regionName id content
Afghanistan Background Afghanistan's recent history is characterized by war and civil unrest. The Soviet Union invaded in 1979, but was forced to withdraw 10 years later by anti-Communist mujahidin forces supplied and trained by the US, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and others. Fighting subsequently continued among the various mujahidin factions, giving rise to a state of warlordism that eventually spawned the Taliban. Backed by foreign sponsors, the Taliban developed as a political force and eventually seized power. The Taliban were able to capture most of the country, aside from Northern Alliance strongholds primarily in the northeast, until US and allied military action in support of the opposition following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks forced the group's downfall. In late 2001, major leaders from the Afghan opposition groups and diaspora met in Bonn, Germany, and agreed on a plan for the formulation of a new government structure that resulted in the inauguration of Hamid KARZAI as Chairman of the Afghan Interim Authority (AIA) on 22 December 2001. The AIA held a nationwide Loya Jirga (Grand Assembly) in June 2002, and KARZAI was elected President by secret ballot of the Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan (TISA). The Transitional Authority has an 18-month mandate to hold a nationwide Loya Jirga to adopt a constitution and a 24-month mandate to hold nationwide elections. In December 2002, the TISA marked the one-year anniversary of the fall of the Taliban. In addition to occasionally violent political jockeying and ongoing military action to root out remaining terrorists and Taliban elements, the country suffers from enormous poverty, a crumbling infrastructure, and widespread land mines.
Afghanistan Location Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran
Afghanistan Geographic coordinates 33 00 N, 65 00 E
Afghanistan Map references Asia
Afghanistan Area total: 647,500 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 647,500 sq km
Afghanistan Area - comparative slightly smaller than Texas
Afghanistan Land boundaries total: 5,529 km border countries: China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km, Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km
Afghanistan Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Afghanistan Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Afghanistan Climate arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers
Afghanistan Terrain mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest
Afghanistan Elevation extremes lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m highest point: Nowshak 7,485 m
Afghanistan Natural resources natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, chromite, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones
Afghanistan Land use arable land: 12.13% permanent crops: 0.22% other: 87.65% (1998 est.)
Afghanistan Irrigated land 23,860 sq km (1998 est.)
Afghanistan Natural hazards damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; flooding; droughts
Afghanistan Environment - current issues limited natural fresh water resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building materials); desertification; air and water pollution
Afghanistan Environment - international agreements party to: Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation
Afghanistan Geography - note landlocked; the Hindu Kush mountains that run northeast to southwest divide the northern provinces from the rest of the country; the highest peaks are in the northern Vakhan (Wakhan Corridor)
Afghanistan Population 28,717,213 (July 2003 est.)
Afghanistan Age structure 0-14 years: 41.8% (male 6,123,971; female 5,868,013) 15-64 years: 55.4% (male 8,240,743; female 7,671,242) 65 years and over: 2.8% (male 427,710; female 385,534) (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Median age total: 18.9 years male: 19.1 years female: 18.7 years (2002)
Afghanistan Population growth rate 3.38% note: this rate does not take into consideration the recent war and its continuing impact (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Birth rate 40.63 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Death rate 17.15 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Net migration rate 10.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.11 male(s)/female total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Infant mortality rate total: 142.48 deaths/1,000 live births female: 138.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 145.99 deaths/1,000 live births
Afghanistan Life expectancy at birth total population: 46.97 years male: 47.67 years female: 46.23 years (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Total fertility rate 5.64 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Afghanistan HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.01% (2001 est.)
Afghanistan HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
Afghanistan HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Afghanistan Nationality noun: Afghan(s) adjective: Afghan
Afghanistan Ethnic groups Pashtun 44%, Tajik 25%, Hazara 10%, minor ethnic groups (Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others) 13%, Uzbek 8%
Afghanistan Religions Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1%
Afghanistan Languages Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism
Afghanistan Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write female: 21% (1999 est.) total population: 36% male: 51%
Afghanistan People - note large numbers of Afghan refugees create burdens on neighboring states
Afghanistan Country name conventional long form: Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan conventional short form: Afghanistan local short form: Afghanestan former: Republic of Afghanistan local long form: Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan
Afghanistan Government type transitional
Afghanistan Capital Kabul
Afghanistan Administrative divisions 32 provinces (velayat, singular - velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Khowst, Konar, Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Nurestan, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, and Zabol
Afghanistan Independence 19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs)
Afghanistan National holiday Independence Day, 19 August (1919)
Afghanistan Constitution the Bonn Agreement called for a Loya Jirga (Grand Council) to be convened within 18 months of the establishment of the Transitional Authority to draft a new constitution for the country; the basis for the next constitution is the 1964 Constitution, according to the Bonn Agreement
Afghanistan Legal system the Bonn Agreement calls for a judicial commission to rebuild the justice system in accordance with Islamic principles, international standards, the rule of law, and Afghan legal traditions
Afghanistan Suffrage NA; previously males 15-50 years of age
Afghanistan Executive branch note: following the Taliban's refