodia Geography - note a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle Sap
Cambodia Population 13,124,764 note: estimates for this country take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2003 est.)
Cambodia Age structure 0-14 years: 39.3% (male 2,606,568; female 2,557,736) 15-64 years: 57.6% (male 3,599,216; female 3,962,520) 65 years and over: 3.1% (male 148,287; female 250,437) (2003 est.)
Cambodia Median age total: 19.2 years male: 18.4 years female: 20 years (2002)
Cambodia Population growth rate 1.8% (2003 est.)
Cambodia Birth rate 27.28 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Cambodia Death rate 9.26 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Cambodia Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Cambodia Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Cambodia Infant mortality rate total: 75.94 deaths/1,000 live births female: 66.51 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 84.96 deaths/1,000 live births
Cambodia Life expectancy at birth total population: 57.92 years male: 55.49 years female: 60.47 years (2003 est.)
Cambodia Total fertility rate 3.58 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Cambodia HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 2.7% (2001 est.)
Cambodia HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 170,000 (2001 est.)
Cambodia HIV/AIDS - deaths 12,000 (2001 est.)
Cambodia Nationality noun: Cambodian(s) adjective: Cambodian
Cambodia Ethnic groups Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%
Cambodia Religions Theravada Buddhist 95%, other 5%
Cambodia Languages Khmer (official) 95%, French, English
Cambodia Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 69.9% male: 80.5% female: 60.3% (2003 est.)
Cambodia Country name conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia conventional short form: Cambodia local short form: Kampuchea local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea former: Khmer Republic, Kampuchea Republic
Cambodia Government type multiparty democracy under a constitutional monarchy established in September 1993
Cambodia Capital Phnom Penh
Cambodia Administrative divisions 20 provinces (khett, singular and plural) and 4 municipalities* (krong, singular and plural); Banteay Mean Cheay, Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Keb*, Kracheh, Mondol Kiri, Otdar Mean Cheay, Pailin*, Phnum Penh*, Pouthisat, Preah Seihanu*, Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanah Kiri, Siem Reab, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev
Cambodia Independence 9 November 1953 (from France)
Cambodia National holiday Independence Day, 9 November (1953)
Cambodia Constitution promulgated 21 September 1993
Cambodia Legal system primarily a civil law mixture of French-influenced codes from the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) period, royal decrees, and acts of the legislature, with influences of customary law and remnants of communist legal theory; increasing influence of common law in recent years
Cambodia Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Cambodia Executive branch chief of state: King Norodom SIHANOUK (reinstated 24 September 1993) head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 30 November 1998) and Deputy Prime Ministers SAR KHENG (since 1993) and TOL LAH (since 1998) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch elections: none; the monarch is chosen by a Royal Throne Council; following legislative elections, a member of the majority party or majority coalition is named prime minister by the Chairman of the National Assembly and appointed by the king
Cambodia Legislative branch bicameral consists of the National Assembly (122 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Senate (61 seats; two members appointed by the monarch, two elected by the National Assembly, and 57 elected by "functional constituencies"; members serve five-year terms) elections: National Assembly - last held 27 July 2003 (next to be held in July 2007); Senate - last held 2 March 1999 (next to be held in 2004) election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CPP 47%, SRP 22%, FUNCINPEC 21%, other 10%; seats by party - CPP 73, FUNCINPEC 26, SRP 24; Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CPP 31, FUNCINPEC 21, SRP 7, other 2 (2003)
Cambodia Judicial branch Supreme Council of the Magistracy (provided for in the constitution and formed in December 1997); Supreme Court (and lower courts) exercises judicial authority
Cambodia Political parties and leaders Buddhist Liberal Party or BLP [IENG MOULY]; Cambodian Pracheachon Party or Cambodian People's Party or CPP [CHEA SIM]; Khmer Citizen Party or KCP [NGUON SOEUR]; National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia or FUNCINPEC [Prince NORODOM RANARIDDH]; Sam Rangsi Party or SRP (formerly Khmer Nation Party or KNP) [SAM RANGSI]
Cambodia Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Cambodia International organization participation ACCT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM, OPCW (signatory), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Cambodia Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador ROLAND ENG FAX: [1] (202) 726-8381 telephone: [1] (202) 726-7742 chancery: 4530 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
Cambodia Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Charles Aaron RAY embassy: 27 EO Street 240, Phnom Penh mailing address: Box P, APO AP 96546 telephone: [855] (23) 216-436/438 FAX: [855] (23) 216-437/811
Cambodia Flag description three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double width), and blue with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat outlined in black in the center of the red band
Cambodia Economy - overview Cambodia's economy slowed dramatically in 1997-1998 due to the regional economic crisis, civil violence, and political infighting. Foreign investment and tourism fell off. In 1999, the first full year of peace in 30 years, progress was made on economic reforms and growth resumed at 5.0%. Despite severe flooding, GDP grew at 5.0% in 2000, 6.3% in 2001, and 5.2% in 2002. Tourism was Cambodia's fastest growing industry, with arrivals up 34% in 2000 and up another 40% in 2001 before the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the US. Even given these stout growth estimates, the long-term development of the economy after decades of war remains a daunting challenge. The population lacks education and productive skills, particularly in the poverty-ridden countryside, which suffers from an almost total lack of basic infrastructure. Fear of renewed political instability and corruption within the government discourage foreign investment and delay foreign aid. The government is addressing these issues with assistance from bilateral and multilateral donors.
Cambodia GDP purchasing power parity - $20.42 billion (2002 est.)
Cambodia GDP - real growth rate 4.5% (2002 est.)
Cambodia GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,600 (2002 est.)
Cambodia GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 40% industry: 20% services: 40% (2001 est.)
Cambodia Population below poverty line 36% (1997 est.)
Cambodia Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.9% highest 10%: 33.8% (1997)
Cambodia Distribution of family income - Gini index 40.4 (1997)
Cambodia Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.3% (2002 est.)
Cambodia Labor force 6 million (1998 est.)
Cambodia Labor force - by occupation agriculture 80% (2001 est.)
Cambodia Unemployment rate 2.8% (1999 est.)
Cambodia Budget revenues: $396 million expenditures: $607 million, including capital expenditures of $254 million (2001 est.)
Cambodia Industries tourism, garments, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles
Cambodia Industrial production growth rate 16% (2001 est.)
Cambodia Electricity - production 119 million kWh (2001)
Cambodia Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 65% hydro: 35% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Cambodia Electricity - consumption 110.6 million kWh (2001)
Cambodia Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Cambodia Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Cambodia Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Cambodia Oil - consumption 3,600 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Cambodia Oil - exports NA (2001)
Cambodia Oil - imports NA (2001)
Cambodia Agriculture - products rice, rubber, corn, vegetables
Cambodia Exports $1.38 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Cambodia Exports - commodities timber, garments, rubber, rice, fish
Cambodia Exports - partners US 60.2%, Germany 9.1%, UK 7.1%, Singapore 4.4% (2002)
Cambodia Imports $1.73 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Cambodia Imports - commodities petroleum products, cigarettes, gold, construction materials, machinery, motor vehicles
Cambodia Imports - partners Thailand 24.8%, Singapore 16.9%, China 12.1%, Hong Kong 10.9%, South Korea 5.5%, Vietnam 5.2% (2002)
Cambodia Debt - external $829 million (1999 est.)
Cambodia Economic aid - recipient $548 million pledged in grants and concessional loans for 2001 by international donors
Cambodia Currency riel (KHR)
Cambodia Currency code KHR
Cambodia Exchange rates riels per US dollar - 3,912.08 (2002), 3,916.33 (2001), 3,840.75 (2000), 3,807.83 (1999), 3,744.42 (1998)
Cambodia Fiscal year calendar year
Cambodia Telephones - main lines in use 21,800 (mid-1998)
Cambodia Telephones - mobile cellular 80,000 (2000)
Cambodia Telephone system general assessment: adequate landline and/or cellular service in Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; rural areas have little telephone service domestic: NA international: adequate but expensive landline and cellular service available to all countries from Phnom Penh and major provincial cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region)
Cambodia Radio broadcast stations AM 7, FM 3, shortwave 3 (1999)
Cambodia Television broadcast stations 6 (2003)
Cambodia Internet country code .kh
Cambodia Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 2 (2000)
Cambodia Internet users 10,000 (2002)
Cambodia Railways total: 602 km narrow gauge: 602 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)
Cambodia Highways total: 12,323 km paved: 1,996 km unpaved: 10,327 km (2000 est)
Cambodia Waterways 3,700 km note: navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6 m or less; 282 km navigable to craft drawing as much as 1.8 m
Cambodia Ports and harbors Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville), Kampot, Krong Kaoh Kong, Phnom Penh
Cambodia Merchant marine total: 527 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 2,328,371 GRT/3,294,028 DWT ships by type: bulk 49, cargo 412, chemical tanker 2, combination bulk 4, container 17, liquefied gas 1, livestock carrier 2, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 18, refrigerated cargo 11, roll on/roll off 7, short-sea passenger 2 note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Aruba 1, Belize 11, Bulgaria 3, Cambodia 194, Canada 4, China 25, Cyprus 14, Egypt 10, Estonia 2, France 1, Georgia 1, Germany 1, Gibraltar 1, Greece 13, Honduras 8, Hong Kong 12, Iceland 1, Indonesia 2, Iran 1, Ireland 1, Italy 2, Japan 2, Jordan 1, North Korea, 1, South Korea, 25, Latvia 3, Lebanon 6, Liberia 7, Malaysia 1, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 4, Netherlands 1, Norway 1, Panama 10, Romania 2, Russia 75, Saint Kitts and Nevis 4, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 5, Singapore 17, Syria 20, Turkey 18, Ukraine 16, United Arab Emirates 3, United Kingdom 1, United States 5, Vietnam 3 (2002 est.)
Cambodia Airports 21 (2002)
Cambodia Airports - with paved runways total: 5 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)
Cambodia Airports - with unpaved runways total: 16 under 914 m: 1 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 13
Cambodia Heliports 2 (2002)
Cambodia Military branches Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF): Army, Navy, Air Force
Cambodia Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Cambodia Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 3,275,533 (2003 est.)
Cambodia Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,829,535 (2003 est.)
Cambodia Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 165,395 (2003 est.)
Cambodia Military expenditures - dollar figure $112 million (FY01 est.)
Cambodia Military expenditures - percent of GDP 3% (FY01 est.)
Cambodia Disputes - international completed boundary demarcation with Thailand; accuses Vietnam of moving and destroying boundary markers and encroachments, initiating border incidents; accuses Thailand of preventing access to Preah Vihear temple ruins awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962; maritime boundary with Vietnam hampered by dispute over offshore islands
Cambodia Illicit drugs narcotics-related corruption reportedly involving some in the government, military, and police; possible small-scale opium, heroin, and amphetamine production; large producer of cannabis for the international market; vulnerable to money laundering due to its cash-based economy and porous borders
Cameroon Background The former French Cameroon and part of British Cameroon merged in 1961 to form the present country. Cameroon has generally enjoyed stability, which has permitted the development of agriculture, roads, and railways, as well as a petroleum industry. Despite movement toward democratic reform, political power remains firmly in the hands of an ethnic oligarchy.
Cameroon Location Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria
Cameroon Geographic coordinates 6 00 N, 12 00 E
Cameroon Map references Africa
Cameroon Area total: 475,440 sq km water: 6,000 sq km land: 469,440 sq km
Cameroon Area - comparative slightly larger than California
Cameroon Land boundaries total: 4,591 km border countries: Central African Republic 797 km, Chad 1,094 km, Republic of the Congo 523 km, Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298 km, Nigeria 1,690 km
Cameroon Coastline 402 km
Cameroon Maritime claims territorial sea: 50 NM
Cameroon Climate varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot in north
Cameroon Terrain diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau in center, mountains in west, plains in north
Cameroon Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Fako (on Cameroon Mountain) 4,095 m
Cameroon Natural resources petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower
Cameroon Land use arable land: 12.81% permanent crops: 2.58% other: 84.61% (1998 est.)
Cameroon Irrigated land 330 sq km (1998 est.)
Cameroon Natural hazards volcanic activity with periodic releases of poisonous gases from Lake Nyos and Lake Monoun volcanoes
Cameroon Environment - current issues water-borne diseases are prevalent; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; poaching; overfishing
Cameroon Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94 signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban
Cameroon Geography - note sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa; throughout the country there are areas of thermal springs and indications of current or prior volcanic activity; Mount Cameroon, the highest mountain in Sub-Saharan west Africa, is an active volcano
Cameroon Population 15,746,179 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2003 est.)
Cameroon Age structure 0-14 years: 42.3% (male 3,372,129; female 3,291,295) 15-64 years: 54.5% (male 4,315,672; female 4,265,286) 65 years and over: 3.2% (male 227,444; female 274,353) (2003 est.)
Cameroon Median age total: 18.4 years male: 18.2 years female: 18.5 years (2002)
Cameroon Population growth rate 2.02% (2003 est.)
Cameroon Birth rate 35.49 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Cameroon Death rate 15.3 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Cameroon Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Cameroon Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Cameroon Infant mortality rate total: 70.12 deaths/1,000 live births female: 65.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 74.2 deaths/1,000 live births
Cameroon Life expectancy at birth total population: 48.05 years male: 47.15 years female: 48.97 years (2003 est.)
Cameroon Total fertility rate 4.63 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Cameroon HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 11.8% (2001 est.)
Cameroon HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 920,000 (2001 est.)
Cameroon HIV/AIDS - deaths 53,000 (2001 est.)
Cameroon Nationality noun: Cameroonian(s) adjective: Cameroonian
Cameroon Ethnic groups Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other African 13%, non-African less than 1%
Cameroon Religions indigenous beliefs 40%, Christian 40%, Muslim 20%
Cameroon Languages 24 major African language groups, English (official), French (official)
Cameroon Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 79% male: 84.7% female: 73.4% (2003 est.)
Cameroon Country name conventional long form: Republic of Cameroon conventional short form: Cameroon former: French Cameroon
Cameroon Government type unitary republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition parties legalized in 1990) note: preponderance of power remains with the president
Cameroon Capital Yaounde
Cameroon Administrative divisions 10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est, Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest
Cameroon Independence 1 January 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
Cameroon National holiday Republic Day (National Day), 20 May (1972)
Cameroon Constitution 20 May 1972 approved by referendum; 2 June 1972 formally adopted; revised January 1996
Cameroon Legal system based on French civil law system, with common law influence; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Cameroon Suffrage 20 years of age; universal
Cameroon Executive branch chief of state: President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982) elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 12 October 1997 (next to be held NA October 2004); prime minister appointed by the president head of government: Prime Minister Peter Mafany MUSONGE (since 19 September 1996) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from proposals submitted by the prime minister election results: President Paul BIYA reelected; percent of vote - Paul BIYA 92.6%; note - supporters of the opposition candidates boycotted the elections, making a comparison of vote shares relatively meaningless
Cameroon Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (180 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms; note - the president can either lengthen or shorten the term of the legislature) elections: last held 23 June 2002 (next to be held NA 2007) election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RDCP 133, SDF 21, UDC 5, other 21 note: the constitution calls for an upper chamber for the legislature, to be called a Senate, but it has yet to be established
Cameroon Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); High Court of Justice (consists of 9 judges and 6 substitute judges, elected by the National Assembly)
Cameroon Political parties and leaders Cameroonian Democratic Union or UDC [Adamou NDAM NJOYA]; Democratic Rally of the Cameroon People or RDCP [Paul BIYA]; Movement for the Defense of the Republic or MDR [Dakole DAISSALA]; Movement for the Liberation and Development of Cameroon or MLDC [leader Marcel YONDO]; Movement for the Youth of Cameroon or MYC [Dieudonne TINA]; National Union for Democracy and Progress or UNDP [Maigari BELLO BOUBA]; Social Democratic Front or SDF [John FRU NDI]; Union of Cameroonian Populations or UPC [Augustin Frederic KODOCK]
Cameroon Political pressure groups and leaders Southern Cameroon National Council [Frederick Ebong ALOBWEDE]; Human Rights Defense Group [Albert MUKONG, president]
Cameroon International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, C, CEEAC, CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Cameroon Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Jerome MENDOUGA chancery: 2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 FAX: [1] (202) 387-3826 telephone: [1] (202) 265-8790
Cameroon Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador George McDade STAPLES embassy: Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde mailing address: P. O. Box 817, Yaounde; pouch: American Embassy, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2520 telephone: [237] 223-05-12, 222-25-89, 222-17-94, 223-40-14 FAX: [237] 223-07-53 branch office(s): Douala
Cameroon Flag description three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and yellow with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
Cameroon Economy - overview Because of its oil resources and favorable agricultural conditions, Cameroon has one of the best-endowed primary commodity economies in sub-Saharan Africa. Still, it faces many of the serious problems facing other underdeveloped countries, such as a top-heavy civil service and a generally unfavorable climate for business enterprise. Since 1990, the government has embarked on various IMF and World Bank programs designed to spur business investment, increase efficiency in agriculture, improve trade, and recapitalize the nation's banks. In June 2000, the government completed an IMF-sponsored, three-year structural adjustment program; however, the IMF is pressing for more reforms, including increased budget transparency, privatization, and poverty reduction programs. International oil and cocoa prices have considerable impact on the economy.
Cameroon GDP purchasing power parity - $26.84 billion (2002 est.)
Cameroon GDP - real growth rate 4% (2002 est.)
Cameroon GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,700 (2002 est.)
Cameroon GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 46% industry: 21% services: 33% (2001 est.)
Cameroon Population below poverty line 48% (2000 est.)
Cameroon Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1.9% highest 10%: 36.6% (1996)
Cameroon Distribution of family income - Gini index 47.7 (1996)
Cameroon Inflation rate (consumer prices) 4.5% (2002 est.)
Cameroon Labor force NA
Cameroon Labor force - by occupation agriculture 70%, industry and commerce 13%, other 17%
Cameroon Unemployment rate 30% (2001 est.)
Cameroon Budget revenues: $2.2 billion expenditures: $2.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY 00/01 est.)
Cameroon Industries petroleum production and refining, food processing, light consumer goods, textiles, lumber
Cameroon Industrial production growth rate 4.2% (1999 est.)
Cameroon Electricity - production 3.613 billion kWh (2001)
Cameroon Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 2.7% hydro: 97.3% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Cameroon Electricity - consumption 3.36 billion kWh (2001)
Cameroon Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Cameroon Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Cameroon Oil - production 76,650 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Cameroon Oil - consumption 22,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Cameroon Oil - exports NA (2001)
Cameroon Oil - imports NA (2001)
Cameroon Oil - proved reserves 200 million bbl (37257)
Cameroon Natural gas - production 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Cameroon Natural gas - consumption 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Cameroon Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Cameroon Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Cameroon Natural gas - proved reserves 55.22 billion cu m (37257)
Cameroon Agriculture - products coffee, cocoa, cotton, rubber, bananas, oilseed, grains, root starches; livestock; timber
Cameroon Exports $1.9 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Cameroon Exports - commodities crude oil and petroleum products, lumber, cocoa beans, aluminum, coffee, cotton
Cameroon Exports - partners Italy 16.7%, Spain 16%, France 12.8%, US 8.3%, Netherlands 8.2%, Taiwan 7.7%, China 5.2%, UK 4.4% (2002)
Cameroon Imports $1.7 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Cameroon Imports - commodities machinery, electrical equipment, transport equipment, fuel, food
Cameroon Imports - partners France 28.2%, Nigeria 12.8%, US 8%, Belgium 5.7%, Germany 5.3%, Italy 4.3% (2002)
Cameroon Debt - external $8.6 billion (2002 est.)
Cameroon Economic aid - recipient on 23 January 2001, the Paris Club agreed to reduce Cameroon's debt of $1.3 billion by $900 million; total debt relief now amounts to $1.26 billion
Cameroon Currency Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States
Cameroon Currency code XAF
Cameroon Exchange rates Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 696.99 (2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.7 (1999), 589.95 (1998)
Cameroon Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Cameroon Telephones - main lines in use 95,000 (2001)
Cameroon Telephones - mobile cellular 300,000 (2002)
Cameroon Telephone system general assessment: available only to business and government domestic: cable, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Cameroon Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 3 (2002)
Cameroon Television broadcast stations 1 (2002)
Cameroon Internet country code .cm
Cameroon Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2002)
Cameroon Internet users 45,000 note: Cameroon also had more than 100 cyber-cafes in 2001 (December 2001)
Cameroon Railways total: 1,008 km narrow gauge: 1,008 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)
Cameroon Highways total: 34,300 km paved: 4,288 km unpaved: 30,012 km (1999 est.)
Cameroon Waterways 2,090 km (of decreasing importance) (2002)
Cameroon Pipelines gas 90 km; liquid petroleum gas 9 km; oil 1,124 km (2003)
Cameroon Ports and harbors Bonaberi, Douala, Garoua, Kribi, Tiko
Cameroon Airports 49 (2002)
Cameroon Airports - with paved runways total: 11 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Cameroon Airports - with unpaved runways total: 38 1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 914 to 1,523 m: 20 under 914 m: 11 (2002)
Cameroon Military branches Army, Navy (includes naval infantry), Air Force, National Gendarmerie, Presidential Guard
Cameroon Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Cameroon Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 3,799,841 (2003 est.)
Cameroon Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,928,285 (2003 est.)
Cameroon Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 179,586 (2003 est.)
Cameroon Military expenditures - dollar figure $118.6 million (FY00)
Cameroon Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.4% (FY98)
Cameroon Disputes - international ICJ ruled in 2002 on the Cameroon-Nigeria land and maritime boundary by awarding the potentially petroleum-rich Bakassi Peninsula and offshore region to Cameroon; Nigeria rejected cession of the peninsula, but the parties have formed a Joint Border Commission to resolve differences bilaterally and have commenced with demarcation in less-contested sections of the boundary; Lake Chad Commission continues to urge signatories Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria to ratify delimitation treaty over the lake region, which remains the site of armed clashes among local populations and militias; Nigeria agreed to ratify the treaty and relinquish sovereignty of disputed lands to Cameroon by December 2003
Canada Background A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across an unfortified border. Its paramount political problem continues to be the relationship of the province of Quebec, with its French-speaking residents and unique culture, to the remainder of the country.
Canada Location Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north, north of the conterminous US
Canada Geographic coordinates 60 00 N, 95 00 W
Canada Map references North America
Canada Area total: 9,984,670 sq km land: 9,093,507 sq km water: 891,163 sq km
Canada Area - comparative somewhat larger than the US
Canada Land boundaries total: 8,893 km border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)
Canada Coastline 202,080 km
Canada Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Canada Climate varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north
Canada Terrain mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast
Canada Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m
Canada Natural resources iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower
Canada Land use arable land: 4.94% permanent crops: 0.02% other: 95.04% (1998 est.)
Canada Irrigated land 7,200 sq km (1998 est.)
Canada Natural hazards continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains
Canada Environment - current issues air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities
Canada Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation
Canada Geography - note second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 85% of the population is concentrated within 300 km of the US border
Canada Population 32,207,113 (July 2003 est.)
Canada Age structure 0-14 years: 18.5% (male 3,052,005; female 2,903,007) 15-64 years: 68.6% (male 11,099,907; female 10,984,903) 65 years and over: 12.9% (male 1,774,262; female 2,393,029) (2003 est.)
Canada Median age total: 37.8 years male: 36.9 years female: 38.8 years (2002)
Canada Population growth rate 0.94% (2003 est.)
Canada Birth rate 10.99 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Canada Death rate 7.61 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Canada Net migration rate 6.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Canada Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Canada Infant mortality rate total: 4.88 deaths/1,000 live births female: 4.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 5.36 deaths/1,000 live births
Canada Life expectancy at birth total population: 79.83 years male: 76.44 years female: 83.38 years (2003 est.)
Canada Total fertility rate 1.61 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Canada HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.3% (2001 est.)
Canada HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 55,000 (2001 est.)
Canada HIV/AIDS - deaths less than 500 (2001 est.)
Canada Nationality noun: Canadian(s) adjective: Canadian
Canada Ethnic groups British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other European 15%, Amerindian 2%, other, mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%, mixed background 26%
Canada Religions Roman Catholic 46%, Protestant 36%, other 18% note: based on the 1991 census
Canada Languages English 59.3% (official), French 23.2% (official), other 17.5%
Canada Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 97% (1986 est.) male: NA% female: NA%
Canada Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Canada
Canada Government type confederation with parliamentary democracy
Canada Capital Ottawa
Canada Administrative divisions 10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*
Canada Independence 1 July 1867 (from UK)
Canada National holiday Canada Day, 1 July (1867)
Canada Constitution 17 April 1982 (Constitution Act); originally, the machinery of the government was set up in the British North America Act of 1867; charter of rights and unwritten customs
Canada Legal system based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Canada Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Canada Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Adrienne CLARKSON (since 7 October 1999) elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition in the House of Commons is automatically designated prime minister by the governor general head of government: Prime Minister Paul MARTIN (since 12 December 2003); Deputy Prime Minister Anne MCLELLAN (since 12 December 2003) cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister from among the members of his own party sitting in Parliament
Canada Legislative branch bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (members appointed by the governor general with the advice of the prime minister and serve until reaching 75 years of age; its normal limit is 105 senators) and the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (301 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote to serve for up to five-year terms) elections: House of Commons - last held 27 November 2000 (next to be held by 2005) election results: House of Commons - percent of vote by party - Liberal Party 41%, Canadian Alliance 26%, Bloc Quebecois 11%, New Democratic Party 9%, Progressive Conservative Party 12%; seats by party - Liberal Party 172, Canadian Alliance 66, Bloc Quebecois 38, New Democratic Party 13, Progressive Conservative Party 12; note - percent of vote by party as of January 2002 - Liberal Party 51%, Canadian Alliance 10%, Bloc Quebecois 10%, New Democratic Party 9%, Progressive Conservative Party 18%; seats by party - Liberal Party 172, Canadian Alliance 66, Bloc Quebecois 38, New Democratic Party 13, Progressive Conservative Party 12
Canada Judicial branch Supreme Court of Canada (judges are appointed by the prime minister through the governor general); Federal Court of Canada; Federal Court of Appeal; Provincial Courts (these are named variously Court of Appeal, Court of Queens Bench, Superior Court, Supreme Court, and Court of Justice)
Canada Political parties and leaders Bloc Quebecois [Gilles DUCEPPE]; Canadian Alliance [Stephen HARPER]; Liberal Party [Paul MARTIN]; New Democratic Party [Jack LAYTON]; Progressive Conservative Party [Peter MACKAY]
Canada Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Canada International organization participation ACCT, AfDB, APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CDB, CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, ESA (cooperating state), FAO, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURCA, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOVIC, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Canada Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Michael F. KERGIN chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001 FAX: [1] (202) 682-7726 telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas, Detroit, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, and Seattle consulate(s): Miami, Princeton, San Francisco, and San Jose
Canada Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Paul CELLUCCI embassy: 490 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 1G8 mailing address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburgh, NY 13669-0430 telephone: [1] (613) 238-5335, 4470 FAX: [1] (613) 688-3097 consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, and Vancouver
Canada Flag description two vertical bands of red (hoist and fly side, half width), with white square between them; an 11-pointed red maple leaf is centered in the white square; the official colors of Canada are red and white
Canada Economy - overview As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada today closely resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and high living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which includes Mexico) touched off a dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US. As a result of the close cross-border relationship, the economic sluggishness in the United States in 2001-02 had a negative impact on the Canadian economy. Real growth averaged nearly 3% during 1993-2000, but declined in 2001, with moderate recovery in 2002. Unemployment is up, with contraction in the manufacturing and natural resource sectors. Nevertheless, given its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern capital plant Canada enjoys solid economic prospects. Two shadows loom, the first being the continuing constitutional impasse between English- and French-speaking areas, which has been raising the specter of a split in the federation. Another long-term concern is the flow south to the US of professionals lured by higher pay, lower taxes, and the immense high-tech infrastructure. A key strength in the economy is the substantial trade surplus.
Canada GDP purchasing power parity - $934.1 billion (2002 est.)
Canada GDP - real growth rate 3.3% (2002 est.)
Canada GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $29,300 (2002 est.)
Canada GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 2.3% industry: 26.5% services: 71.2% (2001 est.)
Canada Population below poverty line NA%
Canada Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.8% highest 10%: 23.8% (1994)
Canada Distribution of family income - Gini index 31.5 (1994)
Canada Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.2% (2002 est.)
Canada Labor force 16.4 million (2001 est.)
Canada Labor force - by occupation services 74%, manufacturing 15%, construction 5%, agriculture 3%, other 3% (2000)
Canada Unemployment rate 7.6% (2002 est.)
Canada Budget revenues: $178.6 billion expenditures: $161.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY 00/01 est.)
Canada Industries transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products; wood and paper products; fish products, petroleum and natural gas
Canada Industrial production growth rate 2.2% (2002 est.)
Canada Electricity - production 566.3 billion kWh (2001)
Canada Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 28% hydro: 57.9% other: 1.3% (2001) nuclear: 12.9%
Canada Electricity - consumption 504.4 billion kWh (2001)
Canada Electricity - exports 38.4 billion kWh (2001)
Canada Electricity - imports 16.11 billion kWh (2001)
Canada Oil - production 2.738 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Canada Oil - consumption 1.703 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Canada Oil - exports 2.008 million bbl/day (2001)
Canada Oil - imports 1.145 million bbl/day (2001)
Canada Oil - proved reserves 5.112 billion bbl (37257)
Canada Natural gas - production 186.8 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Canada Natural gas - consumption 82.25 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Canada Natural gas - exports 109 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Canada Natural gas - imports 4.46 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Canada Natural gas - proved reserves 1.691 trillion cu m (37257)
Canada Agriculture - products wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish
Canada Exports $260.5 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Canada Exports - commodities motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum
Canada Exports - partners US 87.7%, Japan 2%, UK 1.1% (2002)
Canada Imports $229 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Canada Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods
Canada Imports - partners US 62.6%, China 4.6%, Japan 4.4% (2002)
Canada Debt - external $1.9 billion $NA (2000)
Canada Economic aid - donor ODA, $1.3 billion (1999)
Canada Currency Canadian dollar (CAD)
Canada Currency code CAD
Canada Exchange rates Canadian dollars per US dollar - 1.57 (2002), 1.55 (2001), 1.49 (2000), 1.49 (1999), 1.48 (1998)
Canada Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Canada Telephones - main lines in use 20,802,900 (1999)
Canada Telephones - mobile cellular 8,751,300 (1997)
Canada Telephone system general assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations international: 5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)
Canada Radio broadcast stations AM 535, FM 53, shortwave 6 (1998)
Canada Television broadcast stations 80 (plus many repeaters) (1997)
Canada Internet country code .ca
Canada Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 760 (2000 est.)
Canada Internet users 16.84 million (2002)
Canada Railways total: 49,422 km standard gauge: 49,422 km 1.435-m gauge (129 km electrified) (2002)
Canada Highways total: 1.408 million km paved: 497,306 km (including 16,900 km of expressways) unpaved: 911,494 km (2002)
Canada Waterways 3,000 km (including Saint Lawrence Seaway)
Canada Pipelines crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km
Canada Ports and harbors Becancour (Quebec), Churchill, Halifax, Hamilton, Montreal, New Westminster, Prince Rupert, Quebec, Saint John (New Brunswick), St. John's (Newfoundland), Sept Isles, Sydney, Trois-Rivieres, Thunder Bay, Toronto, Vancouver, Windsor
Canada Merchant marine total: 122 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,840,272 GRT/2,740,864 DWT ships by type: barge carrier 1, bulk 64, cargo 11, chemical tanker 6, combination bulk 2, combination ore/oil 1, container 1, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 18, railcar carrier 2, roll on/roll off 9, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 1 note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Germany 3, Monaco 16, United Kingdom 1, United States 1 (2002 est.)
Canada Airports 1,389 (2002)
Canada Airports - with paved runways total: 507 over 3,047 m: 18 2,438 to 3,047 m: 15 914 to 1,523 m: 245 under 914 m: 80 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 149
Canada Airports - with unpaved runways total: 882 1,524 to 2,437 m: 73 914 to 1,523 m: 363 under 914 m: 446 (2002)
Canada Heliports 12 (2002)
Canada Military branches Canadian Armed Forces (comprising Land Forces Command, Maritime Command, Air Command, Communications Command, Training Command)
Canada Military manpower - military age 16 years of age (2003 est.)
Canada Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 8,391,120 (2003 est.)
Canada Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 7,158,016 (2003 est.)
Canada Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 216,488 (2003 est.)
Canada Military expenditures - dollar figure $7.861 billion (FY01/02)
Canada Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.1% (FY01/02)
Canada Disputes - international managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and around the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; uncontested dispute with Denmark over Hans Island sovereignty in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland
Canada Illicit drugs illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; transit point for heroin and cocaine entering the US market; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering because of its mature financial services sector
Cape Verde Background The uninhabited islands were discovered and colonized by the Portuguese in the 15th century; they subsequently became a trading center for African slaves and later an important coaling and resupply stop for whaling and transatlantic shipping. Following independence in 1975, and a tentative interest in unification with Guinea-Bissau, a one-party system was established and maintained until multi-party elections were held in 1990. Cape Verde continues to exhibit one of Africa's most stable democratic governments. Repeated droughts during the second half of the 20th century caused significant hardship and prompted heavy emigration. As a result, Cape Verde's expatriate population is greater than its domestic one. Most Cape Verdeans have both African and Portuguese antecedents.
Cape Verde Location Western Africa, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Senegal
Cape Verde Geographic coordinates 16 00 N, 24 00 W
Cape Verde Map references Political Map of the World
Cape Verde Area total: 4,033 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 4,033 sq km
Cape Verde Area - comparative slightly larger than Rhode Island
Cape Verde Land boundaries 0 km
Cape Verde Coastline 965 km
Cape Verde Maritime claims measured from claimed archipelagic baselines territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM contiguous zone: 24 NM
Cape Verde Climate temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and very erratic
Cape Verde Terrain steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic
Cape Verde Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mt. Fogo 2,829 m (a volcano on Fogo Island)
Cape Verde Natural resources salt, basalt rock, limestone, kaolin, fish
Cape Verde Land use arable land: 9.68% permanent crops: 0.5% other: 89.82% (1998 est.)
Cape Verde Irrigated land 30 sq km (1998 est.)
Cape Verde Natural hazards prolonged droughts; seasonal harmattan wind produces obscuring dust; volcanically and seismically active
Cape Verde Environment - current issues soil erosion; demand for wood used as fuel has resulted in deforestation; desertification; environmental damage has threatened several species of birds and reptiles; illegal beach sand extraction; overfishing
Cape Verde Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Cape Verde Geography - note strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa near major north-south sea routes; important communications station; important sea and air refueling site
Cape Verde Population 412,137 (July 2003 est.)
Cape Verde Age structure 0-14 years: 41% (male 85,254; female 83,716) 15-64 years: 52.3% (male 103,690; female 111,992) 65 years and over: 6.7% (male 10,498; female 16,987) (2003 est.)
Cape Verde Median age total: 18.7 years male: 17.9 years female: 19.6 years (2002)
Cape Verde Population growth rate 0.79% (2003 est.)
Cape Verde Birth rate 26.95 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Cape Verde Death rate 6.86 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Cape Verde Net migration rate -12.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Cape Verde Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Cape Verde Infant mortality rate total: 50.5 deaths/1,000 live births female: 45.01 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 55.83 deaths/1,000 live births
Cape Verde Life expectancy at birth total population: 69.83 years male: 66.53 years female: 73.23 years (2003 est.)
Cape Verde Total fertility rate 3.77 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Cape Verde HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.04% (2001 est.)
Cape Verde HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 775 (2001)
Cape Verde HIV/AIDS - deaths 225 (as of 2001)
Cape Verde Nationality noun: Cape Verdean(s) adjective: Cape Verdean
Cape Verde Ethnic groups Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%
Cape Verde Religions Roman Catholic (infused with indigenous beliefs); Protestant (mostly Church of the Nazarene)
Cape Verde Languages Portuguese, Crioulo (a blend of Portuguese and West African words)
Cape Verde Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 76.6% male: 85.8% female: 69.2% (2003 est.)
Cape Verde Country name conventional long form: Republic of Cape Verde conventional short form: Cape Verde local short form: Cabo Verde local long form: Republica de Cabo Verde
Cape Verde Government type republic
Cape Verde Capital Praia
Cape Verde Administrative divisions 17 municipalities (concelhos, singular - concelho); Boa Vista, Brava, Maio, Mosteiros, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo, Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Domingos, Sao Filipe, Sao Miguel, Sao Nicolau, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal
Cape Verde Independence 5 July 1975 (from Portugal)
Cape Verde National holiday Independence Day, 5 July (1975)
Cape Verde Constitution new constitution came into force 25 September 1992; underwent a major revision on 23 November 1995, substantially increasing the powers of the president, and a further revision in 1999, to create the position of national ombudsman (Provedor de Justica)
Cape Verde Legal system derived from the legal system of Portugal
Cape Verde Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Cape Verde Executive branch chief of state: President Pedro PIRES (since 22 March 2001) head of government: Prime Minister Jose Maria Pereira NEVES (since 1 February 2001) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 11 and 25 February 2001 (next to be held NA February 2006); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly and appointed by the president election results: Pedro PIRES elected president; percent of vote - Pedro PIRES (PAICV) 49.43%, Carlos VIEGA (MPD) 49.42%; note - the election was won by only twelve votes
Cape Verde Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (72 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 14 January 2001 (next to be held NA December 2005) election results: percent of vote by party - PAICV 47.3%, MPD 39.8%, ADM 6%, other 6.9%; seats by party - PAICV 40, MPD 30, ADM 2
Cape Verde Judicial branch Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Supremo Tribunal de Justia
Cape Verde Political parties and leaders African Party for Independence of Cape Verde or PAICV [Jose Maria Pereira NEVES, chairman]; Democratic Alliance for Change or ADM [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO] (a coalition of PCD, PTS, and UCID); Democratic Christian Party or PDC [Manuel RODRIGUES, chairman]; Democratic Renovation Party or PRD [Jacinto SANTOS, president]; Movement for Democracy or MPD [Agostinho LOPES, president]; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO, president]; Party of Work and Solidarity or PTS [Anibal MEDINA, president]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Joao ALEM, president]
Cape Verde Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Cape Verde International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Cape Verde Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Jose BRITO consulate(s) general: Boston FAX: [1] (202) 965-1207 telephone: [1] (202) 965-6820 chancery: 3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
Cape Verde Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Donald C. JOHNSON embassy: Rua Abilio m. Macedo 81, Praia mailing address: C. P. 201, Praia telephone: [238] 61 56 16, 61 56 17 FAX: [238] 61 13 55
Cape Verde Flag description three horizontal bands of light blue (top, double width), white (with a horizontal red stripe in the middle third), and light blue; a circle of 10 yellow five-pointed stars is centered on the hoist end of the red stripe and extends into the upper and lower blue bands
Cape Verde Economy - overview This island economy suffers from a poor natural resource base, including serious water shortages exacerbated by cycles of long-term drought. The economy is service-oriented, with commerce, transport, tourism, and public services accounting for 72% of GDP. Although nearly 70% of the population lives in rural areas, the share of agriculture in GDP in 2001 was only 11%, of which fishing accounts for 1.5%. About 82% of food must be imported. The fishing potential, mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully exploited. Cape Verde annually runs a high trade deficit, financed by foreign aid and remittances from emigrants; remittances supplement GDP by more than 20%. Economic reforms are aimed at developing the private sector and attracting foreign investment to diversify the economy. Prospects for 2003 depend heavily on the maintenance of aid flows, tourism, remittances, and the momentum of the government's development program.
Cape Verde GDP purchasing power parity - $600 million (2002 est.)
Cape Verde GDP - real growth rate 4% (2002 est.)
Cape Verde GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,400 (2002 est.)
Cape Verde GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 11% industry: 17% services: 72% (2001)
Cape Verde Population below poverty line 30% (2000)
Cape Verde Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Cape Verde Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3% (2002)
Cape Verde Labor force NA
Cape Verde Unemployment rate 21% (2000 est.)
Cape Verde Budget revenues: $112 million expenditures: $198 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000)
Cape Verde Industries food and beverages, fish processing, shoes and garments, salt mining, ship repair
Cape Verde Industrial production growth rate NA%
Cape Verde Electricity - production 42.03 million kWh (2001)
Cape Verde Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Cape Verde Electricity - consumption 39.08 million kWh (2001)
Cape Verde Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Cape Verde Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Cape Verde Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Cape Verde Oil - consumption 2,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Cape Verde Oil - exports NA (2001)
Cape Verde Oil - imports NA (2001)
Cape Verde Agriculture - products bananas, corn, beans, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, coffee, peanuts; fish
Cape Verde Exports $30 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Cape Verde Exports - commodities fuel, shoes, garments, fish, hides
Cape Verde Exports - partners Portugal 38.5%, UK 26.4%, France 23.1%, US 8.2% (2002)
Cape Verde Imports $220 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Cape Verde Imports - commodities foodstuffs, industrial products, transport equipment, fuels
Cape Verde Imports - partners Portugal 49.1%, Netherlands 7.2%, Germany 5.7% (2002)
Cape Verde Debt - external $325 million (2002)
Cape Verde Economic aid - recipient $136 million (1999)
Cape Verde Currency Cape Verdean escudo (CVE)
Cape Verde Currency code CVE
Cape Verde Exchange rates Cape Verdean escudos (CVE) per US dollar - NA (2002), 123.21 (2001), 115.88 (2000), 102.7 (1999), 98.16 (1998)
Cape Verde Fiscal year calendar year
Cape Verde Telephones - main lines in use 60,935 (2002)
Cape Verde Telephones - mobile cellular 28,119 (2002)
Cape Verde Telephone system general assessment: effective system, being improved domestic: interisland microwave radio relay system with both analog and digital exchanges; work is in progress on a submarine fiber-optic cable system which is scheduled for completion in 2003 international: 2 coaxial submarine cables; HF radiotelephone to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Cape Verde Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 15 (and 17 repeaters), shortwave 0 (2002)
Cape Verde Television broadcast stations 1 (and 7 repeaters) (2002)
Cape Verde Internet country code .cv
Cape Verde Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2002)
Cape Verde Internet users 12,000 (2002)
Cape Verde Railways 0 km
Cape Verde Highways total: 1,100 km paved: 858 km unpaved: 242 km (1999 est.)
Cape Verde Waterways none
Cape Verde Ports and harbors Mindelo, Praia, Tarrafal
Cape Verde Merchant marine total: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 5,395 GRT/6,614 DWT ships by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo 1 note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: United Kingdom 1 (2002 est.)
Cape Verde Airports 9 note: 3 airports are reported to be nonoperational (2002)
Cape Verde Airports - with paved runways total: 6 over 3,047 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2002)
Cape Verde Airports - with unpaved runways total: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2002)
Cape Verde Military branches Army, Coast Guard
Cape Verde Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 95,450 (2003 est.)
Cape Verde Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 53,842 (2003 est.)
Cape Verde Military expenditures - dollar figure $9.3 million (FY02)
Cape Verde Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.6% (FY02)
Cape Verde Disputes - international none
Cape Verde Illicit drugs used as a transshipment point for illicit drugs moving from Latin America and Asia destined for Western Europe; the lack of a well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center
Cayman Islands Background The Cayman Islands were colonized from Jamaica by the British during the 18th and 19th centuries. Administered by Jamaica since 1863, they remained a British dependency after 1962 when the former became independent.
Cayman Islands Location Caribbean, island group in Caribbean Sea, nearly one-half of the way from Cuba to Honduras
Cayman Islands Geographic coordinates 19 30 N, 80 30 W
Cayman Islands Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Cayman Islands Area total: 262 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 262 sq km
Cayman Islands Area - comparative 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Cayman Islands Land boundaries 0 km
Cayman Islands Coastline 160 km
Cayman Islands Maritime claims exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
Cayman Islands Climate tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and cool, relatively dry winters (November to April)
Cayman Islands Terrain low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs
Cayman Islands Elevation extremes lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: The Bluff 43 m
Cayman Islands Natural resources fish, climate and beaches that foster tourism
Cayman Islands Land use arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (1998 est.)
Cayman Islands Irrigated land NA sq km
Cayman Islands Natural hazards hurricanes (July to November)
Cayman Islands Environment - current issues no natural fresh water resources; drinking water supplies must be met by rainwater catchments
Cayman Islands Geography - note important location between Cuba and Central America
Cayman Islands Population 41,934 (July 2003 est.)
Cayman Islands Age structure 0-14 years: 21.6% (male 4,525; female 4,541) 15-64 years: 70.6% (male 14,463; female 15,157) 65 years and over: 7.7% (male 1,515; female 1,733) (2003 est.)
Cayman Islands Median age total: 36.1 years male: 35.8 years female: 36.4 years (2002)
Cayman Islands Population growth rate 2.79% (2003 est.)
Cayman Islands Birth rate 13.33 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Cayman Islands Death rate 4.7 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Cayman Islands Net migration rate 19.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population note: major destination for Cubans trying to migrate to the US (2003 est.)
Cayman Islands Sex ratio at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Cayman Islands Infant mortality rate total: 8.64 deaths/1,000 live births female: 7.35 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 9.9 deaths/1,000 live births
Cayman Islands Life expectancy at birth total population: 79.67 years male: 77.08 years female: 82.3 years (2003 est.)
Cayman Islands Total fertility rate 1.91 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Cayman Islands HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate NA%
Cayman Islands HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
Cayman Islands HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Cayman Islands Nationality noun: Caymanian(s) adjective: Caymanian
Cayman Islands Ethnic groups mixed 40%, white 20%, black 20%, expatriates of various ethnic groups 20%
Cayman Islands Religions United Church (Presbyterian and Congregational), Anglican, Baptist, Church of God, other Protestant, Roman Catholic
Cayman Islands Languages English
Cayman Islands Literacy definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school total population: 98% male: 98% female: 98% (1970 est.)
Cayman Islands Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands Dependency status overseas territory of the UK
Cayman Islands Government type British crown colony
Cayman Islands Capital George Town
Cayman Islands Administrative divisions 8 districts; Creek, Eastern, Midland, South Town, Spot Bay, Stake Bay, West End, Western
Cayman Islands Independence none (overseas territory of the UK)
Cayman Islands National holiday Constitution Day, first Monday in July
Cayman Islands Constitution 1959, revised 1972 and 1992
Cayman Islands Legal system British common law and local statutes
Cayman Islands Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Cayman Islands Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); Governor Bruce DINWIDDY (since 29 May 2002) elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the governor is appointed by the monarch; the chief secretary is appointed by the governor head of government: Chief Secretary W. McKeeva BUSH (since NA December 2001) cabinet: Executive Council (three members appointed by the governor, four members elected by the Legislative Assembly)
Cayman Islands Legislative branch unicameral Legislative Assembly (18 seats, three appointed members from the Executive Council and 15 elected by popular vote; members serve four-year terms) elections: last held 8 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2004) election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - NA
Cayman Islands Judicial branch Summary Court; Grand Court; Cayman Islands Court of Appeal
Cayman Islands Political parties and leaders there are no formal political parties but the following loose groupings act as political organizations; National Team [leader NA]; Democratic Alliance [leader NA]; Team Cayman [leader NA]; United Democratic Party [leader NA]
Cayman Islands Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Cayman Islands International organization participation Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), IOC, UNESCO (associate)
Cayman Islands Diplomatic representation in the US none (overseas territory of the UK)
Cayman Islands Diplomatic representation from the US none (overseas territory of the UK)
Cayman Islands Flag description blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Caymanian coat of arms centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms includes a pineapple and turtle above a shield with three stars (representing the three islands) and a scroll at the bottom bearing the motto HE HATH FOUNDED IT UPON THE SEAS
Cayman Islands Economy - overview With no direct taxation, the islands are a thriving offshore financial center. More than 40,000 companies were registered in the Cayman Islands as of 1998, including almost 600 banks and trust companies; banking assets exceed $500 billion. A stock exchange was opened in 1997. Tourism is also a mainstay, accounting for about 70% of GDP and 75% of foreign currency earnings. The tourist industry is aimed at the luxury market and caters mainly to visitors from North America. Total tourist arrivals exceeded 1.2 million in 1997, with 600,000 from the US. About 90% of the islands' food and consumer goods must be imported. The Caymanians enjoy one of the highest outputs per capita and one of the highest standards of living in the world.
Cayman Islands GDP purchasing power parity - $1.27 billion (2002 est.)
Cayman Islands GDP - real growth rate 1.7% (2002 est.)
Cayman Islands GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $35,000 (2002 est.)
Cayman Islands GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 1.4% industry: 3.2% services: 95.4% (1994 est.)
Cayman Islands Population below poverty line NA%
Cayman Islands Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Cayman Islands Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.8% (2002)
Cayman Islands Labor force 19,820 (1995)
Cayman Islands Labor force - by occupation agriculture 1.4%, industry 12.6%, services 86% (1995)
Cayman Islands Unemployment rate 4.1% (1997)
Cayman Islands Budget revenues: $265.2 million expenditures: $248.9 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997)
Cayman Islands Industries tourism, banking, insurance and finance, construction, construction materials, furniture
Cayman Islands Industrial production growth rate NA%
Cayman Islands Electricity - production 381.9 million kWh (2001)
Cayman Islands Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Cayman Islands Electricity - consumption 355.2 million kWh (2001)
Cayman Islands Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Cayman Islands Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Cayman Islands Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Cayman Islands Oil - consumption 2,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Cayman Islands Oil - exports NA (2001)
Cayman Islands Oil - imports NA (2001)
Cayman Islands Agriculture - products vegetables, fruit; livestock, turtle farming
Cayman Islands Exports $1.2 million (1999)
Cayman Islands Exports - commodities turtle products, manufactured consumer goods
Cayman Islands Exports - partners mostly US
Cayman Islands Imports $457.4 million (1999)
Cayman Islands Imports - commodities foodstuffs, manufactured goods
Cayman Islands Imports - partners US, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, Netherlands Antilles, Japan
Cayman Islands Debt - external $70 million (1996)
Cayman Islands Economic aid - recipient $NA
Cayman Islands Currency Caymanian dollar (KYD)
Cayman Islands Currency code KYD
Cayman Islands Exchange rates Caymanian dollars per US dollar - 0.82 (29 October 2001), 0.83 (3 November 1995), 0.85 (22 November 1993)
Cayman Islands Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Cayman Islands Telephones - main lines in use 19,000 (1995)
Cayman Islands Telephones - mobile cellular 2,534 (1995)
Cayman Islands Telephone system general assessment: NA domestic: NA international: 1 submarine coaxial cable; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Cayman Islands Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 0 (1998)
Cayman Islands Television broadcast stations 1 with cable system
Cayman Islands Internet country code .ky
Cayman Islands Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 16 (2000)
Cayman Islands Internet users NA
Cayman Islands Railways 0 km
Cayman Islands Highways total: 785 km paved: 785 km (2000)
Cayman Islands Waterways none
Cayman Islands Ports and harbors Cayman Brac, George Town
Cayman Islands Merchant marine total: 123 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 2,402,058 GRT/3,792,094 DWT ships by type: bulk 22, cargo 5, chemical tanker 31, container 2, liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker 21, refrigerated cargo 35, roll on/roll off 5, specialized tanker 1 note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Bahrain 2, China 1, Germany 4, Greece 27, Hong Kong 3, Italy 2, Japan 1, Norway 14, Sweden 13, United Kingdom 15, United States 35 (2002 est.)
Cayman Islands Airports 3 (2002)
Cayman Islands Airports - with paved runways total: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2002)
Cayman Islands Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)
Cayman Islands Military branches no regular indigenous military forces; Royal Cayman Islands Police Force (RCIPF)
Cayman Islands Military - note defense is the responsibility of the UK
Cayman Islands Disputes - international none
Cayman Islands Illicit drugs offshore financial center; vulnerable to drug transshipment to the US and Europe
Central African Republic Background The former French colony of Ubangi-Shari became the Central African Republic upon independence in 1960. After three tumultuous decades of misrule - mostly by military governments - civilian rule was established in 1993 and lasted for one decade. In March 2003 a military coup deposed the civilian government of President Ange-Felix PATASSE and has since established a new government.
Central African Republic Location Central Africa, north of Democratic Republic of the Congo
Central African Republic Geographic coordinates 7 00 N, 21 00 E
Central African Republic Map references Africa
Central African Republic Area total: 622,984 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 622,984 sq km
Central African Republic Area - comparative slightly smaller than Texas
Central African Republic Land boundaries total: 5,203 km border countries: Cameroon 797 km, Chad 1,197 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,577 km, Republic of the Congo 467 km, Sudan 1,165 km
Central African Republic Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Central African Republic Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Central African Republic Climate tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers
Central African Republic Terrain vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered hills in northeast and southwest
Central African Republic Elevation extremes lowest point: Oubangui River 335 m highest point: Mont Ngaoui 1,420 m
Central African Republic Natural resources diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil, hydropower
Central African Republic Land use arable land: 3.1% permanent crops: 0.14% other: 96.76% (1998 est.)
Central African Republic Irrigated land NA sq km
Central African Republic Natural hazards hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern areas; floods are common
Central African Republic Environment - current issues tap water is not potable; poaching has diminished its reputation as one of the last great wildlife refuges; desertification; deforestation
Central African Republic Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 94 signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Central African Republic Geography - note landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa
Central African Republic Population 3,683,538 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2003 est.)
Central African Republic Age structure 0-14 years: 43.1% (male 799,241; female 788,370) 15-64 years: 53.5% (male 969,581; female 1,000,740) 65 years and over: 3.4% (male 53,322; female 72,284) (2003 est.)
Central African Republic Median age total: 17.9 years male: 17.6 years female: 18.3 years (2002)
Central African Republic Population growth rate 1.62% (2003 est.)
Central African Republic Birth rate 35.93 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Central African Republic Death rate 19.73 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Central African Republic Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Central African Republic Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Central African Republic Infant mortality rate total: 93.3 deaths/1,000 live births female: 86.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 100.35 deaths/1,000 live births
Central African Republic Life expectancy at birth total population: 41.71 years male: 40.18 years female: 43.29 years (2003 est.)
Central African Republic Total fertility rate 4.68 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Central African Republic HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 12.9% (2001 est.)
Central African Republic HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 250,000 (2001 est.)
Central African Republic HIV/AIDS - deaths 22,000 (2001 est.)
Central African Republic Nationality noun: Central African(s) adjective: Central African
Central African Republic Ethnic groups Baya 33%, Banda 27%, Mandjia 13%, Sara 10%, Mboum 7%, M'Baka 4%, Yakoma 4%, other 2%
Central African Republic Religions indigenous beliefs 35%, Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, Muslim 15% note: animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the Christian majority
Central African Republic Languages French (official), Sangho (lingua franca and national language), tribal languages
Central African Republic Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 51% male: 63.3% female: 39.9% (2003 est.)
Central African Republic Country name conventional long form: Central African Republic conventional short form: none local short form: none local long form: Republique Centrafricaine former: Ubangi-Shari, Central African Empire abbreviation: CAR
Central African Republic Government type republic
Central African Republic Capital Bangui
Central African Republic Administrative divisions 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture), 2 economic prefectures* (prefectures economiques, singular - prefecture economique), and 1 commune**; Bamingui-Bangoran, Bangui**, Basse-Kotto, Haute-Kotto, Haut-Mbomou, Kemo, Lobaye, Mambere-Kadei, Mbomou, Nana-Grebizi*, Nana-Mambere, Ombella-Mpoko, Ouaka, Ouham, Ouham-Pende, Sangha-Mbaere*, Vakaga
Central African Republic Independence 13 August 1960 (from France)
Central African Republic National holiday Republic Day, 1 December (1958)
Central African Republic Constitution passed by referendum 29 December 1994; adopted 7 January 1995
Central African Republic Legal system based on French law
Central African Republic Suffrage 21 years of age; universal
Central African Republic Executive branch chief of state: President Francois BOZIZE (since 15 March 2003 coup) head of government: Prime Minister Abel GOUMBA (since NA March 2003) cabinet: Council of Ministers elections: NA; current president assumed power following a coup on 15 March 2003 in which former President Ange-Felix PATASSE was overthrown (President BOZIZE has stated that elections will be held by NA 2004); prime minister appointed by the president
Central African Republic Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (109 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms; note - there were 85 seats in the National Assembly before the 1998 election) elections: last held 22-23 November and 13 December 1998 (next to be held NA 2003) election results: percent of vote by party - MLPC 43%, RDC 18%, MDD 9%, FPP 6%, PSD 5%, ADP 4%, PUN 3%, FODEM 2%, PLD 2%, UPR 1%, FC 1%, independents 6%; seats by party - MLPC 47, RDC 20, MDD 8, FPP 7, PSD 6, ADP 5, PUN 3, FODEM 2, PLD 2, UPR 1, FC 1, independents 7
Central African Republic Judicial branch Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court (3 judges appointed by the president, 3 by the president of the National Assembly, and 3 by fellow judges); Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts; Inferior Courts
Central African Republic Political parties and leaders Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP [Jacques MBOLIEDAS]; Central African Democratic Assembly or RDC [Andre KOLINGBA]; Civic Forum or FC [Gen. Timothee MALENDOMA]; Democratic Forum for Modernity or FODEM [Charles MASSI]; Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Nestor KOMBO-NAGUEMON]; Movement for Democracy and Development or MDD [David DACKO]; Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People or MLPC [the party of deposed president, Ange-Felix PATASSE]; Patriotic Front for Progress or FPP [Abel GOUMBA]; People's Union for the Republic or UPR [Pierre Sammy MAKFOY]; National Unity Party or PUN [Jean-Paul NGOUPANDE]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Enoch LAKOUE]
Central African Republic Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Central African Republic International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC (observer), OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Central African Republic Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Emmanuel TOUABOY FAX: [1] (202) 332-9893 telephone: [1] (202) 483-7800 chancery: 1618 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Central African Republic Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Mattie R. SHARPLESS embassy: Avenue David Dacko, Bangui mailing address: B. P. 924, Bangui telephone: [236] 61 02 00 FAX: [236] 61 44 94
Central African Republic Flag description four equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, green, and yellow with a vertical red band in center; there is a yellow five-pointed star on the hoist side of the blue band
Central African Republic Economy - overview Subsistence agriculture, together with forestry, remains the backbone of the economy of the Central African Republic (CAR), with more than 70% of the population living in outlying areas. The agricultural sector generates half of GDP. Timber has accounted for about 16% of export earnings and the diamond industry for 54%. Important constraints to economic development include the CAR's landlocked position, a poor transportation system, a largely unskilled work force, and a legacy of misdirected macroeconomic policies. Factional fighting between the government and its opponents remains a drag on economic revitalization, with GDP growth likely to be no more than 1.3% in 2003. Distribution of income is extraordinarily unequal. Grants from France and the international community can only partially meet humanitarian needs.
Central African Republic GDP purchasing power parity - $4.296 billion (2002 est.)
Central African Republic GDP - real growth rate 1.5% (2002 est.)
Central African Republic GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,200 (2002 est.)
Central African Republic GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 55% industry: 20% services: 25% (2001 est.)
Central African Republic Population below poverty line NA%
Central African Republic Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 0.7% highest 10%: 47.7% (1993)
Central African Republic Distribution of family income - Gini index 61.3 (1993)
Central African Republic Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.6% (2001 est.)
Central African Republic Labor force NA
Central African Republic Unemployment rate 8% (23% for Bangui) (2001 est.)
Central African Republic Budget revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Central African Republic Industries diamond mining, logging, brewing, textiles, footwear, assembly of bicycles and motorcycles
Central African Republic Industrial production growth rate 3% (2002)
Central African Republic Electricity - production 106 million kWh (2001)
Central African Republic Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 19.8% hydro: 80.2% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Central African Republic Electricity - consumption 98.63 million kWh (2001)
Central African Republic Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Central African Republic Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Central African Republic Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Central African Republic Oil - consumption 2,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Central African Republic Oil - exports NA (2001)
Central African Republic Oil - imports NA (2001)
Central African Republic Agriculture - products cotton, coffee, tobacco, manioc (tapioca), yams, millet, corn, bananas; timber
Central African Republic Exports $134 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Central African Republic Exports - commodities diamonds, timber, cotton, coffee, tobacco
Central African Republic Exports - partners Belgium 66.8%, Spain 6.4%, Kazakhstan 4% (2002)
Central African Republic Imports $102 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Central African Republic Imports - commodities food, textiles, petroleum products, machinery, electrical equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
Central African Republic Imports - partners France 30%, US 5.2%, Cameroon 4.5%, Germany 4.3% (2002)
Central African Republic Debt - external $881.4 million (2000 est.)
Central African Republic Economic aid - recipient ODA $73 million; note - traditional budget subsidies from France (2000 est.)
Central African Republic Currency Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States
Central African Republic Currency code XAF
Central African Republic Exchange rates Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 696.99 (2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.7 (1999), 589.95 (1998)
Central African Republic Fiscal year calendar year
Central African Republic Telephones - main lines in use 9,500 (2000)
Central African Republic Telephones - mobile cellular 710 (1998)
Central African Republic Telephone system general assessment: fair system domestic: network consists principally of microwave radio relay and low-capacity, low-powered radiotelephone communication international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Central African Republic Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 1 (2002)
Central African Republic Television broadcast stations 1 (2001)
Central African Republic Internet country code .cf
Central African Republic Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2002)
Central African Republic Internet users 2,000 (2002)
Central African Republic Railways 0 km
Central African Republic Highways total: 23,810 km paved: 643 km unpaved: 23,167 km (1999 est.)
Central African Republic Waterways 900 km note: traditional trade carried on by means of shallow-draft dugouts; Oubangui is the most important river, navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6 m or less; 282 km navigable to craft drawing as much as 1.8 m
Central African Republic Ports and harbors Bangui, Nola, Salo, Nzinga
Central African Republic Airports 50 (2002)
Central African Republic Airports - with paved runways total: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2002)
Central African Republic Airports - with unpaved runways total: 47 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 10 914 to 1,523 m: 23 under 914 m: 13 (2002)
Central African Republic Military branches Central African Armed Forces (FACA) (including Republican Guard, Ground Forces, Naval Forces, and Air Force), Presidential Security Guard, Gendarmerie, National Police
Central African Republic Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 858,671 (2003 est.)
Central African Republic Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 449,466 (2003 est.)
Central African Republic Military expenditures - dollar figure $13.43 million (FY02)
Central African Republic Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.1% (FY02)
Central African Republic Disputes - international internal political instabilities with fighting and violence overlap into Chad and CAR, leaving refugees and rebel groups in both countries; violent ethnic skirmishes persist along the border with Sudan
Chad Background Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of ethnic warfare as well as invasions by Libya before a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually suppressed or came to terms with most political-military groups, settled a territorial dispute with Libya on terms favorable to Chad, drafted a democratic constitution, and held multiparty presidential and National Assembly elections in 1996 and 1997, respectively. In 1998, a new rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which continued to escalate throughout 2000. A peace agreement, signed in January 2002 between the government and the rebels, provides for the demobilization of the rebels and their reintegration into the political system. Despite movement toward democratic reform, power remains in the hands of a northern ethnic oligarchy.
Chad Location Central Africa, south of Libya
Chad Geographic coordinates 15 00 N, 19 00 E
Chad Map references Africa
Chad Area total: 1.284 million sq km water: 24,800 sq km land: 1,259,200 sq km
Chad Area - comparative slightly more than three times the size of California
Chad Land boundaries total: 5,968 km border countries: Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km
Chad Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Chad Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Chad Climate tropical in south, desert in north
Chad Terrain broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south
Chad Elevation extremes lowest point: Djourab Depression 160 m highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m
Chad Natural resources petroleum (unexploited but exploration under way), uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)
Chad Land use arable land: 2.78% permanent crops: 0.02% other: 97.2% (1998 est.)
Chad Irrigated land 200 sq km (1998 est.)
Chad Natural hazards hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues
Chad Environment - current issues inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification
Chad Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
Chad Geography - note landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel
Chad Population 9,253,493 (July 2003 est.)
Chad Age structure 0-14 years: 47.9% (male 2,228,605; female 2,201,368) 15-64 years: 49.3% (male 2,171,169; female 2,393,184) 65 years and over: 2.8% (male 105,686; female 153,481) (2003 est.)
Chad Median age total: 16 years male: 15.2 years female: 16.8 years (2002)
Chad Population growth rate 3.07% (2003 est.)
Chad Birth rate 47.06 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Chad Death rate 16.38 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Chad Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Chad Sex ratio at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Chad Infant mortality rate total: 95.74 deaths/1,000 live births female: 86.11 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 105 deaths/1,000 live births
Chad Life expectancy at birth total population: 48.51 years male: 46.97 years female: 50.1 years (2003 est.)
Chad Total fertility rate 6.44 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Chad HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 3.6% 5%-7% (2001 est.)
Chad HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 150,000 (2001 est.)
Chad HIV/AIDS - deaths 14,000 (confirmed AIDS cases, actual number far higher but difficult to estimate) (2001 est.)
Chad Nationality noun: Chadian(s) adjective: Chadian
Chad Ethnic groups 200 distinct groups; in the north and center: Arabs, Gorane (Toubou, Daza, Kreda), Zaghawa, Kanembou, Ouaddai, Baguirmi, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Hausa, Boulala, and Maba, most of whom are Muslim; in the south: Sara (Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye), Moundang, Moussei, Massa, most of whom are Christian or animist; about 1,000 French citizens live in Chad
Chad Religions Muslim 51%, Christian 35%, animist 7%, other 7%
Chad Languages French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects
Chad Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic total population: 47.5% male: 56% female: 39.3% (2003 est.)
Chad Country name conventional long form: Republic of Chad conventional short form: Chad local long form: Republique du Tchad local short form: Tchad
Chad Government type republic
Chad Capital N'Djamena
Chad Administrative divisions 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture); Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile note: instead of 14 prefectures, there may be a new administrative structure of 28 departments (departments, singular - department), and 1 city*; Assongha, Baguirmi, Bahr El Gazal, Bahr Koh, Batha Oriental, Batha Occidental, Biltine, Borkou, Dababa, Ennedi, Guera, Hadjer Lamis, Kabia, Kanem, Lac, Lac Iro, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Boneye, Mayo-Dallah, Monts de Lam, N'Djamena*, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile Oriental, Tandjile Occidental, Tibesti
Chad Independence 11 August 1960 (from France)
Chad National holiday Independence Day, 11 August (1960)
Chad Constitution passed by referendum 31 March 1996
Chad Legal system based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Chad Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Chad Executive branch chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (since 4 December 1990) head of government: Prime Minister Moussa Faki MAHAMAT (since NA July 2003) cabinet: Council of State, members appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY reelected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 63%, Ngarlegy YORONGAR 16%, Saleh KEBZABO 7% note: government coalition - MPS, UNDR, and URD elections: president elected by popular vote to serve five-year term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second round of voting; last held 20 May 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); prime minister appointed by the president
Chad Legislative branch bicameral according to constitution, consists of a National Assembly (155 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and a Senate (not yet created and size unspecified, members to serve six-year terms, one-third of membership renewable every two years) election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MPS 110, RDP 12, FAR 9, RNDP 5, URD 5, UNDR 3, others 11 elections: National Assembly - last held 21 April 2002 (next to be held in NA April 2006)
Chad Judicial branch Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts; Magistrate Courts
Chad Political parties and leaders Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarlejy YORONGAR]; National Rally for Development and Progress or RNDP [Mamadou BISSO]; National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]; Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman] (originally in opposition but now the party in power and the party of the president); Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE]; Viva Rally for Development and Progress or Viva RNDP [Delwa Kassire COUMAKOYE]
Chad Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Chad International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Chad Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Hassaballah Abdelhadi Ahmat SOUBIANE chancery: 2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009 FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937 telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009
Chad Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher E. GOLDTHWAIT embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena telephone: [235] (51) 70-09 FAX: [235] (51) 56-54
Chad Flag description three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France
Chad Economy - overview Chad's primarily agricultural economy will continue to be boosted by major oilfield and pipeline projects that began in 2000. Over 80% of Chad's population relies on subsistence farming and stock raising for its livelihood. Cotton, cattle, and gum arabic provide the bulk of Chad's export earnings, but Chad will begin to export oil in 2004. Chad's economy has long been handicapped by its landlocked position, high energy costs, and a history of instability. Chad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for most public and private sector investment projects. A consortium led by two US companies has been investing $3.7 billion to develop oil reserves estimated at 1 billion barrels in southern Chad. Oil production is scheduled to come on stream in late 2003.
Chad GDP purchasing power parity - $9.297 billion (2002 est.)
Chad GDP - real growth rate 7.4% (2002 est.)
Chad GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,000 (2002 est.)
Chad GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 38% industry: 13% services: 49% (2001 est.)
Chad Population below poverty line 80% (2001 est.)
Chad Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Chad Inflation rate (consumer prices) 6% (2002 est.)
Chad Labor force NA
Chad Labor force - by occupation agriculture more than 80% (subsistence farming, herding, and fishing)
Chad Unemployment rate NA%
Chad Budget revenues: $198 million expenditures: $218 million, including capital expenditures of $146 million (1998 est.)
Chad Industries oil, cotton textiles, meatpacking, beer brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials
Chad Industrial production growth rate 5% (1995)
Chad Electricity - production 94.04 million kWh (2001)
Chad Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Chad Electricity - consumption 87.46 million kWh (2001)
Chad Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Chad Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Chad Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Chad Oil - consumption 1,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Chad Oil - exports NA (2001)
Chad Oil - imports NA (2001)
Chad Agriculture - products cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca); cattle, sheep, goats, camels
Chad Exports $197 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Chad Exports - commodities cotton, cattle, gum arabic
Chad Exports - partners Portugal 28.3%, Germany 13.6%, US 7.8%, Czech Republic 6.5%, France 5.8%, Nigeria 5.8%, Poland 5.5%, Spain 5.2%, Morocco 4.5% (2002)
Chad Imports $570 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Chad Imports - commodities machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs, textiles
Chad Imports - partners France 31.5%, US 31.4%, Germany 5.5%, Nigeria 4.6% (2002)
Chad Debt - external $1.1 billion (2000 est.)
Chad Economic aid - recipient $238.3 million; note - $125 million committed by Taiwan (August 1997); $30 million committed by African Development Bank; ODA $150 million
Chad Currency Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States
Chad Currency code XAF
Chad Exchange rates Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 696.99 (2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.7 (1999), 589.95 (1998)
Chad Fiscal year calendar year
Chad Telephones - main lines in use 9,700 (1999)
Chad Telephones - mobile cellular 5,500 (2000)
Chad Telephone system general assessment: primitive system domestic: fair system of radiotelephone communication stations international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Chad Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 4, shortwave 5 (2002)
Chad Television broadcast stations 1 (2002)
Chad Internet country code .td
Chad Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2002)
Chad Internet users 4,000 (2002)
Chad Railways 0 km
Chad Highways total: 33,400 km paved: 267 km unpaved: 33,133 km (1999 est.)
Chad Waterways 2,000 km
Chad Pipelines oil 205 km (2003)
Chad Ports and harbors none
Chad Airports 50 (2002)
Chad Airports - with paved runways total: 7 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Chad Airports - with unpaved runways total: 43 1,524 to 2,437 m: 13 914 to 1,523 m: 20 under 914 m: 10 (2002)
Chad Military branches Armed Forces (including National Army, Air Force, and Gendarmerie), Rapid Intervention Force, National and Nomadic Guard (GNNT), Presidential Security Guard, Police
Chad Military manpower - military age 20 years of age (2003 est.)
Chad Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 1,940,328 (2003 est.)
Chad Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,015,982 (2003 est.)
Chad Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 86,953 (2003 est.)
Chad Military expenditures - dollar figure $40.74 million (FY02)
Chad Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.9% (FY02)
Chad Disputes - international internal political instabilities with fighting and violence overlap into Chad and Central African Republic, leaving refugees and rebel groups in both countries; Chadian Aozou rebels reside in southern Libya; Lake Chad Commission continues to urge signatories Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria to ratify delimitation treaty over lake region, which remains the site of armed clashes among local populations and militias; Chad rejects Nigerian request to redemarcate boundary, the site of continuing cross-border incidents
Chile Background A three-year-old Marxist government was overthrown in 1973 by a dictatorial military regime led by Augusto PINOCHET, who ruled until a freely elected president was installed in 1990. Sound economic policies, first implemented by the PINOCHET dictatorship, led to unprecedented growth in 1991-97 and have helped secure the country's commitment to democratic and representative government.
Chile Location Southern South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Argentina and Peru
Chile Geographic coordinates 30 00 S, 71 00 W
Chile Map references South America
Chile Area total: 756,950 sq km land: 748,800 sq km note: includes Easter Island (Isla de Pascua) and Isla Sala y Gomez water: 8,150 sq km
Chile Area - comparative slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana
Chile Land boundaries total: 6,171 km border countries: Argentina 5,150 km, Bolivia 861 km, Peru 160 km
Chile Coastline 6,435 km
Chile Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM continental shelf: 200/350 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Chile Climate temperate; desert in north; Mediterranean in central region; cool and damp in south
Chile Terrain low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes in east
Chile Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Nevado Ojos del Salado 6,880 m
Chile Natural resources copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum, hydropower
Chile Land use arable land: 2.65% permanent crops: 0.42% other: 96.93% (1998 est.)
Chile Irrigated land 18,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Chile Natural hazards severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis
Chile Environment - current issues widespread deforestation and mining threaten natural resources; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage
Chile Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban
Chile Geography - note strategic location relative to sea lanes between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); Atacama Desert is one of world's driest regions
Chile Population 15,665,216 (July 2003 est.)
Chile Age structure 0-14 years: 26.4% (male 2,112,251; female 2,018,099) 15-64 years: 66% (male 5,151,551; female 5,180,607) 65 years and over: 7.7% (male 499,441; female 703,267) (2003 est.)
Chile Median age total: 29.5 years male: 28.6 years female: 30.4 years (2002)
Chile Population growth rate 1.05% (2003 est.)
Chile Birth rate 16.1 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Chile Death rate 5.63 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Chile Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Chile Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Chile Infant mortality rate total: 8.88 deaths/1,000 live births female: 8.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 9.68 deaths/1,000 live births
Chile Life expectancy at birth total population: 76.35 years male: 73.04 years female: 79.82 years (2003 est.)
Chile Total fertility rate 2.09 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Chile HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.3% (2001 est.)
Chile HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 20,000 (2001 est.)
Chile HIV/AIDS - deaths 220 (2001 est.)
Chile Nationality noun: Chilean(s) adjective: Chilean
Chile Ethnic groups white and white-Amerindian 95%, Amerindian 3%, other 2%
Chile Religions Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 11%, Jewish NEGL%
Chile Languages Spanish
Chile Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 96.2% male: 96.4% female: 96.1% (2003 est.)
Chile Country name conventional long form: Republic of Chile conventional short form: Chile local long form: Republica de Chile local short form: Chile
Chile Government type republic
Chile Capital Santiago
Chile Administrative divisions 13 regions (regiones, singular - region); Aisen del General Carlos Ibanez del Campo, Antofagasta, Araucania, Atacama, Bio-Bio, Coquimbo, Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los Lagos, Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena, Maule, Region Metropolitana (Santiago), Tarapaca, Valparaiso note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica
Chile Independence 18 September 1810 (from Spain)
Chile National holiday Independence Day, 18 September (1810)
Chile Constitution 11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981, amended 30 July 1989, 1993, and 1997
Chile Legal system based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and subsequent codes influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction note: Chile is in the process of completely overhauling its criminal justice system; a new, US-style adversarial system is being gradually implemented throughout the country
Chile Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Chile Executive branch chief of state: President Ricardo LAGOS Escobar (since 11 March 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Ricardo LAGOS Escobar (since 11 March 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president election results: Ricardo LAGOS Escobar elected president; percent of vote - Ricardo LAGOS Escobar 51.32%, Joaquin LAVIN 48.68% elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 12 December 1999, with runoff election held 16 January 2000 (next to be held NA December 2005)
Chile Legislative branch bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate or Senado (49 seats, 38 elected by popular vote, 9 designated members, and 2 former presidents who serve six-year terms and are senators for life); elected members serve eight-year terms (one-half elected every four years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CPD 20 (PDC 12, PS 5, PPD 3), APC 16 (UDI 9, RN 7), independents 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CPD 62 (PDC 24, PPD 21, PS 11, PRSD 6), UDI 35, RN 22, independent 1 elections: Senate - last held 16 December 2001 (next to be held NA December 2005); Chamber of Deputies - last held 16 December 2001 (next to be held NA December 2005)
Chile Judicial branch Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are appointed by the president and ratified by the Senate from lists of candidates provided by the court itself; the president of the Supreme Court is elected by the 21-member court); Constitutional Tribunal
Chile Political parties and leaders Alliance for Chile ("Alianza") or APC - including RN and UDI; Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Adolfo ZALDIVAR]; Coalition of Parties for Democracy ("Concertacion") or CPD - including PDC, PS, PPD, PRSD; Communist Party or PC [Gladys MARIN]; Independent Democratic Union or UDI [Pablo LONGUEIRA]; National Renewal or RN [Sebastian PINERA]; Party for Democracy or PPD [Guido GIRARDI]; Radical Social Democratic Party or PRSD [Orlando CANTUARIAS]; Socialist Party or PS [Camilo ESCALONA]
Chile Political pressure groups and leaders revitalized university student federations at all major universities; Roman Catholic Church; United Labor Central or CUT includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor confederations
Chile International organization participation APEC, ECLAC, FAO, G-15, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Chile Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Andres BIANCHI chancery: 1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico) FAX: [1] (202) 887-5579 telephone: [1] (202) 785-1746
Chile Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador William R. BROWNFIELD embassy: Avenida Andres Bello 2800, Las Condes, Santiago mailing address: APO AA 34033 telephone: [56] (2) 232-2600 FAX: [56] (2) 330-3710
Chile Flag description two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center representing a guide to progress and honor; blue symbolizes the sky, white is for the snow-covered Andes, and red stands for the blood spilled to achieve independence; design was influenced by the US flag
Chile Economy - overview Chile has a market-oriented economy characterized by a high level of foreign trade. During the early 1990s, Chile's reputation as a role model for economic reform was strengthened when the democratic government of Patricio AYLWIN - which took over from the military in 1990 - deepened the economic reform initiated by the military government. Growth in real GDP averaged 8% during 1991-97, but fell to half that level in 1998 because of tight monetary policies implemented to keep the current account deficit in check and because of lower export earnings - the latter a product of the global financial crisis. A severe drought exacerbated the recession in 1999, reducing crop yields and causing hydroelectric shortfalls and electricity rationing, and Chile experienced negative economic growth for the first time in more than 15 years. Despite the effects of the recession, Chile maintained its reputation for strong financial institutions and sound policy that have given it the strongest sovereign bond rating in South America. By the end of 1999, exports and economic activity had begun to recover, and growth rebounded to 4.4% in 2000. Growth fell back to 2.8% in 2001 and 1.8% in 2002, largely due to lackluster global growth and the devaluation of the Argentine peso. Unemployment remains stubbornly high, putting pressure on President LAGOS to improve living standards. One bright spot was the signing of a free trade agreement with the US, which will take effect on 1 January 2004.
Chile GDP purchasing power parity - $156.1 billion (2002 est.)
Chile GDP - real growth rate 2.1% (2002 est.)
Chile GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $10,100 (2002 est.)
Chile GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 11% industry: 34% services: 56% (2001)
Chile Population below poverty line 21% (1998 est.)
Chile Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1.3% highest 10%: 45.6% (1998)
Chile Distribution of family income - Gini index 56.7 (1998)
Chile Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.5% (2002 est.)
Chile Labor force 5.9 million (2000 est.)
Chile Labor force - by occupation agriculture 14%, industry 27%, services 59% (1997 est.)
Chile Unemployment rate 9.2% (2002)
Chile Budget revenues: $17 billion expenditures: $17 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Chile Industries copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles
Chile Industrial production growth rate -1.5% (2002 est.)
Chile Electricity - production 41.66 billion kWh (2001)
Chile Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 47% hydro: 51.5% other: 1.4% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Chile Electricity - consumption 40.13 billion kWh (2001)
Chile Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Chile Electricity - imports 1.386 billion kWh (2001)
Chile Oil - production 13,640 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Chile Oil - consumption 241,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Chile Oil - exports NA (2001)
Chile Oil - imports NA (2001)
Chile Oil - proved reserves 81.05 million bbl (37257)
Chile Natural gas - production 1.2 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Chile Natural gas - consumption 6.47 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Chile Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Chile Natural gas - imports 5.27 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Chile Natural gas - proved reserves 67.78 billion cu m (37257)
Chile Agriculture - products wheat, corn, grapes, beans, sugar beets, potatoes, fruit; beef, poultry, wool; fish; timber
Chile Exports $17.8 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Chile Exports - commodities copper, fish, fruits, paper and pulp, chemicals
Chile Exports - partners US 19.1%, Japan 10.5%, China 6.7%, Mexico 5%, Italy 4.7%, UK 4.4% (2002)
Chile Imports $15.6 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Chile Imports - commodities consumer goods, chemicals, motor vehicles, fuels, electrical machinery, heavy industrial machinery, food
Chile Imports - partners Argentina 18%, US 14.9%, Brazil 9.5%, China 6.5%, Germany 4.3% (2002)
Chile Debt - external $40.4 billion (2002)
Chile Economic aid - recipient ODA, $40 million (2001 est.)
Chile Currency Chilean peso (CLP)
Chile Currency code CLP
Chile Exchange rates Chilean pesos per US dollar - 688.95 (2002), 634.94 (2001), 535.47 (2000), 508.78 (1999), 460.29 (1998)
Chile Fiscal year calendar year
Chile Telephones - main lines in use 2.603 million (1998)
Chile Telephones - mobile cellular 944,225 (1998)
Chile Telephone system general assessment: modern system based on extensive microwave radio relay facilities domestic: extensive microwave radio relay links; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Chile Radio broadcast stations AM 180 (eight inactive), FM 64, shortwave 17 (one inactive) (1998)
Chile Television broadcast stations 63 (plus 121 repeaters) (1997)
Chile Internet country code .cl
Chile Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 7 (2000)
Chile Internet users 3.1 million (2002)
Chile Railways total: 6,585 km broad gauge: 2,831 km 1.676-m gauge (1,317 km electrified) narrow gauge: 3,754 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)
Chile Highways total: 79,814 km paved: 15,484 km (including 294 km of expressways) unpaved: 64,330 km (2000)
Chile Waterways 725 km
Chile Pipelines gas 2,267 km; gas/liquid petroleum gas 42 km; liquid petroleum gas 531 km; oil 983 km; refined products 545 km (2003)
Chile Ports and harbors Antofagasta, Arica, Chanaral, Coquimbo, Iquique, Puerto Montt, Punta Arenas, San Antonio, San Vicente, Talcahuano, Valparaiso
Chile Merchant marine total: 50 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 696,202 GRT/900,317 DWT ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 6, chemical tanker 9, container 4, liquefied gas 2, passenger 4, petroleum tanker 6, roll on/roll off 6, vehicle carrier 4 note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Netherlands 1 (2002 est.)
Chile Airports 363 (2002)
Chile Airports - with paved runways total: 71 over 3,047 m: 6 2,438 to 3,047 m: 6 1,524 to 2,437 m: 21 914 to 1,523 m: 23 under 914 m: 15 (2002)
Chile Airports - with unpaved runways total: 292 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 914 to 1,523 m: 60 under 914 m: 216 (2002)
Chile Military branches Army of the Nation, National Navy (including naval air, coast guard, and marines), Air Force of the Nation, Chilean Carabineros (National Police), Investigations Police
Chile Military manpower - military age 19 years of age (2003 est.)
Chile Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 4,154,636 (2003 est.)
Chile Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 3,070,140 (2003 est.)
Chile Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 131,324 (2003 est.)
Chile Military expenditures - dollar figure $2.5 billion (FY99)
Chile Military expenditures - percent of GDP 3.1% (FY99)
Chile Disputes - international Bolivia continues to press Chile and Peru to restore the Atacama corridor ceded to Chile in 1884; dispute with Peru over the economic zone delimited by the maritime boundary; Chile demands water rights to Bolivia's Rio Lauca and Silala Spring; Beagle Channel islands dispute resolved through Papal mediation in 1984, but armed incidents persist since 1992 oil discovery; territorial claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps Argentine and British claims
Chile Illicit drugs a growing transshipment country for cocaine destined for the US and Europe; economic prosperity and increasing trade have made Chile more attractive to traffickers seeking to launder drug profits, especially through the Iquique Free Trade Zone; imported precursors passed on to Bolivia; domestic cocaine consumption is rising
China Background For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences. But in the 19th and early 20th centuries, China was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established a dictatorship that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, his successor DENG Xiaoping gradually introduced market-oriented reforms and decentralized economic decision-making. Output quadrupled by 2000. Political controls remain tight while economic controls continue to be relaxed.
China Location Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam
China Geographic coordinates 35 00 N, 105 00 E
China Map references Asia
China Area total: 9,596,960 sq km land: 9,326,410 sq km water: 270,550 sq km
China Area - comparative slightly smaller than the US
China Land boundaries total: 22,147.34 km border countries: Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km, Hong Kong 30 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Macau 0.34 km, Mongolia 4,677 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605 km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km
China Coastline 14,500 km
China Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin territorial sea: 12 NM
China Climate extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north
China Terrain mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east
China Elevation extremes lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m (1999 est.)
China Natural resources coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)
China Land use arable land: 13.31% permanent crops: 1.2% other: 85.49% (1998 est.)
China Irrigated land 525,800 sq km (1998 est.)
China Natural hazards frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence
China Environment - current issues air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; water shortages, particularly in the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade in endangered species
China Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
China Geography - note world's fourth-largest country (after Russia, Canada, and US); Mount Everest on the border with Nepal is the world's tallest peak;
China Population 1,286,975,468 (July 2003 est.)
China Age structure 0-14 years: 23.1% (male 155,473,656; female 141,737,406) 15-64 years: 69.5% (male 461,223,219; female 433,154,970) 65 years and over: 7.4% (male 44,954,643; female 50,431,574) (2003 est.)
China Median age total: 31.5 years male: 31.2 years female: 31.7 years (2002)
China Population growth rate 0.6% (2003 est.)
China Birth rate 12.96 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
China Death rate 6.74 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
China Net migration rate -0.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
China Sex ratio at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
China Infant mortality rate total: 25.26 deaths/1,000 live births female: 25.65 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 24.91 deaths/1,000 live births
China Life expectancy at birth total population: 72.22 years male: 70.33 years female: 74.28 years (2003 est.)
China Total fertility rate 1.7 children born/woman (2003 est.)
China HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
China HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 850,000 (2001 est.)
China HIV/AIDS - deaths 30,000 (2001 est.)
China Nationality noun: Chinese (singular and plural) adjective: Chinese
China Ethnic groups Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%
China Religions Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Muslim 1%-2%, Christian 3%-4% note: officially atheist (2002 est.)
China Languages Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)
China Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 86% male: 92.9% female: 78.8% (2003 est.)
China Country name conventional long form: People's Republic of China conventional short form: China local short form: Zhong Guo abbreviation: PRC local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
China Government type Communist state
China Capital Beijing
China Administrative divisions 23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions* (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities** (shi, singular and plural); Anhui, Beijing**, Chongqing**, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol*, Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai**, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tianjin**, Xinjiang*, Xizang* (Tibet), Yunnan, Zhejiang; note - China considers Taiwan its 23rd province; see separate entries for the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau
China Independence 221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty 221 BC; Qing or Ch'ing Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12 February 1912; People's Republic established 1 October 1949)
China National holiday Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China, 1 October (1949)
China Constitution most recent promulgation 4 December 1982
China Legal system a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely criminal law; rudimentary civil code in effect since 1 January 1987; new legal codes in effect since 1 January 1980; continuing efforts are being made to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial law
China Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
China Executive branch chief of state: President HU Jintao (since 15 March 2003) and Vice President ZENG Qinghong (since 15 March 2003) elections: president and vice president elected by the National People's Congress for five-year terms; elections last held 15-17 March 2003 (next to be held mid-March 2008); premier nominated by the president, confirmed by the National People's Congress head of government: Premier WEN Jiabao (since 16 March 2003); Vice Premiers HUANG Ju (since 17 March 2003), WU Yi (17 March 2003), ZENG Peiyan (since 17 March 2003), and HUI Liangyu (since 17 March 2003) cabinet: State Council appointed by the National People's Congress (NPC) election results: HU Jintao elected president by the Tenth National People's Congress with a total of 2,937 votes (4 delegates voted against him, 4 abstained, and 38 did not vote); ZENG Qinghong elected vice president by the Tenth National People's Congress with a total of 2,578 votes (177 delegates voted against him, 190 abstained, and 38 did not vote); 2 seats were vacant
China Legislative branch unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,985 seats; members elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses to serve five-year terms) elections: last held NA December 2002-NA February 2003 (next to be held late 2007-NA February 2008) election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - NA
China Judicial branch Supreme People's Court (judges appointed by the National People's Congress); Local Peoples Courts (comprise higher, intermediate and local courts); Special Peoples Courts (primarily military, maritime, and railway transport courts)
China Political parties and leaders Chinese Communist Party or CCP [HU Jintao, General Secretary of the Central Committee]; eight registered small parties controlled by CCP
China Political pressure groups and leaders no substantial political opposition groups exist, although the government has identified the Falungong sect and the China Democracy Party as potential rivals
China International organization participation APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, CDB, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, MONUC, NAM (observer), OPCW, PCA, SCO, UN, UN Security Council, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, IFC, UNHCR, UNIDO, AfDB, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMOVIC, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
China Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador YANG Jiechi consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco FAX: [1] (202) 328-2582 telephone: [1] (202) 328-2500 chancery: 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
China Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Clark T. RANDT, Jr. embassy: Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002 telephone: [86] (10) 6532-3831 FAX: [86] (10) 6532-6929 consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Shenyang
China Flag description red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner
China Economy - overview In late 1978 the Chinese leadership began moving the economy from a sluggish, Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a more market-oriented system. Whereas the system operates within a political framework of strict Communist control, the economic influence of non-state organizations and individual citizens has been steadily increasing. The authorities switched to a system of household and village responsibility in agriculture in place of the old collectivization, increased the authority of local officials and plant managers in industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale enterprises in services and light manufacturing, and opened the economy to increased foreign trade and investment. The result has been a quadrupling of GDP since 1978. In 2003, with its 1.3 billion people but a GDP of just $5,000 per capita, China stood as the second-largest economy in the world after the US (measured on a purchasing power parity basis). Agriculture and industry have posted major gains, especially in coastal areas near Hong Kong and opposite Taiwan, where foreign investment has helped spur output of both domestic and export goods. The leadership, however, often has experienced - as a result of its hybrid system - the worst results of socialism (bureaucracy and lassitude) and of capitalism (windfall gains and growing income disparities). China thus has periodically backtracked, retightening central controls at intervals. The government has struggled to (a) collect revenues due from provinces, businesses, and individuals; (b) reduce corruption and other economic crimes; and (c) keep afloat the large state-owned enterprises, many of which had been shielded from competition by subsidies and had been losing the ability to pay full wages and pensions. From 80 to 120 million surplus rural workers are adrift between the villages and the cities, many subsisting through part-time low-paying jobs. Popular resistance, changes in central policy, and loss of authority by rural cadres have weakened China's population control program, which is essential to maintaining long-term growth in living standards. Another long-term threat to growth is the deterioration in the environment, notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table especially in the north. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development. Beijing says it will intensify efforts to stimulate growth through spending on infrastructure - such as water control and power grids - and poverty relief and through rural tax reform aimed at eliminating arbitrary local levies on farmers. Accession to the World Trade Organization helps strengthen China's ability to maintain strong growth rates but at the same time puts additional pressure on the hybrid system of strong political controls and growing market influences. China has benefited from a huge expansion in computer internet use. Foreign investment remains a strong element in China's remarkable economic growth.
China GDP purchasing power parity - $5.989 trillion (2002 est.)
China GDP - real growth rate 8% (official data) (2002 est.)
China GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $4,700 (2002 est.)
China GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 15.2% industry and construction: 51.2% services: 33.6% (2001)
China Population below poverty line 10% (2001 est.)
China Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.4% highest 10%: 30.4% (1998)
China Distribution of family income - Gini index 40 (2001)
China Inflation rate (consumer prices) -0.8% (2002 est.)
China Labor force 744 million (2001 est.)
China Labor force - by occupation agriculture 50%, industry 22%, services 28% (2001 est.)
China Unemployment rate urban unemployment roughly 10%; substantial unemployment and underemployment in rural areas (2002 est.)
China Budget revenues: $224.8 billion expenditures: $267.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000)
China Industries iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles and apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers, footwear, toys, food processing, automobiles, consumer electronics, telecommunications
China Industrial production growth rate 12.6% (2002 est.)
China Electricity - production 1.42 trillion kWh (2001)
China Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 80.2% hydro: 18.5% other: 0.1% (2001) nuclear: 1.2%
China Electricity - consumption 1.312 trillion kWh (2001)
China Electricity - exports 10.3 billion kWh (2001)
China Electricity - imports 1.55 billion kWh (2001)
China Oil - production 3.3 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
China Oil - consumption 4.975 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
China Oil - exports NA (2001)
China Oil - imports NA (2001)
China Oil - proved reserves 26.75 billion bbl (37257)
China Natural gas - production 30.3 billion cu m (2001 est.)
China Natural gas - consumption 30.3 billion cu m (2001 est.)
China Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
China Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
China Natural gas - proved reserves 1.29 trillion cu m (37257)
China Agriculture - products rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish
China Exports $325.6 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
China Exports - commodities machinery and equipment; textiles and clothing, footwear, toys and sporting goods; mineral fuels
China Exports - partners US 21.5%, Hong Kong 18%, Japan 14.9%, South Korea 4.8% (2002)
China Imports $295.3 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
China Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, plastics, iron and steel, chemicals
China Imports - partners Japan 18.1%, Taiwan 10.5%, South Korea 9.7%, US 9.2%, Germany 5.6% (2002)
China Debt - external $149.4 billion (2002 est.)
China Economic aid - recipient $NA
China Currency yuan (CNY) note:: also referred to as the Renminbi (RMB)
China Currency code CNY
China Exchange rates yuan per US dollar - 8.28 (2002), 8.28 (2001), 8.28 (2000), 8.28 (1999), 8.28 (1998)
China Fiscal year calendar year
China Telephones - main lines in use 135 million (2000)
China Telephones - mobile cellular 65 million (January 2001)
China Telephone system general assessment: domestic and international services are increasingly available for private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; a domestic satellite system with 55 earth stations is in place international: satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean regions); several international fiber-optic links to Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong, Russia, and Germany (2000)
China Radio broadcast stations AM 369, FM 259, shortwave 45 (1998)
China Television broadcast stations 3,240 (of which 209 are operated by China Central Television, 31 are provincial TV stations and nearly 3,000 are local city stations) (1997)
China Internet country code .cn
China Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 3 (2000)
China Internet users 45.8 million (2002)
China Railways total: 71,600 km standard gauge: 68,000 km 1.435-m gauge (14,600 km electrified) narrow gauge: 3,600 km 1.000-m and 0.750-m gauge local industrial lines (2002)
China Highways total: 1,402,698 km paved: 314,204 km (with at least 16,314 km of expressways) unpaved: 1,088,494 km (2000)
China Waterways 110,000 km (1999)
China Pipelines gas 13,845 km; oil 15,143 km; refined products 3,280 km (2003)
China Ports and harbors Dalian, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Haikou, Huangpu, Lianyungang, Nanjing, Nantong, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shantou, Shenzhen, Tianjin, Wenzhou, Xiamen, Xingang, Yantai, Zhanjiang (2001)
China Merchant marine total: 1,817 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 18,047,962 GRT/27,035,740 DWT ships by type: barge carrier 2, bulk 348, cargo 824, chemical tanker 28, combination bulk 10, combination ore/oil 2, container 150, liquefied gas 28, multi-functional large-load carrier 6, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 47, petroleum tanker 267, refrigerated cargo 26, roll on/roll off 21, short-sea passenger 42, specialized tanker 8, vehicle carrier 2 note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Croatia 1, Germany 1, Hong Kong 16, Japan 2, Panama 2, South Korea 1, Spain 1, Taiwan 9, Tanzania 1, Turkey 1 (2002 est.)
China Airports 500 (2002)
China Airports - with paved runways total: 351 over 3,047 m: 32 2,438 to 3,047 m: 108 1,524 to 2,437 m: 143 914 to 1,523 m: 29 under 914 m: 39 (2002)
China Airports - with unpaved runways total: 149 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 25 914 to 1,523 m: 48 under 914 m: 71 (2002)
China Military branches People's Liberation Army (PLA): comprises ground forces, Navy (including naval infantry and naval aviation), Air Force, and II Artillery Corps (strategic missile force), People's Armed Police Force (internal security troops, nominally a state security body but included by the Chinese as part of the "armed forces" and considered to be an adjunct to the PLA), militia
China Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
China Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 375,520,255 (2003 est.)
China Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 206 million (2003 est.)
China Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 10,973,761 (2003 est.)
China Military expenditures - dollar figure $55.91 billion (FY02)
China Military expenditures - percent of GDP 4.3% (FY02)
China Disputes - international involved in complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; claimants in November 2002 signed the "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea", a mechanism to ease tension but which fell short of a legally binding "code of conduct"; much of the rugged, militarized boundary with India is in dispute, but the two sides have participated in more than 13 rounds of joint working group sessions on this issue; India objects to Pakistan ceding lands to China in 1965 boundary agreement that India believes are part of disputed Kashmir; China, as well as Taiwan, claims Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) islands; negotiations with Tajikistan resolved the longstanding boundary dispute; China and Kazakhstan have resolved their border dispute and are working to delimit their large open borders to control population migration, illegal activities, and trade; Kyrgyzstan's constitutional court rules that 1,270 sq km ceded to China in 2000 delimitation agreement were legally transferred; certain islands in Yalu and Tumen rivers are in uncontested dispute with North Korea and a section of boundary around Mount Paektu is indefinite - China objects to illegal migration of North Koreans into northern China; China continues to seek a mutually acceptable solution to the disputed alluvial islands with Russia at the confluence of the Amur and Ussuri rivers and a small island on the Argun river as part of the 2001 Treaty of Good Neighborliness, Friendship, and Cooperation; boundary agreements signed in 2002 with Tajikistan cedes 1,000 sq km of Pamir Mountain range to China in return for China's relinquishing claims to 28,000 sq km; demarcation of land boundary with Vietnam continues but maritime boundary and joint fishing zone agreement remains unratified; China occupies Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan
China Illicit drugs major transshipment point for heroin produced in the Golden Triangle; growing domestic drug abuse problem; source country for chemical precursors and methamphetamine
Christmas Island Background Named in 1643 for the day of its discovery, the island was annexed and settlement was begun by the UK in 1888. Phosphate mining began in the 1890s. The UK transferred sovereignty to Australia in 1958. Almost two-thirds of the island has been declared a national park.
Christmas Island Location Southeastern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of Indonesia
Christmas Island Geographic coordinates 10 30 S, 105 40 E
Christmas Island Map references Southeast Asia
Christmas Island Area total: 135 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 135 sq km
Christmas Island Area - comparative about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC
Christmas Island Land boundaries 0 km
Christmas Island Coastline 80 km
Christmas Island Maritime claims contiguous zone: 12 NM exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
Christmas Island Climate tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds
Christmas Island Terrain steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau
Christmas Island Elevation extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Murray Hill 361 m
Christmas Island Natural resources phosphate, beaches
Christmas Island Land use arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% note: mainly tropical rainforest; 63% of the island is a national park (1998 est.)
Christmas Island Irrigated land NA sq km
Christmas Island Natural hazards the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime hazard
Christmas Island Environment - current issues NA
Christmas Island Geography - note located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean
Christmas Island Population 433 (July 2003 est.)
Christmas Island Age structure 0-14 years: NA% 15-64 years: NA% 65 years and over: NA% (2003 est.)
Christmas Island Population growth rate -9% (2003 est.)
Christmas Island Birth rate NA births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Christmas Island Death rate NA deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Christmas Island Net migration rate NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Christmas Island Sex ratio NA (2003 est.)
Christmas Island Infant mortality rate total: NA% male: NA% female: NA%
Christmas Island Life expectancy at birth total population: NA years male: NA years female: NA years (2003 est.)
Christmas Island Total fertility rate NA children born/woman (2003 est.)
Christmas Island HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate NA%
Christmas Island HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
Christmas Island HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Christmas Island Nationality noun: Christmas Islander(s) adjective: Christmas Island
Christmas Island Ethnic groups Chinese 70%, European 20%, Malay 10% note: no indigenous population (2001)
Christmas Island Religions Buddhist 36%, Muslim 25%, Christian 18%, other 21% (1997)
Christmas Island Languages English (official), Chinese, Malay
Christmas Island Literacy NA
Christmas Island Country name conventional long form: Territory of Christmas Island conventional short form: Christmas Island
Christmas Island Dependency status territory of Australia; administered by the Australian Department of Transport and Regional Services
Christmas Island Government type NA
Christmas Island Capital The Settlement
Christmas Island Administrative divisions none (territory of Australia)
Christmas Island Independence none (territory of Australia)
Christmas Island National holiday NA
Christmas Island Constitution NA
Christmas Island Legal system under the authority of the governor general of Australia and Australian law
Christmas Island Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by the Australian governor general head of government: Administrator William Leonard TAYLOR (since 4 February 1999) elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia and represents the monarch and Australia
Christmas Island Legislative branch unicameral Christmas Island Shire Council (9 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve one-year terms) election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - independents 9 elections: last held NA December 2002 (next to be held NA December 2003)
Christmas Island Judicial branch Supreme Court; District Court; Magistrate's Court
Christmas Island Political parties and leaders none
Christmas Island Political pressure groups and leaders none
Christmas Island International organization participation none
Christmas Island Diplomatic representation in the US none (territory of Australia)
Christmas Island Diplomatic representation from the US none (territory of Australia)
Christmas Island Flag description the flag of Australia is used; note - in early 1986, the Christmas Island Assembly held a design competition for an island flag, however, the winning design has never been formally adopted as the official flag of the territory
Christmas Island Economy - overview Phosphate mining had been the only significant economic activity, but in December 1987 the Australian Government closed the mine. In 1991, the mine was reopened. With the support of the government, a $34 million casino opened in 1993. The casino closed in 1998. The Australian Government in 2001 agreed to support the creation of a commercial space-launching site on the island, slated to begin operation in 2003.
Christmas Island GDP purchasing power parity - $NA
Christmas Island GDP - real growth rate NA%
Christmas Island GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $NA
Christmas Island GDP - composition by sector agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%
Christmas Island Population below poverty line NA%
Christmas Island Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Christmas Island Inflation rate (consumer prices) NA%
Christmas Island Labor force NA
Christmas Island Labor force - by occupation tourism 400 people, mining 100 people (1995)
Christmas Island Unemployment rate NA%
Christmas Island Budget revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Christmas Island Industries tourism, phosphate extraction (near depletion)
Christmas Island Industrial production growth rate NA%
Christmas Island Electricity - production NA kWh
Christmas Island Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: NA% hydro: NA% other: NA% nuclear: NA%
Christmas Island Electricity - consumption NA kWh
Christmas Island Agriculture - products NA
Christmas Island Exports $NA
Christmas Island Exports - commodities phosphate
Christmas Island Exports - partners Australia, NZ
Christmas Island Imports $NA
Christmas Island Imports - commodities consumer goods
Christmas Island Imports - partners principally Australia
Christmas Island Debt - external $NA
Christmas Island Economic aid - recipient $NA
Christmas Island Currency Australian dollar (AUD)
Christmas Island Currency code AUD
Christmas Island Exchange rates Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.9354 (2002), 1.9320 (2001), 1.7173(2000), 1.5497 (1999), 1.5888 (1998)
Christmas Island Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Christmas Island Telephones - main lines in use NA
Christmas Island Telephones - mobile cellular NA
Christmas Island Telephone system general assessment: service provided by the Australian network domestic: only analog mobile telephone service is available international: satellite earth stations - one Intelsat earth station provides telephone and telex service (2000)
Christmas Island Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)
Christmas Island Television broadcast stations NA
Christmas Island Internet country code .cx
Christmas Island Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 2 (2000)
Christmas Island Internet users NA
Christmas Island Railways 24 km to serve phosphate mines
Christmas Island Highways total: 240 km paved: 30 km unpaved: 210 km (2000)
Christmas Island Waterways none
Christmas Island Ports and harbors Flying Fish Cove
Christmas Island Merchant marine none (2002 est.)
Christmas Island Airports 1 (2002)
Christmas Island Airports - with paved runways total: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)
Christmas Island Military - note defense is the responsibility of Australia
Christmas Island Disputes - international none
Clipperton Island Background This isolated island was named for John CLIPPERTON, a pirate who made it his hideout early in the 18th century. Annexed by France in 1855, it was seized by Mexico in 1897. Arbitration eventually awarded the island to France, which took possession in 1935.
Clipperton Island Location Middle America, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, 1,120 km southwest of Mexico
Clipperton Island Geographic coordinates 10 17 N, 109 13 W
Clipperton Island Map references Political Map of the World
Clipperton Island Area total: 6 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 6 sq km
Clipperton Island Area - comparative about 12 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Clipperton Island Land boundaries 0 km
Clipperton Island Coastline 11.1 km
Clipperton Island Maritime claims exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
Clipperton Island Climate tropical; humid, average temperature 20-32 degrees C, rains May-October
Clipperton Island Terrain coral atoll
Clipperton Island Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Rocher Clipperton 29 m
Clipperton Island Natural resources fish
Clipperton Island Land use arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (all coral) (1998 est.)
Clipperton Island Irrigated land 0 sq km (1998 est.)
Clipperton Island Natural hazards NA
Clipperton Island Environment - current issues NA
Clipperton Island Geography - note reef 12 km in circumference
Clipperton Island Population uninhabited (July 2003 est.)
Clipperton Island Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Clipperton Island local short form: Ile Clipperton local long form: none former: sometimes called Ile de la Passion
Clipperton Island Dependency status possession of France; administered by France from French Polynesia by a high commissioner of the Republic
Clipperton Island Legal system the laws of France, where applicable, apply
Clipperton Island Flag description the flag of France is used
Clipperton Island Economy - overview Although 115 species of fish have been identified in the territorial waters of Clipperton Island, the only economic activity is tuna fishing.
Clipperton Island Waterways none
Clipperton Island Ports and harbors none; offshore anchorage only
Clipperton Island Military - note defense is the responsibility of France
Clipperton Island Disputes - international none
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Background There are 27 coral islands in the group. Captain William Keeling discovered the islands in 1609, but they remained uninhabited until the 19th century. Annexed by the UK in 1857, they were transferred to the Australian Government in 1955. The population on the two inhabited islands generally is split between the ethnic Europeans on West Island and the ethnic Malays on Home Island.
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Location Southeastern Asia, group of islands in the Indian Ocean, southwest of Indonesia, about halfway from Australia to Sri Lanka
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Geographic coordinates 12 30 S, 96 50 E
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Map references Southeast Asia
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Area total: 14 sq km note: includes the two main islands of West Island and Home Island water: 0 sq km land: 14 sq km
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Area - comparative about 24 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Land boundaries 0 km
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Coastline 26 km
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Maritime claims exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Climate tropical with high humidity, moderated by the southeast trade winds for about nine months of the year
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Terrain flat, low-lying coral atolls
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Elevation extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 5 m
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Natural resources fish
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Land use arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (1998 est.)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Irrigated land NA sq km
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Natural hazards cyclone season is October to April
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Environment - current issues fresh water resources are limited to rainwater accumulations in natural underground reservoirs
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Geography - note islands are thickly covered with coconut palms and other vegetation
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Population 630 (July 2003 est.)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Age structure 0-14 years: NA% 15-64 years: NA% 65 years and over: NA% (2003 est.)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Population growth rate 0% (2003 est.)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Birth rate NA births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Death rate NA deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Net migration rate NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Infant mortality rate total: NA% male: NA% female: NA%
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Life expectancy at birth total population: NA years male: NA years female: NA years (2003 est.)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Total fertility rate NA children born/woman (2003 est.)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate NA%
Cocos (Keeling) Islands HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
Cocos (Keeling) Islands HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Nationality noun: Cocos Islander(s) adjective: Cocos Islander
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Ethnic groups Europeans, Cocos Malays
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Religions Sunni Muslim 80%, other 20% (2002 est.)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Languages Malay (Cocos dialect), English
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Country name conventional long form: Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands conventional short form: Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Dependency status territory of Australia; administered from Canberra by the Australian Department of Transport and Regional Services
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Government type NA
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Capital West Island
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Administrative divisions none (territory of Australia)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Independence none (territory of Australia)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands National holiday NA
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Constitution Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act of 1955
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Legal system based upon the laws of Australia and local laws
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Suffrage NA
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by the Australian governor general elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia and represents the monarch and Australia head of government: Administrator (nonresident) William Leonard TAYLOR (since 4 February 1999) cabinet: NA
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Legislative branch unicameral Cocos (Keeling) Islands Shire Council (7 seats)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Judicial branch Supreme Court; Magistrate's Court
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Political parties and leaders none
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Political pressure groups and leaders none
Cocos (Keeling) Islands International organization participation none
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Diplomatic representation in the US none (territory of Australia)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Diplomatic representation from the US none (territory of Australia)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Flag description the flag of Australia is used
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Economy - overview Grown throughout the islands, coconuts are the sole cash crop. Small local gardens and fishing contribute to the food supply, but additional food and most other necessities must be imported from Australia. There is a small tourist industry.
Cocos (Keeling) Islands GDP purchasing power parity - $NA
Cocos (Keeling) Islands GDP - real growth rate NA%
Cocos (Keeling) Islands GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $NA
Cocos (Keeling) Islands GDP - composition by sector agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Population below poverty line NA%
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Inflation rate (consumer prices) NA%
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Labor force NA
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Labor force - by occupation the Cocos Islands Cooperative Society Ltd. employs construction workers, stevedores, and lighterage workers; tourism employs others
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Unemployment rate 60% (2000 est.)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Budget revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Industries copra products and tourism
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Industrial production growth rate NA%
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Electricity - production NA kWh
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: NA% hydro: NA% other: NA% nuclear: NA%
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Electricity - consumption NA kWh
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Agriculture - products vegetables, bananas, pawpaws, coconuts
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Exports $NA
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Exports - commodities copra
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Exports - partners Australia (1999)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Imports $NA
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Imports - commodities foodstuffs
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Imports - partners Australia (1999)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Debt - external $NA
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Economic aid - recipient $NA
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Currency Australian dollar (AUD)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Currency code AUD
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Exchange rates Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.9354 (2002), 1.9320 (2001), 1.7173 (2000), 1.5497 (1999), 1.5888 (1998), 1.3439 (1997)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Telephones - main lines in use 287 (1992)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Telephones - mobile cellular NA
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Telephone system general assessment: connected within Australia's telecommunication system domestic: NA international: telephone, telex, and facsimile communications with Australia and elsewhere via satellite; 1 satellite earth station of NA type (2002)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0 (2000)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Television broadcast stations NA
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Internet country code .cc
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 2 (2000)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Internet users NA
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Railways 0 km
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Highways total: 15 km paved: NA km unpaved: NA km (2003)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Waterways none
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Ports and harbors none; lagoon anchorage only
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Merchant marine none (2002 est.)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Airports 1 (2002)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Airports - with paved runways total: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Military - note defense is the responsibility of Australia; the territory does have a five-person police force
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Disputes - international none
Colombia Background Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Ecuador and Venezuela). A 40-year insurgent campaign to overthrow the Colombian Government escalated during the 1990s, undergirded in part by funds from the drug trade. Although the violence is deadly and large swaths of the countryside are under guerrilla influence, the movement lacks the military strength or popular support necessary to overthrow the government. An anti-insurgent army of paramilitaries has grown to be several thousand strong in recent years, challenging the insurgents for control of territory and illicit industries such as the drug trade and the government's ability to exert its dominion over rural areas. While Bogota steps up efforts to reassert government control throughout the country, neighboring countries worry about the violence spilling over their borders.
Colombia Location Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama
Colombia Geographic coordinates 4 00 N, 72 00 W
Colombia Map references South America
Colombia Area total: 1,138,910 sq km land: 1,038,700 sq km note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and Serranilla Bank water: 100,210 sq km
Colombia Area - comparative slightly less than three times the size of Montana
Colombia Land boundaries total: 6,004 km border countries: Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru 1,496 km (est.), Venezuela 2,050 km
Colombia Coastline 3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)
Colombia Maritime claims continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Colombia Climate tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands
Colombia Terrain flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains
Colombia Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Pico Cristobal Colon 5,775 m note: nearby Pico Simon Bolivar also has the same elevation
Colombia Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower
Colombia Land use arable land: 1.9% other: 96.14% (1998 est.) permanent crops: 1.96%
Colombia Irrigated land 8,500 sq km (1998 est.)
Colombia Natural hazards highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts
Colombia Environment - current issues deforestation; soil and water quality damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle emissions
Colombia Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
Colombia Geography - note only South American country with coastlines on both North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea
Colombia Population 41,662,073 (July 2003 est.)
Colombia Age structure 0-14 years: 31.3% (male 6,601,581; female 6,447,679) 15-64 years: 63.7% (male 12,931,093; female 13,626,333) 65 years and over: 4.9% (male 913,798; female 1,141,589) (2003 est.)
Colombia Median age total: 25.6 years male: 24.8 years female: 26.4 years (2002)
Colombia Population growth rate 1.56% (2003 est.)
Colombia Birth rate 21.59 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Colombia Death rate 5.63 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Colombia Net migration rate -0.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Colombia Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Colombia Infant mortality rate total: 22.47 deaths/1,000 live births female: 18.34 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 26.46 deaths/1,000 live births
Colombia Life expectancy at birth total population: 71.14 years male: 67.29 years female: 75.12 years (2003 est.)
Colombia Total fertility rate 2.61 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Colombia HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.4% (2001 est.)
Colombia HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 140,000 (2001 est.)
Colombia HIV/AIDS - deaths 5,600 (2001 est.)
Colombia Nationality noun: Colombian(s) adjective: Colombian
Colombia Ethnic groups mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%
Colombia Religions Roman Catholic 90%
Colombia Languages Spanish
Colombia Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 92.5% male: 92.4% female: 92.6% (2003 est.)
Colombia Country name conventional long form: Republic of Colombia conventional short form: Colombia local short form: Colombia local long form: Republica de Colombia
Colombia Government type republic; executive branch dominates government structure
Colombia Capital Bogota
Colombia Administrative divisions 32 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital); Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Distrito Capital de Bogota*, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y Providencia, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada
Colombia Independence 20 July 1810 (from Spain)
Colombia National holiday Independence Day, 20 July (1810)
Colombia Constitution 5 July 1991
Colombia Legal system based on Spanish law; a new criminal code modeled after US procedures was enacted in 1992-93; judicial review of executive and legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Colombia Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Colombia Executive branch chief of state: President Alvaro URIBE Velez (since 7 August 2002); Vice President Francisco SANTOS (since 7 August 2002); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Alvaro URIBE Velez (since 7 August 2002); Vice President Francisco SANTOS (since 7 August 2002); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Cabinet consists of a coalition of the two dominant parties - the PL and PSC - and independents elections: president and vice president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 26 May 2002 (next to be held NA May 2006) election results: President Alvaro URIBE Velez received 53% of the vote; Vice President Francisco SANTOS was elected on the same ticket
Colombia Legislative branch bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the Senate or Senado (102 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (166 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: Senate - last held 10 March 2002 (next to be held NA March 2006); House of Representatives - last held 10 March 2002 (next to be held NA March 2006) election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PL 28, PSC 13, independents and smaller parties (many aligned with conservatives) 61; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PL 54, PSC 21, independents and other parties 91
Colombia Judicial branch four coequal, supreme judicial organs; Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justical (highest court of criminal law; judges are selected from the nominees of the Higher Council of Justice for eight-year terms); Council of State (highest court of administrative law, judges are selected from the nominees of the Higher Council of Justice for eight-year terms); Constitutional Court (guards integrity and supremacy of the constitution, rules on constitutionality of laws, amendments to the constitution, and international treaties); Higher Council of Justice (administers and disciplines the civilian judiciary; members of the disciplinary chamber resolve jurisdictional conflicts arising between other courts; members are elected by three sister courts and Congress for eight-year terms)
Colombia Political parties and leaders Conservative Party or PSC [Carlos HOLGUIN Sardi]; Liberal Party or PL [Piedad CORDOBA and Juan Manuel LOPEZ Cabrales]; Colombian Communist Party or PCC [Jaime CAICEDO]; 19 of April Movement or M-19 [Antonio NAVARRO Wolff] note: Colombia has about 60 formally recognized political parties, most of which do not have a presence in either house of Congress
Colombia Political pressure groups and leaders two largest insurgent groups active in Colombia - Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia or FARC and National Liberation Army or ELN; largest anti-insurgent paramilitary group is United Self-Defense Groups of Colombia or AUC
Colombia International organization participation BCIE, CAN, Caricom (observer), CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-15, G-3, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Colombia Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Luis Alberto MORENO Mejia chancery: 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008 consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and Washington, DC consulate(s): Atlanta FAX: [1] (202) 232-8643 telephone: [1] (202) 387-8338
Colombia Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Anne W. PATTERSON embassy: Calle 22D-BIS, numbers 47-51, Apartado Aereo 3831 mailing address: Carrera 45 #22D-45, Bogota, D.C., APO AA 34038 telephone: [57] (1) 315-0811 FAX: [57] (1) 315-2197
Colombia Flag description three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red; similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears the Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center
Colombia Economy - overview Colombia's economy suffers from weak domestic and foreign demand, austere government budgets, and serious internal armed conflict. Other economic problems facing the new president URIBE range from reforming the pension system to reducing high unemployment. Two of Colombia's leading exports, oil and coffee, face an uncertain future; new exploration is needed to offset declining oil production, while coffee harvests and prices are depressed. Colombian business leaders are calling for greater progress in solving the conflict with insurgent groups. On the positive side, several international financial institutions have praised the economic reforms introduced by President URIBE and have pledged enough funding to cover Colombia's debt servicing costs in 2003.
Colombia GDP purchasing power parity - $251.6 billion (2002 est.)
Colombia GDP - real growth rate 1.5% (2002 est.)
Colombia GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $6,100 (2002 est.)
Colombia GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 13% industry: 30% services: 57% (2001 est.)
Colombia Population below poverty line 55% (2001)
Colombia Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1% highest 10%: 44% (1999)
Colombia Distribution of family income - Gini index 57.1 (1996)
Colombia Inflation rate (consumer prices) 6.2% (2002 est.)
Colombia Labor force 18.3 million (1999 est.)
Colombia Labor force - by occupation services 46%, agriculture 30%, industry 24% (1990)
Colombia Unemployment rate 17.4% (2002 est.)
Colombia Budget revenues: $24 billion expenditures: $25.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Colombia Industries textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds
Colombia Industrial production growth rate 4% (2001 est.)
Colombia Electricity - production 42.99 billion kWh (2001)
Colombia Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 26% hydro: 72.7% other: 1.3% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Colombia Electricity - consumption 39.81 billion kWh (2001)
Colombia Electricity - exports 210 million kWh (2001)
Colombia Electricity - imports 40 million kWh (2001)
Colombia Oil - production 614,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Colombia Oil - consumption 252,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Colombia Oil - exports NA (2001)
Colombia Oil - imports NA (2001)
Colombia Oil - proved reserves 1.8 billion bbl (37257)
Colombia Natural gas - production 5.7 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Colombia Natural gas - consumption 5.7 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Colombia Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Colombia Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Colombia Natural gas - proved reserves 132 billion cu m (37257)
Colombia Agriculture - products coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; forest products; shrimp
Colombia Exports $12.9 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Colombia Exports - commodities petroleum, coffee, coal, apparel, bananas, cut flowers
Colombia Exports - partners US 44.8%, Venezuela 9.4%, Ecuador 6.8% (2002)
Colombia Imports $12.5 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Colombia Imports - commodities industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods, chemicals, paper products, fuels, electricity
Colombia Imports - partners US 32.6%, Venezuela 7%, Mexico 5.3%, Japan 5.3%, Brazil 5.2%, Germany 4.2% (2002)
Colombia Debt - external $38.4 billion (2002 est.)
Colombia Economic aid - recipient $NA
Colombia Currency Colombian peso (COP)
Colombia Currency code COP
Colombia Exchange rates Colombian pesos per US dollar - 2,504.24 (2002), 2,299.63 (2001), 2,087.9 (2000), 1,756.23 (1999), 1,426.04 (1998)
Colombia Fiscal year calendar year
Colombia Telephones - main lines in use 5,433,565 (December 1997)
Colombia Telephones - mobile cellular 1,800,229 (December 1998)
Colombia Telephone system general assessment: modern system in many respects domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system; domestic satellite system with 41 earth stations; fiber-optic network linking 50 cities international: satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat; 3 fully digitalized international switching centers; 8 submarine cables
Colombia Radio broadcast stations AM 454, FM 34, shortwave 27 (1999)
Colombia Television broadcast stations 60 (includes seven low-power stations) (1997)
Colombia Internet country code .co
Colombia Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 18 (2000)
Colombia Internet users 1.15 million (2002)
Colombia Railways total: 3,304 km standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge narrow gauge: 3,154 km 0.914-m gauge (2002)
Colombia Highways total: 110,000 km paved: 26,000 km unpaved: 84,000 km (2000)
Colombia Waterways 18,140 km (navigable by river boats) (April 1996)
Colombia Pipelines gas 4,360 km; oil 6,134 km; refined products 3,140 km (2003)
Colombia Ports and harbors Bahia de Portete, Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Leticia, Puerto Bolivar, San Andres, Santa Marta, Tumaco, Turbo
Colombia Merchant marine total: 15 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 51,445 GRT/55,930 DWT ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 6, container 1, petroleum tanker 3 note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Germany 1 (2002 est.)
Colombia Airports 1,050 (2002)
Colombia Airports - with paved runways total: 96 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 9 914 to 1,523 m: 36 under 914 m: 11 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 38
Colombia Airports - with unpaved runways total: 954 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 51 under 914 m: 587 (2002) 914 to 1,523 m: 315
Colombia Heliports 1 (2002)
Colombia Military branches Army (Ejercito Nacional), Navy (Armada Nacional, including Marines and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Colombiana), National Police (Policia Nacional)
Colombia Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Colombia Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 11,101,719 (2003 est.)
Colombia Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 7,403,433 (2003 est.)
Colombia Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 392,468 (2003 est.)
Colombia Military expenditures - dollar figure $3.3 billion (FY01)
Colombia Military expenditures - percent of GDP 3.4% (FY01)
Colombia Disputes - international Nicaragua filed a claim against Honduras in 1999 and against Colombia in 2001 at the ICJ over disputed maritime boundary involving 50,000 sq km in the Caribbean Sea, including the Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank; maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela in the Gulf of Venezuela; Colombian drug activities penetrate Peruvian border area
Colombia Illicit drugs illicit producer of coca, opium poppy, and cannabis; world's leading coca cultivator (cultivation of coca in 2002 was 144,450 hectares, a 15% decline since 2001); potential production of opium between 2001 and 2002 declined by 25% to 91 metric tons; potential production of heroin declined to 11.3 metric tons; the world's largest processor of coca derivatives into cocaine; supplier of about 90% of the cocaine to the US market and the great majority of cocaine to other international drug markets; important supplier of heroin to the US market; active aerial eradication program; a significant portion of non-US narcotics proceeds are either laundered or invested in Colombia through the black market peso exchange
Comoros Background Unstable Comoros has endured 19 coups or attempted coups since gaining independence from France in 1975. In 1997, the islands of Anjouan and Moheli declared their independence from Comoros. In 1999, military chief Col. AZALI seized power. He pledged to resolve the secessionist crisis through a confederal arrangement named the 2000 Fomboni Accord. In December 2001, voters approved a new constitution and presidential elections took place in the spring of 2002. Each island in the archipelago elected its own president and a new union president was sworn in on May 26, 2002.
Comoros Location Southern Africa, group of islands at the northern mouth of the Mozambique Channel, about two-thirds of the way between northern Madagascar and northern Mozambique
Comoros Geographic coordinates 12 10 S, 44 15 E
Comoros Map references Africa
Comoros Area total: 2,170 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 2,170 sq km
Comoros Area - comparative slightly more than 12 times the size of Washington, DC
Comoros Land boundaries 0 km
Comoros Coastline 340 km
Comoros Maritime claims exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
Comoros Climate tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)
Comoros Terrain volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains to low hills
Comoros Elevation extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Le Kartala 2,360 m
Comoros Natural resources NEGL
Comoros Land use arable land: 34.98% permanent crops: 17.94% other: 47.08% (1998 est.)
Comoros Irrigated land NA sq km
Comoros Natural hazards cyclones possible during rainy season (December to April); Le Kartala on Grand Comore is an active volcano
Comoros Environment - current issues soil degradation and erosion results from crop cultivation on slopes without proper terracing; deforestation
Comoros Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Comoros Geography - note important location at northern end of Mozambique Channel
Comoros Population 632,948 (July 2003 est.)
Comoros Age structure 0-14 years: 42.9% (male 136,060; female 135,277) 15-64 years: 54.2% (male 169,121; female 173,822) 65 years and over: 2.9% (male 8,863; female 9,805) (2003 est.)
Comoros Median age total: 18.6 years male: 18.3 years female: 18.9 years (2002)
Comoros Population growth rate 2.96% (2003 est.)
Comoros Birth rate 38.5 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Comoros Death rate 8.86 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Comoros Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Comoros Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Comoros Infant mortality rate total: 79.51 deaths/1,000 live births female: 70.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 88.32 deaths/1,000 live births
Comoros Life expectancy at birth total population: 61.18 years male: 58.92 years female: 63.5 years (2003 est.)
Comoros Total fertility rate 5.21 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Comoros HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.12% (2001 est.)
Comoros HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
Comoros HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Comoros Nationality noun: Comoran(s) adjective: Comoran
Comoros Ethnic groups Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava
Comoros Religions Sunni Muslim 98%, Roman Catholic 2%
Comoros Languages Arabic (official), French (official), Shikomoro (a blend of Swahili and Arabic)
Comoros Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 56.5% male: 63.6% female: 49.3% (2003 est.)
Comoros Country name conventional long form: Union of the Comoros conventional short form: Comoros local short form: Comores local long form: Union des Comores
Comoros Government type independent republic
Comoros Capital Moroni
Comoros Administrative divisions 3 islands; Grande Comore (Njazidja), Anjouan (Nzwani), and Moheli (Mwali); note - there are also four municipalities named Domoni, Fomboni, Moroni, and Moutsamoudou
Comoros Independence 6 July 1975 (from France)
Comoros National holiday Independence Day, 6 July (1975)
Comoros Constitution 23 December 2001 note: a Transitional National Unity Government (GUNT) was formed on 20 January 2002 following the passing of the new constitution; the GUNT governed until the presidential elections on 14 April 2002
Comoros Legal system French and Sharia (Islamic) law in a new consolidated code
Comoros Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Comoros Executive branch chief of state: President AZALI Assoumani (since 26 May 2002); note - following a 1999 coup AZALI was appointed president; in January 2002 he resigned his position to run in the 14 April 2002 presidential elections; Prime Minister Hamada Madi BOLERO was appointed interim president until replaced again by AZALI in May 2002 when BOLERO was appointed Minister of External Defense and Territorial Security; the president is both the chief of state and the head of government election results: President AZALI Assoumani elected president with 75% of the vote elections: as defined by the 2001 constitution, the presidency rotates every four years among the elected presidents from the three main islands in the Union; election last held 14 April 2002 (next to be held NA April 2007); prime minister appointed by the president; note - AZALI has not appointed a Prime Minister since he was sworn into office in May 2002 head of government: President AZALI Assoumani (since 26 May 2002); note - following a 1999 coup AZALI was appointed president; in January 2002 he resigned his position to run in the 14 April 2002 presidential elections; Prime Minister Hamada Madi BOLERO was appointed interim president until replaced again by AZALI in May 2002 when BOLERO was appointed Minister of External Defense and Territorial Security; the president is both the chief of state and the head of government cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
Comoros Legislative branch unicameral Assembly of the Union (30 seats; half the deputies are selected by the individual islands' local assemblies and the other half by universal suffrage; deputies serve for five years) note - elections for the former legislature, the Federal Assembly, dissolved in 1999, where held on 1 and 8 December 1996; the next elections for the Assembly of the Union were scheduled to be held in April 2003 but have yet to occur
Comoros Judicial branch Supreme Court or Cour Supremes (two members appointed by the president, two members elected by the Federal Assembly, one elected by the Council of each island, and others are former presidents of the republic)
Comoros Political parties and leaders Forces pour l'Action Republicaine or FAR [Col. Abdourazak ABDULHAMID]; Forum pour la Redressement National or FRN (alliance of 12 parties); Front Democratique or FD [Moustoifa Said CHEIKH]; Front National pour la Justice or FNJ (Islamic party in opposition) [Ahmed RACHID]; Movement des Citoyens pour la Republique or MCR [Mahamoud MRADABI]; Mouvement Populaire Anjouanais or MPA (Anjouan separatist movement) [leader NA]; Mouvement pour la Democratie et le Progress or MDP-NGDC [Abbas DJOUSSOUF]; Movement pour le Socialisme et la Democratie or MSD (splinter group of FD) [Abdou SOEFOU]; Parti Comorien pour la Democratie et le Progress or PCDP [Ali MROUDJAE]; Rassemblement National pour le Development or RND (party of the government) [Omar TAMOU, Abdoulhamid AFFRAITANE]
Comoros Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Comoros International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (associate), ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)
Comoros Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Mahmoud M. ABOUD (ambassador to the US and Canada and permanent representative to the UN) chancery: (temporary) care of the Permanent Mission of the Union of the Comoros to the United Nations, 420 East 50th Street, New York, NY 10022 telephone: [1] (212) 972-8010 and 223-2711 FAX: [1] (212) 983-4712 and 715-0699
Comoros Diplomatic representation from the US the US does not have an embassy in Comoros; the ambassador to Mauritius is accredited to Comoros
Comoros Flag description four equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), white, red, and blue with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist; centered within the triangle is a white crescent with the convex side facing the hoist and four white, five-pointed stars placed vertically in a line between the points of the crescent; the horizontal bands and the four stars represent the four main islands of the archipelago - Mwali, Njazidja, Nzwani, and Mayotte (a territorial collectivity of France, but claimed by Comoros); the crescent, stars, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam
Comoros Economy - overview One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is made up of three islands that have inadequate transportation links, a young and rapidly increasing population, and few natural resources. The low educational level of the labor force contributes to a subsistence level of economic activity, high unemployment, and a heavy dependence on foreign grants and technical assistance. Agriculture, including fishing, hunting, and forestry, contributes 40% to GDP, employs 80% of the labor force, and provides most of the exports. The country is not self-sufficient in food production; rice, the main staple, accounts for the bulk of imports. The government - which is hampered by internal political disputes - is struggling to upgrade education and technical training, to privatize commercial and industrial enterprises, to improve health services, to diversify exports, to promote tourism, and to reduce the high population growth rate. Increased foreign support is essential if the goal of 4% annual GDP growth is to be met. Remittances from 150,000 Comorans abroad help supplement GDP.
Comoros GDP purchasing power parity - $441 million (2002 est.)
Comoros GDP - real growth rate 2% (2002 est.)
Comoros GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $700 (2002 est.)
Comoros GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 40% industry: 4% services: 56% (2001 est.)
Comoros Population below poverty line 60% (2002 est.)
Comoros Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Comoros Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.5% (2001 est.)
Comoros Labor force 144,500 (1996 est.)
Comoros Labor force - by occupation agriculture 80%
Comoros Unemployment rate 20% (1996 est.)
Comoros Budget revenues: $27.6 million expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Comoros Industries tourism, perfume distillation
Comoros Industrial production growth rate -2% (1999 est.)
Comoros Electricity - production 21.27 million kWh (2001)
Comoros Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 90.6% hydro: 9.4% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Comoros Electricity - consumption 19.78 million kWh (2001)
Comoros Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Comoros Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Comoros Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Comoros Oil - consumption 700 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Comoros Oil - exports NA (2001)
Comoros Oil - imports NA (2001)
Comoros Agriculture - products vanilla, cloves, perfume essences, copra, coconuts, bananas, cassava (tapioca)
Comoros Exports $16.3 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Comoros Exports - commodities vanilla, ylang-ylang, cloves, perfume oil, copra
Comoros Exports - partners France 32.4%, Germany 19.4%, US 17.6%, Singapore 11.5%, Netherlands 6.5% (2002)
Comoros Imports $39.8 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Comoros Imports - commodities rice and other foodstuffs, consumer goods; petroleum products, cement, transport equipment
Comoros Imports - partners France 34.3%, South Africa 12%, Japan 6.1%, Kenya 5.9%, UAE 5.8%, Mauritius 4.9%, Thailand 4.6% (2002)
Comoros Debt - external $232 million (2000 est.)
Comoros Economic aid - recipient $10 million (2001 est.)
Comoros Currency Comoran franc (KMF)
Comoros Currency code KMF
Comoros Exchange rates Comoran francs (KMF) per US dollar - 522.74 (2002), 549.78 (2001), 533.98 (2000), 461.78 (1999), 442.46 (1998) note: prior to January 1999, the official rate was pegged to the French franc at 75 Comoran francs per French franc; since 1 January 1999, the Comoran franc is pegged to the euro at a rate of 491.9677 Comoran francs per euro
Comoros Fiscal year calendar year
Comoros Telephones - main lines in use 7,000 (2000)
Comoros Telephones - mobile cellular NA
Comoros Telephone system general assessment: sparse system of microwave radio relay and HF radiotelephone communication stations domestic: HF radiotelephone communications and microwave radio relay international: HF radiotelephone communications to Madagascar and Reunion
Comoros Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 1 (2001)
Comoros Television broadcast stations NA
Comoros Internet country code .km
Comoros Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Comoros Internet users 2,500 (2002)
Comoros Railways 0 km
Comoros Highways total: 880 km paved: 673 km unpaved: 207 km (1999 est)
Comoros Waterways none
Comoros Ports and harbors Fomboni, Moroni, Moutsamoudou
Comoros Merchant marine total: 28 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 432,132 GRT/796,734 DWT ships by type: bulk 4, cargo 15, chemical tanker 1, petroleum tanker 5, refrigerated cargo 1, specialized tanker 2 note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Malta 1, Pakistan 1, Turkey 1 (2002 est.)
Comoros Airports 4 (2002)
Comoros Airports - with paved runways total: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2002)
Comoros Military branches Comoran Security Force
Comoros Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 150,079 (2003 est.)
Comoros Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 89,090 (2003 est.)
Comoros Military expenditures - dollar figure $6 million (FY02)
Comoros Military expenditures - percent of GDP 3% (FY02)
Comoros Disputes - international claims French-administered Mayotte
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Background Since 1997, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DROC; formerly called Zaire) has been rent by ethnic strife and civil war, touched off by a massive inflow in 1994 of refugees from the fighting in Rwanda and Burundi. The government of former president MOBUTU Sese Seko was toppled by a rebellion led by Laurent KABILA in May 1997; his regime was subsequently challenged by a Rwanda- and Uganda-backed rebellion in August 1998. Troops from Zimbabwe, Angola, Namibia, Chad, and Sudan intervened to support the Kinshasa regime. A cease-fire was signed on 10 July 1999 by the DROC, Zimbabwe, Angola, Uganda, Namibia, Rwanda, and Congolese armed rebel groups, but sporadic fighting continued. KABILA was assassinated on 16 January 2001 and his son Joseph KABILA was named head of state ten days later. In October 2002, the new president was successful in getting occupying Rwandan forces to withdraw from eastern Congo; two months later, an agreement was signed by all remaining warring parties to end the fighting and set up a government of national unity.
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Location Central Africa, northeast of Angola
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Geographic coordinates 0 00 N, 25 00 E
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Map references Africa
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Area total: 2,345,410 sq km water: 77,810 sq km land: 2,267,600 sq km
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Area - comparative slightly less than one-fourth the size of the US
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Land boundaries total: 10,730 km border countries: Angola 2,511 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of Angola's discontiguous Cabinda Province), Burundi 233 km, Central African Republic 1,577 km, Republic of the Congo 2,410 km, Rwanda 217 km, Sudan 628 km, Tanzania 459 km, Uganda 765 km, Zambia 1,930 km
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Coastline 37 km
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Maritime claims exclusive economic zone: boundaries with neighbors territorial sea: 12 NM
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Climate tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands; north of Equator - wet season April to October, dry season December to February; south of Equator - wet season November to March, dry season April to October
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Terrain vast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in east
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Pic Marguerite on Mont Ngaliema (Mount Stanley) 5,110 m
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Natural resources cobalt, copper, cadmium, petroleum, industrial and gem diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, germanium, uranium, radium, bauxite, iron ore, coal, hydropower, timber
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Land use arable land: 2.96% permanent crops: 0.52% other: 96.52% (1998 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Irrigated land 110 sq km (1998 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Natural hazards periodic droughts in south; Congo River floods (seasonal); in the east, in the Great Rift Valley, there are active volcanoes
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Environment - current issues poaching threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; deforestation; refugees responsible for significant deforestation, soil erosion, and wildlife poaching; mining of minerals (coltan - a mineral used in creating capacitors, diamonds, and gold) causing environmental damage
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Geography - note straddles equator; has very narrow strip of land that controls the lower Congo River and is only outlet to South Atlantic Ocean; dense tropical rain forest in central river basin and eastern highlands
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Population 56,625,039 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2003 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Age structure 0-14 years: 48.3% (male 13,734,706; female 13,624,579) 15-64 years: 49.2% (male 13,648,155; female 14,203,077) 65 years and over: 2.5% (male 583,366; female 831,156) (2003 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Median age total: 15.8 years female: 16.1 years (2002) male: 15.4 years
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Population growth rate 2.9% (2003 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Birth rate 45.12 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Death rate 14.87 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Net migration rate -1.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population note: fighting between the Congolese Government and Uganda- and Rwanda-backed Congolese rebels spawned a regional war in DROC in August 1998, which left 1.8 million Congolese internally displaced and caused 300,000 Congolese refugees to flee to surrounding countries (2003 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Infant mortality rate total: 96.56 deaths/1,000 live births female: 87.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 105.15 deaths/1,000 live births
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Life expectancy at birth total population: 48.93 years male: 46.83 years female: 51.09 years (2003 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Total fertility rate 6.69 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 4.9% (2001 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 1.3 million (2001 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the HIV/AIDS - deaths 120,000 (2001 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Nationality noun: Congolese (singular and plural) adjective: Congolese or Congo
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Ethnic groups over 200 African ethnic groups of which the majority are Bantu; the four largest tribes - Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu), and the Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) make up about 45% of the population
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Religions Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Kimbanguist 10%, Muslim 10%, other syncretic sects and indigenous beliefs 10%
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Languages French (official), Lingala (a lingua franca trade language), Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili), Kikongo, Tshiluba
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write French, Lingala, Kingwana, or Tshiluba total population: 65.5% male: 76.2% female: 55.1% (2003 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Country name conventional long form: Democratic Republic of the Congo conventional short form: none local short form: none former: Congo Free State, Belgian Congo, Congo/Leopoldville, Congo/Kinshasa, Zaire local long form: Republique Democratique du Congo abbreviation: DROC
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Government type dictatorship; presumably undergoing a transition to representative government
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Capital Kinshasa
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Administrative divisions 10 provinces (provinces, singular - province) and one city* (ville); Bandundu, Bas-Congo, Equateur, Kasai-Occidental, Kasai-Oriental, Katanga, Kinshasa*, Maniema, Nord-Kivu, Orientale, Sud-Kivu
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Independence 30 June 1960 (from Belgium)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the National holiday Independence Day, 30 June (1960)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Constitution 24 June 1967, amended August 1974, revised 15 February 1978, amended April 1990; transitional constitution promulgated in April 1994; in November 1998, a draft constitution was approved by former President Laurent KABILA but it was not ratified by a national referendum; one outcome of the ongoing inter-Congolese dialogue is to be a new constitution
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Legal system based on Belgian civil law system and tribal law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Executive branch chief of state: President Joseph KABILA (since 26 January 2001); note - following the assassination of his father, Laurent Desire KABILA, on 16 January 2001, Joseph KABILA succeeded to the presidency; the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Joseph KABILA (since 26 January 2001); note - following the assassination of his father, Laurent Desire KABILA, on 16 January 2001, Joseph KABILA succeeded to the presidency; the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: National Executive Council, appointed by the president elections: prior to the overthrow of MOBUTU Sese Seko, the president was elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 29 July 1984 (next was scheduled to be held in May 1997); formerly, there was also a prime minister who was elected by the High Council of the Republic; note - a Transitional Government is drafting a new constitution with free elections scheduled to be held in NA 2005 note: Joseph KABILA succeeded his father, Laurent Desire KABILA, following the latter's assassination in January 2001, negotiations with rebel leaders led to the establishment of a Transitional Government in July 2003 with free elections scheduled to be held in NA 2005 election results: results of the last election were: MOBUTU Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga reelected president in 1984 without opposition
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Legislative branch a 300-member Transitional Constituent Assembly established in August 2000 elections: NA; members of the Transitional Constituent Assembly were appointed by former President Laurent Desire KABILA
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Judicial branch Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Political parties and leaders Democratic Social Christian Party or PDSC [Andre BO-BOLIKO]; Forces for Renovation for Union and Solidarity or FONUS [Joseph OLENGHANKOY]; National Congolese Lumumbist Movement or MNC [Francois LUMUMBA]; Popular Movement of the Revolution or MPR (three factions: MPR-Fait Prive [Catherine NZUZI wa Mbombo]; MPR/Vunduawe [Felix VUNDUAWE]; MPR/Mananga [MANANGA Dintoka Mpholo]); Unified Lumumbast Party or PALU [Antoine GIZENGA]; Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Etienne TSHISEKEDI wa Mulumba]; Union of Federalists and Independent Republicans or UFERI (two factions: UFERI [Lokambo OMOKOKO]; UFERI/OR [Adolph Kishwe MAYA])
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Congo, Democratic Republic of the International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW (signatory), PCA, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Faida MITIFU FAX: [1] (202) 234-2609 telephone: [1] (202) 234-7690, 7691 chancery: 1800 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Aubrey HOOKS embassy: 310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa mailing address: Unit 31550, APO AE 09828 telephone: [243] (88) 43608 FAX: [243] (88) 43467
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Flag description light blue with a large yellow five-pointed star in the center and a columnar arrangement of six small yellow five-pointed stars along the hoist side
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Economy - overview The economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo - a nation endowed with vast potential wealth - has declined drastically since the mid-1980s. The war, which began in August 1998, has dramatically reduced national output and government revenue, has increased external debt, and has resulted in the deaths from war, famine, and disease of perhaps 3.5 million people. Foreign businesses have curtailed operations due to uncertainty about the outcome of the conflict, lack of infrastructure, and the difficult operating environment. The war has intensified the impact of such basic problems as an uncertain legal framework, corruption, inflation, and lack of openness in government economic policy and financial operations. Conditions improved in late 2002 with the withdrawal of a large portion of the invading foreign troops. A number of IMF and World Bank missions have met with the government to help it develop a coherent economic plan, and President KABILA has begun implementing reforms. Much economic activity lies outside the GDP data.
Congo, Democratic Republic of the GDP purchasing power parity - $34 billion (2002 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the GDP - real growth rate 3.5% (2002 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $600 (2002 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 55% industry: 11% services: 34% (2000 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Population below poverty line NA%
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Inflation rate (consumer prices) 16% (2002 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Labor force 14.51 million (1993 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Labor force - by occupation NA
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Unemployment rate NA%
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Budget revenues: $269 million expenditures: $244 million, including capital expenditures of $24 million (1996 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Industries mining (diamonds, copper, zinc), mineral processing, consumer products (including textiles, footwear, cigarettes, processed foods and beverages), cement
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Industrial production growth rate NA%
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Electricity - production 5.243 billion kWh (2001)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 1.8% hydro: 98.2% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Electricity - consumption 3.839 billion kWh (2001)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Electricity - exports 1.097 billion kWh (2001)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Electricity - imports 60 million kWh (2001)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Oil - production 24,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Oil - consumption 14,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Oil - exports NA (2001)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Oil - imports NA (2001)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Oil - proved reserves 1.538 billion bbl (37257)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Natural gas - proved reserves 104.8 billion cu m (37257)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Agriculture - products coffee, sugar, palm oil, rubber, tea, quinine, cassava (tapioca), palm oil, bananas, root crops, corn, fruits; wood products
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Exports $1.2 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Exports - commodities diamonds, copper, crude oil, coffee, cobalt
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Exports - partners Belgium 64.4%, US 13.4%, Zimbabwe 6.7%, Finland 4.9% (2002)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Imports $890 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Imports - commodities foodstuffs, mining and other machinery, transport equipment, fuels
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Imports - partners Belgium 14.6%, South Africa 14.2%, Nigeria 10.3%, France 9.5%, Germany 7.3%, Netherlands 5.3%, Kenya 5.2% (2002)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Debt - external $12.9 billion (2000 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Economic aid - recipient $195.3 million (1995)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Currency Congolese franc (CDF)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Currency code CDF
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Exchange rates Congolese francs per US dollar - 346.49 (2002), 206.62 (2001), 21.82 (2000), 4.02 (1999), 1.61 (1998)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Fiscal year calendar year
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Telephones - main lines in use 20,000 (2000)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Telephones - mobile cellular 15,000 (2000)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Telephone system general assessment: poor domestic: barely adequate wire and microwave radio relay service in and between urban areas; domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Radio broadcast stations AM 3, FM 11, shortwave 2 (2001)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Television broadcast stations 4 (2001)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Internet country code .cd
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2001)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Internet users 6,000 (2002)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Railways total: 4,772 km narrow gauge: 3,621 km 1.067-m gauge (858 km electrified); 125 km 1.000-m gauge; 1,026 km 0.600-m gauge (2002)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Highways total: 157,000 km (including 30 km of expressways) paved: NA km unpaved: NA km (1999 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Waterways 15,000 km (including the Congo and its tributaries, and unconnected lakes)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Pipelines gas 54 km; oil 71 km (2003)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Ports and harbors Banana, Boma, Bukavu, Bumba, Goma, Kalemie, Kindu, Kinshasa, Kisangani, Matadi, Mbandaka
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Merchant marine none (2002 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Airports 229 (2002)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Airports - with paved runways total: 24 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Airports - with unpaved runways total: 205 1,524 to 2,437 m: 19 914 to 1,523 m: 95 under 914 m: 91 (2002)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Heliports 1 (2002)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Military branches Army, Navy, Air Force, Special Security Battalion
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 12,292,933 (2003 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 6,267,752 (2003 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Military expenditures - dollar figure $250 million (FY97)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Military expenditures - percent of GDP 4.6% (FY97)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Disputes - international Democratic Republic of the Congo is in the grip of a civil war that has drawn in military forces from neighboring states, with Uganda and Rwanda supporting the rebel movements that occupy much of the eastern portion of the state - Tutsi, Hutu, Lendu, Hema and other conflicting ethnic groups, political rebels, and various government forces continue fighting in Great Lakes region, transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda - heads of the Great Lakes states pledge to end conflict, but localized violence continues despite UN peacekeeping efforts; most of the Congo River boundary with the Republic of the Congo is indefinite (no agreement has been reached on the division of the river or its islands, except in the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Illicit drugs illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for domestic consumption; while rampant corruption and inadequate supervision leaves the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, the lack of a well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center
Congo, Republic of the Background Upon independence in 1960, the former French region of Middle Congo became the Republic of the Congo. A quarter century of experimentation with Marxism was abandoned in 1990 and a democratically elected government installed in 1992. A brief civil war in 1997 restored former Marxist President SASSOU-NGUESSO, but ushered in a period of ethnically based unrest. Southern-based rebel groups agreed to a final peace accord in March 2003. The Republic of Congo is one of Africa's largest petroleum producers with significant potential for offshore development.
Congo, Republic of the Location Western Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and Gabon
Congo, Republic of the Geographic coordinates 1 00 S, 15 00 E
Congo, Republic of the Map references Africa
Congo, Republic of the Area total: 342,000 sq km water: 500 sq km land: 341,500 sq km
Congo, Republic of the Area - comparative slightly smaller than Montana
Congo, Republic of the Land boundaries total: 5,504 km border countries: Angola 201 km, Cameroon 523 km, Central African Republic 467 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,410 km, Gabon 1,903 km
Congo, Republic of the Coastline 169 km
Congo, Republic of the Maritime claims territorial sea: 200 NM
Congo, Republic of the Climate tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to October); constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly enervating climate astride the Equator
Congo, Republic of the Terrain coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern basin
Congo, Republic of the Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Berongou 903 m
Congo, Republic of the Natural resources petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium, copper, phosphates, natural gas, hydropower
Congo, Republic of the Land use arable land: 0.5% permanent crops: 0.13% other: 99.37% (1998 est.)
Congo, Republic of the Irrigated land 10 sq km (1998 est.)
Congo, Republic of the Natural hazards seasonal flooding
Congo, Republic of the Environment - current issues air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from the dumping of raw sewage; tap water is not potable; deforestation
Congo, Republic of the Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Congo, Republic of the Geography - note about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, or along the railroad between them
Congo, Republic of the Population 2,954,258 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2003 est.)
Congo, Republic of the Age structure 0-14 years: 38.4% (male 570,491; female 563,079) 15-64 years: 58% (male 844,655; female 868,851) 65 years and over: 3.6% (male 44,166; female 63,016) (2003 est.)
Congo, Republic of the Median age total: 20.2 years male: 19.8 years female: 20.7 years (2002)
Congo, Republic of the Population growth rate 1.53% (2003 est.)
Congo, Republic of the Birth rate 29.46 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Congo, Republic of the Death rate 14.2 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Congo, Republic of the Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Congo, Republic of the Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Congo, Republic of the Infant mortality rate total: 95.34 deaths/1,000 live births female: 89.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 101.45 deaths/1,000 live births
Congo, Republic of the Life expectancy at birth total population: 50.02 years male: 49.04 years female: 51.02 years (2003 est.)
Congo, Republic of the Total fertility rate 3.65 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Congo, Republic of the HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 7.2% (2001 est.)
Congo, Republic of the HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 110,000 (2001 est.)
Congo, Republic of the HIV/AIDS - deaths 11,000 (2001 est.)
Congo, Republic of the Nationality noun: Congolese (singular and plural) adjective: Congolese or Congo
Congo, Republic of the Ethnic groups Kongo 48%, Sangha 20%, M'Bochi 12%, Teke 17%, Europeans and other 3% note: Europeans estimated at 8,500, mostly French, before the 1997 civil war; may be half that in 1998, following the widespread destruction of foreign businesses in 1997
Congo, Republic of the Religions Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim 2%
Congo, Republic of the Languages French (official), Lingala and Monokutuba (lingua franca trade languages), many local languages and dialects (of which Kikongo has the most users)
Congo, Republic of the Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 83.8% male: 89.6% female: 78.4% (2003 est.)
Congo, Republic of the Country name conventional long form: Republic of the Congo conventional short form: Congo (Brazzaville) local short form: none former: Middle Congo, Congo/Brazzaville, Congo local long form: Republique du Congo
Congo, Republic of the Government type republic
Congo, Republic of the Capital Brazzaville
Congo, Republic of the Administrative divisions 9 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 commune*; Bouenza, Brazzaville*, Cuvette, Kouilou, Lekoumou, Likouala, Niari, Plateaux, Pool, Sangha
Congo, Republic of the Independence 15 August 1960 (from France)
Congo, Republic of the National holiday Independence Day, 15 August (1960)
Congo, Republic of the Constitution constitution approved by referendum 20 January 2002
Congo, Republic of the Legal system based on French civil law system and customary law
Congo, Republic of the Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Congo, Republic of the Executive branch chief of state: President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 25 October 1997, following the civil war in which he toppled elected president Pascal LISSOUBA); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 25 October 1997, following the civil war in which he toppled elected president Pascal LISSOUBA); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second seven-year term); election last held 10 March 2002 (next to be held NA 2009) election results: Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO reelected president; percent of vote - Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO 89.4%, Joseph Kignoumbi Kia MBOUNGOU 2.7%
Congo, Republic of the Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (66 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the National Assembly (137 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: Senate - last held 11 July 2002 (next to be held NA July 2007); National Assembly - last held 27 May and 26 June 2002 (next to be held by NA May 2007) election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - FDP 56, other 10; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - FDP 83, UDR 6, UPADS 3, other 45
Congo, Republic of the Judicial branch Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Congo, Republic of the Political parties and leaders the most important of the many parties are the Democratic and Patriotic Forces or FDP (an alliance of Convention for Alternative Democracy, Congolese Labor Party or PCT, Liberal Republican Party, National Union for Democracy and Progress, Patriotic Union for the National Reconstruction, and Union for the National Renewal) [Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, president]; Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development or MCDDI [Michel MAMPOUYA]; Pan-African Union for Social Development or UPADS [Martin MBERI]; Rally for Democracy and Social Progress or RDPS [Jean-Pierre Thystere TCHICAYA, president]; Rally for Democracy and the Republic or RDR [Raymond Damasge NGOLLO]; Union for Democracy and Republic or UDR [leader NA]; Union of Democratic Forces or UFD [Sebastian EBAO]
Congo, Republic of the Political pressure groups and leaders Congolese Trade Union Congress or CSC; General Union of Congolese Pupils and Students or UGEEC; Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women or URFC; Union of Congolese Socialist Youth or UJSC
Congo, Republic of the International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Congo, Republic of the Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Serge MOMBOULI FAX: [1] (202) 726-1860 telephone: [1] (202) 726-5500 chancery: 4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20011
Congo, Republic of the Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Robin R. SANDERS embassy: NA mailing address: NA telephone: [243] (88) 43608 note: the embassy is temporarily collocated with the US Embassy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (US Embassy Kinshasa, 310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa)
Congo, Republic of the Flag description divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a yellow band; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
Congo, Republic of the Economy - overview The economy is a mixture of village agriculture and handicrafts, an industrial sector based largely on oil, support services, and a government characterized by budget problems and overstaffing. Oil has supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the economy, providing a major share of government revenues and exports. In the early 1980s, rapidly rising oil revenues enabled the government to finance large-scale development projects with GDP growth averaging 5% annually, one of the highest rates in Africa. The government has mortgaged a substantial portion of its oil earnings, contributing to a shortage of revenues. The 12 January 1994 devaluation of Franc Zone currencies by 50% resulted in inflation of 61% in 1994, but inflation has subsided since. Economic reform efforts continued with the support of international organizations, notably the World Bank and the IMF. The reform program came to a halt in June 1997 when civil war erupted. Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, who returned to power when the war ended in October 1997, publicly expressed interest in moving forward on economic reforms and privatization and in renewing cooperation with international financial institutions. However, economic progress was badly hurt by slumping oil prices and the resumption of armed conflict in December 1998, which worsened the republic's budget deficit. The current administration presides over an uneasy internal peace and faces difficult economic problems of stimulating recovery and reducing poverty.
Congo, Republic of the GDP purchasing power parity - $2.5 billion (2002 est.)
Congo, Republic of the GDP - real growth rate 0% (2002 est.)
Congo, Republic of the GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $900 (2002 est.)
Congo, Republic of the GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 10% industry: 48% services: 42% (2001 est.)
Congo, Republic of the Population below poverty line NA%
Congo, Republic of the Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Congo, Republic of the Inflation rate (consumer prices) 4% (2002 est.)
Congo, Republic of the Labor force NA
Congo, Republic of the Unemployment rate NA%
Congo, Republic of the Budget revenues: $870 million expenditures: $970 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997 est.)
Congo, Republic of the Industries petroleum extraction, cement, lumber, brewing, sugar, palm oil, soap, flour, cigarettes
Congo, Republic of the Industrial production growth rate 0% (2002 est.)
Congo, Republic of the Electricity - production 358.1 million kWh (2001)
Congo, Republic of the Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 0.3% hydro: 99.7% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Congo, Republic of the Electricity - consumption 633 million kWh (2001)
Congo, Republic of the Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Congo, Republic of the Electricity - imports 300 million kWh (2001)
Congo, Republic of the Oil - production 275,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Congo, Republic of the Oil - consumption 5,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Congo, Republic of the Oil - exports NA (2001)
Congo, Republic of the Oil - imports NA (2001)
Congo, Republic of the Oil - proved reserves 93.5 million bbl (37257)
Congo, Republic of the Natural gas - production 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Congo, Republic of the Natural gas - consumption 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Congo, Republic of the Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Congo, Republic of the Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Congo, Republic of the Natural gas - proved reserves 495.5 million cu m (37257)
Congo, Republic of the Agriculture - products cassava (tapioca), sugar, rice, corn, peanuts, vegetables, coffee, cocoa; forest products
Congo, Republic of the Exports $2.4 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Congo, Republic of the Exports - commodities petroleum, lumber, plywood, sugar, cocoa, coffee, diamonds
Congo, Republic of the Exports - partners Taiwan 28.1%, South Korea 20.4%, China 9.3%, US 8.4%, Germany 6.6%, France 5.2% (2002)
Congo, Republic of the Imports $730 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Congo, Republic of the Imports - commodities capital equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs
Congo, Republic of the Imports - partners France 22.1%, Italy 8.5%, Belgium 6%, US 5.2%, India 4.1% (2002)
Congo, Republic of the Debt - external $5 billion (2000 est.)
Congo, Republic of the Economic aid - recipient $159.1 million (1995)
Congo, Republic of the Currency Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States
Congo, Republic of the Currency code XAF
Congo, Republic of the Exchange rates Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 697 (2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.7 (1999), 589.95 (1998)
Congo, Republic of the Fiscal year calendar year
Congo, Republic of the Telephones - main lines in use 22,000 (1998)
Congo, Republic of the Telephones - mobile cellular 3,300 (1998)
Congo, Republic of the Telephone system general assessment: services barely adequate for government use; key exchanges are in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo; intercity lines frequently out of order domestic: primary network consists of microwave radio relay and coaxial cable international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Congo, Republic of the Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 3 (2001)
Congo, Republic of the Television broadcast stations 1 (2002)
Congo, Republic of the Internet country code .cg
Congo, Republic of the Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Congo, Republic of the Internet users 500 (2001)
Congo, Republic of the Railways total: 894 km narrow gauge: 894 km 1.067-m gauge (2002)
Congo, Republic of the Highways total: 12,800 km paved: 1,242 km unpaved: 11,558 km (1999 est.)
Congo, Republic of the Waterways 1,120 km note: the Congo and Ubangi (Oubangui) rivers provide 1,120 km of commercially navigable water transport; other rivers are used for local traffic only
Congo, Republic of the Pipelines gas 53 km; oil 673 km (2003)
Congo, Republic of the Ports and harbors Brazzaville, Impfondo, Ouesso, Oyo, Pointe-Noire
Congo, Republic of the Airports 31 (2002)
Congo, Republic of the Airports - with paved runways total: 4 over 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2002)
Congo, Republic of the Airports - with unpaved runways total: 27 1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 914 to 1,523 m: 10 under 914 m: 11 (2002)
Congo, Republic of the Military branches Army, Air Force, Navy, Gendarmerie, National Police
Congo, Republic of the Military manpower - military age 20 years of age (2003 est.)
Congo, Republic of the Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 754,814 (2003 est.)
Congo, Republic of the Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 381,556 (2003 est.)
Congo, Republic of the Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 31,644 (2003 est.)
Congo, Republic of the Military expenditures - dollar figure $84 million (FY01)
Congo, Republic of the Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.8% (FY01)
Congo, Republic of the Disputes - international most of the Congo River boundary with the Democratic Republic of the Congo is indefinite (no agreement has been reached on the division of the river or its islands, except in the Stanley Pool/Pool Malebo area)
Cook Islands Background Named after Captain Cook, who sighted them in 1770, the islands became a British protectorate in 1888. By 1900, administrative control was transferred to New Zealand; in 1965 residents chose self-government in free association with New Zealand. The emigration of skilled workers to New Zealand and government deficits are continuing problems.
Cook Islands Location Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand
Cook Islands Geographic coordinates 21 14 S, 159 46 W
Cook Islands Map references Oceania
Cook Islands Area total: 240 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 240 sq km
Cook Islands Area - comparative 1.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Cook Islands Land boundaries 0 km
Cook Islands Coastline 120 km
Cook Islands Maritime claims continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Cook Islands Climate tropical; moderated by trade winds
Cook Islands Terrain low coral atolls in north; volcanic, hilly islands in south
Cook Islands Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Te Manga 652 m
Cook Islands Natural resources NEGL
Cook Islands Land use arable land: 17.39% permanent crops: 13.04% other: 69.57% (1998 est.)
Cook Islands Irrigated land NA sq km
Cook Islands Natural hazards typhoons (November to March)
Cook Islands Environment - current issues NA
Cook Islands Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Cook Islands Geography - note the northern Cook Islands are seven low-lying, sparsely populated, coral atolls; the southern Cook Islands consist of eight elevated, fertile, volcanic isles where most of the populace lives
Cook Islands Population 21,008 (July 2003 est.)
Cook Islands Age structure 0-14 years: NA% 15-64 years: NA% 65 years and over: NA% (2003 est.)
Cook Islands Population growth rate NA% (2003 est.)
Cook Islands Birth rate NA births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Cook Islands Death rate NA deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Cook Islands Sex ratio NA (2003 est.)
Cook Islands Infant mortality rate total: NA% male: NA% female: NA%
Cook Islands Life expectancy at birth total population: NA years male: NA years female: NA years (2003 est.)
Cook Islands Total fertility rate NA children born/woman (2003 est.)
Cook Islands HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate NA%
Cook Islands HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
Cook Islands HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Cook Islands Nationality noun: Cook Islander(s) adjective: Cook Islander
Cook Islands Ethnic groups Polynesian (full blood) 81.3%, Polynesian and European 7.7%, Polynesian and non-European 7.7%, European 2.4%, other 0.9%
Cook Islands Religions Christian (majority of populace are members of the Cook Islands Christian Church)
Cook Islands Languages English (official), Maori
Cook Islands Literacy definition: NA total population: 95% male: NA% female: NA%
Cook Islands Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Cook Islands former: Harvey Islands
Cook Islands Dependency status self-governing in free association with New Zealand; Cook Islands is fully responsible for internal affairs; New Zealand retains responsibility for external affairs and defense, in consultation with the Cook Islands
Cook Islands Government type self-governing parliamentary democracy
Cook Islands Capital Avarua
Cook Islands Administrative divisions none
Cook Islands Independence none (became self-governing in free association with New Zealand on 4 August 1965 and has the right at any time to move to full independence by unilateral action)
Cook Islands National holiday Constitution Day, first Monday in August (1965)
Cook Islands Constitution 4 August 1965
Cook Islands Legal system based on New Zealand law and English common law
Cook Islands Suffrage NA years of age; universal adult
Cook Islands Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Frederick GOODWIN (since NA); New Zealand High Commissioner Kurt MEYER (since NA), representative of New Zealand elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the UK representative is appointed by the monarch; the New Zealand high commissioner is appointed by the New Zealand Government; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually becomes prime minister head of government: Prime Minister Dr. Robert WOONTON (since 12 February 2002); Deputy Prime Minister Ngamau MUNOKOA (since 5 November 2003) cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister; collectively responsible to Parliament
Cook Islands Legislative branch unicameral Parliament (25 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 16 June 1999 (next to be held by NA 2004) election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CIP 12, DAP 12, NAP 1 note: the House of Ariki (chiefs) advises on traditional matters and maintains considerable influence, but has no legislative powers
Cook Islands Judicial branch High Court
Cook Islands Political parties and leaders Cook Islands People's Party or CIP [Geoffrey HENRY]; Democratic Alliance Party or DAP [Terepai MAOATE]; New Alliance Party or NAP [Norman GEORGE]; Cook Islands National Party or CIN [Teariki HEATHER]
Cook Islands Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Cook Islands International organization participation ACP, AsDB, ESCAP (associate), FAO, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, IFRCS (associate), IOC, OPCW, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, WHO, WMO
Cook Islands Diplomatic representation in the US none (self-governing in free association with New Zealand)
Cook Islands Diplomatic representation from the US none (self-governing in free association with New Zealand)
Cook Islands Flag description blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large circle of 15 white five-pointed stars (one for every island) centered in the outer half of the flag
Cook Islands Economy - overview Like many other South Pacific island nations, the Cook Islands' economic development is hindered by the isolation of the country from foreign markets, the limited size of domestic markets, lack of natural resources, periodic devastation from natural disasters, and inadequate infrastructure. Agriculture provides the economic base with major exports made up of copra and citrus fruit. Manufacturing activities are limited to fruit processing, clothing, and handicrafts. Trade deficits are offset by remittances from emigrants and by foreign aid, overwhelmingly from New Zealand. In the 1980s and 1990s, the country lived beyond its means, maintaining a bloated public service and accumulating a large foreign debt. Subsequent reforms, including the sale of state assets, the strengthening of economic management, the encouragement of tourism, and a debt restructuring agreement, have rekindled investment and growth.
Cook Islands GDP purchasing power parity - $105 million (2001 est.)
Cook Islands GDP - real growth rate 7.1% (2001 est.)
Cook Islands GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $5,000 (2001 est.)
Cook Islands GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 17% industry: 7.8% services: 75.2% (2000 est.)
Cook Islands Population below poverty line NA%
Cook Islands Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Cook Islands Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.2% (2000 est.)
Cook Islands Labor force 8,000 (1996)
Cook Islands Labor force - by occupation agriculture 29%, industry 15%, services 56% note: shortage of skilled labor (1995)
Cook Islands Unemployment rate 13% (1996)
Cook Islands Budget revenues: $28 million expenditures: $27 million, including capital expenditures of $3.3 million (FY 00/01 est.)
Cook Islands Industries fruit processing, tourism, fishing, clothing, handicrafts
Cook Islands Industrial production growth rate 1% (2002)
Cook Islands Electricity - production 27.43 million kWh (2001)
Cook Islands Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Cook Islands Electricity - consumption 25.51 million kWh (2001)
Cook Islands Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Cook Islands Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Cook Islands Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Cook Islands Oil - consumption 450 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Cook Islands Oil - exports NA (2001)
Cook Islands Oil - imports NA (2001)
Cook Islands Agriculture - products copra, citrus, pineapples, tomatoes, beans, pawpaws, bananas, yams, taro, coffee; pigs, poultry
Cook Islands Exports $9.1 million (2000)
Cook Islands Exports - commodities copra, papayas, fresh and canned citrus fruit, coffee; fish; pearls and pearl shells; clothing
Cook Islands Exports - partners Australia 34%, Japan 27%, New Zealand 25%, US 8% (2000)
Cook Islands Imports $50.7 million (2000)
Cook Islands Imports - commodities foodstuffs, textiles, fuels, timber, capital goods
Cook Islands Imports - partners NZ 61%, Fiji 19%, US 9%, Australia 6%, Japan 2% (2000)
Cook Islands Debt - external $141 million (1996 est.)
Cook Islands Economic aid - recipient $13.1 million; note - New Zealand continues to furnish the greater part (1995)
Cook Islands Currency New Zealand dollar (NZD)
Cook Islands Currency code NZD
Cook Islands Exchange rates New Zealand dollars per US dollar - 2.3535 (January 2002), 2.3776 (2001), 2.1863 (2000), 1.8886 (1999), 1.8632 (1998), 1.5083 (1997)
Cook Islands Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Cook Islands Telephones - main lines in use 5,000 (1997)
Cook Islands Telephones - mobile cellular 0 (1994)
Cook Islands Telephone system general assessment: NA domestic: the individual islands are connected by a combination of satellite earth stations, microwave systems, and VHF and HF radiotelephone; within the islands, service is provided by small exchanges connected to subscribers by open-wire, cable, and fiber-optic cable international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
Cook Islands Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)
Cook Islands Television broadcast stations 2 (plus eight low-power repeaters) (1997)
Cook Islands Internet country code .ck
Cook Islands Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 3 (2000)
Cook Islands Internet users NA
Cook Islands Railways 0 km
Cook Islands Highways total: 320 km paved: 33 km unpaved: 287 km (2000)
Cook Islands Waterways none
Cook Islands Ports and harbors Avarua, Avatiu
Cook Islands Airports 7 (2002)
Cook Islands Airports - with paved runways total: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)
Cook Islands Airports - with unpaved runways total: 6 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2002)
Cook Islands Military - note defense is the responsibility of New Zealand, in consultation with the Cook Islands and at its request
Cook Islands Disputes - international none
Coral Sea Islands Background Scattered over some 1 million square kilometers of ocean, the Coral Sea Islands were declared a territory of Australia in 1969. They are uninhabited except for a small meteorological staff on the Willis Islets. Automated weather stations, beacons, and a lighthouse occupy many other islands and reefs.
Coral Sea Islands Location Oceania, islands in the Coral Sea, northeast of Australia
Coral Sea Islands Geographic coordinates 18 00 S, 152 00 E
Coral Sea Islands Map references Oceania
Coral Sea Islands Area total: less than 3 sq km note: includes numerous small islands and reefs scattered over a sea area of about 780,000 sq km, with the Willis Islets the most important water: 0 sq km land: less than 3 sq km
Coral Sea Islands Area - comparative NA
Coral Sea Islands Land boundaries 0 km
Coral Sea Islands Coastline 3,095 km
Coral Sea Islands Maritime claims exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 3 NM
Coral Sea Islands Climate tropical
Coral Sea Islands Terrain sand and coral reefs and islands (or cays)
Coral Sea Islands Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location on Cato Island 6 m
Coral Sea Islands Natural resources NEGL
Coral Sea Islands Land use arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (mostly grass or scrub cover) (1998 est.)
Coral Sea Islands Irrigated land 0 sq km (1998 est.)
Coral Sea Islands Natural hazards occasional tropical cyclones
Coral Sea Islands Environment - current issues no permanent fresh water resources
Coral Sea Islands Geography - note important nesting area for birds and turtles
Coral Sea Islands Population no indigenous inhabitants note: there is a staff of three to four at the meteorological station (July 2003 est.)
Coral Sea Islands Country name conventional long form: Coral Sea Islands Territory conventional short form: Coral Sea Islands
Coral Sea Islands Dependency status territory of Australia; administered from Canberra by the Department of the Environment, Sport, and Territories
Coral Sea Islands Legal system the laws of Australia, where applicable, apply
Coral Sea Islands Executive branch administered from Canberra by the Department of the Environment, Sport, and Territories
Coral Sea Islands Diplomatic representation in the US none (territory of Australia)
Coral Sea Islands Diplomatic representation from the US none (territory of Australia)
Coral Sea Islands Flag description the flag of Australia is used
Coral Sea Islands Economy - overview no economic activity
Coral Sea Islands Communications - note there are automatic weather stations on many of the isles and reefs relaying data to the mainland
Coral Sea Islands Waterways none
Coral Sea Islands Ports and harbors none; offshore anchorage only
Coral Sea Islands Military - note defense is the responsibility of Australia; visited regularly by the Royal Australian Navy; Australia has control over the activities of visitors
Coral Sea Islands Disputes - international none
Costa Rica Background Costa Rica is a Central American success story: since the late 19th century, only two brief periods of violence have marred its democratic development. Although still a largely agricultural country, it has expanded its economy to include strong technology and tourism sectors. The standard of living is relatively high. Land ownership is widespread.
Costa Rica Location Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Nicaragua and Panama
Costa Rica Geographic coordinates 10 00 N, 84 00 W
Costa Rica Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Costa Rica Area total: 51,100 sq km water: 440 sq km note: includes Isla del Coco land: 50,660 sq km
Costa Rica Area - comparative slightly smaller than West Virginia
Costa Rica Land boundaries total: 639 km border countries: Nicaragua 309 km, Panama 330 km
Costa Rica Coastline 1,290 km
Costa Rica Maritime claims continental shelf: 200 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
Costa Rica Climate tropical and subtropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season (May to November); cooler in highlands
Costa Rica Terrain coastal plains separated by rugged mountains including over 100 volcanic cones, of which several are major volcanoes
Costa Rica Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Cerro Chirripo 3,810 m
Costa Rica Natural resources hydropower
Costa Rica Land use arable land: 4.41% permanent crops: 5.48% other: 90.11% (1998 est.)
Costa Rica Irrigated land 1,260 sq km (1998 est.)
Costa Rica Natural hazards occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along Atlantic coast; frequent flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season and landslides; active volcanoes
Costa Rica Environment - current issues deforestation and land use change, largely a result of the clearing of land for cattle ranching and agriculture; soil erosion; coastal marine pollution; fisheries protection; solid waste management; air pollution
Costa Rica Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation
Costa Rica Geography - note four volcanoes, two of them active, rise near the capital of San Jose in the center of the country; one of the volcanoes, Irazu, erupted destructively in 1963-65
Costa Rica Population 3,896,092 (July 2003 est.)
Costa Rica Age structure 0-14 years: 30.1% (male 600,812; female 573,375) 15-64 years: 64.4% (male 1,269,667; female 1,241,097) 65 years and over: 5.4% (male 98,156; female 112,985) (2003 est.)
Costa Rica Median age total: 25.4 years male: 24.9 years female: 25.8 years (2002)
Costa Rica Population growth rate 1.56% (2003 est.)
Costa Rica Birth rate 19.4 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Costa Rica Death rate 4.31 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Costa Rica Net migration rate 0.51 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Costa Rica Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Costa Rica Infant mortality rate total: 10.56 deaths/1,000 live births female: 9.59 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 11.49 deaths/1,000 live births
Costa Rica Life expectancy at birth total population: 76.43 years male: 73.87 years female: 79.11 years (2003 est.)
Costa Rica Total fertility rate 2.38 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Costa Rica HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.6% (2001 est.)
Costa Rica HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 11,000 (2001 est.)
Costa Rica HIV/AIDS - deaths 890 (2001 est.)
Costa Rica Nationality noun: Costa Rican(s) adjective: Costa Rican
Costa Rica Ethnic groups white (including mestizo) 94%, black 3%, Amerindian 1%, Chinese 1%, other 1%
Costa Rica Religions Roman Catholic 76.3%, Evangelical 13.7%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.3%, other Protestant 0.7%, other 4.8%, none 3.2%
Costa Rica Languages Spanish (official), English
Costa Rica Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 96% male: 95.9% female: 96.1% (2003 est.)
Costa Rica Country name conventional long form: Republic of Costa Rica conventional short form: Costa Rica local short form: Costa Rica local long form: Republica de Costa Rica
Costa Rica Government type democratic republic
Costa Rica Capital San Jose
Costa Rica Administrative divisions 7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon, Puntarenas, San Jose
Costa Rica Independence 15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Costa Rica National holiday Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Costa Rica Constitution 7 November 1949
Costa Rica Legal system based on Spanish civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Costa Rica Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Costa Rica Executive branch chief of state: President Abel PACHECO (since 8 May 2002); First Vice President Lineth SABORIO (since NA May 2002); Second Vice President Luis FISHMAN (since NA May 2002); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Abel PACHECO (since 8 May 2002); First Vice President Lineth SABORIO (since NA May 2002); Second Vice President Luis FISHMAN (since NA May 2002); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president elections: president and vice presidents elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 3 February 2002; run-off election held 7 April 2002 (next to be held NA February 2006) election results: Abel PACHECO elected president; percent of vote - Abel PACHECO (PUSC) 58%; Rolando ARAYA (PLN) 42%
Costa Rica Legislative branch unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa (57 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 3 February 2002 (next to be held 3 February 2006) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PUSC 19, PLN 17, PAC 14, PML 6, PRC 1
Costa Rica Judicial branch Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (22 justices are elected for eight-year terms by the Legislative Assembly)
Costa Rica Political parties and leaders Agricultural Labor Action or PALA [Carlos Alberto SOLIS Blanco]; Citizen Action Party or PAC [Otton SOLIS]; Costa Rican Renovation Party or PRC [Justo OROZCO]; Democratic Force Party or PFD [Jose M. NUNEZ]; Libertarian Movement Party or PML [Otto GUEVARA Guth]; National Christian Alliance Party or ANC [Alejandro MADRIGAL]; National Independent Party or PNI [Jorge GONZALEZ Marten]; National Integration Party or PIN [Walter MUNOZ Cespedes]; National Liberation Party or PLN [Sonia PICADO]; Social Christian Unity Party or PUSC [Luis Manuel CHACON] note: mainly a two-party system - PUSC and PLN - until the 3 February 2002 election in which the PAC captured a significant percentage, forcing a run-off in April 2002
Costa Rica Political pressure groups and leaders Authentic Confederation of Democratic Workers or CATD (Communist Party affiliate); Chamber of Coffee Growers; Confederated Union of Workers or CUT (Communist Party affiliate); Costa Rican Confederation of Democratic Workers or CCTD (Liberation Party affiliate); Federation of Public Service Workers or FTSP; National Association for Economic Development or ANFE; National Association of Educators or ANDE; Rerum Novarum or CTRN (PLN affiliate) [Gilbert Brown]
Costa Rica International organization participation BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,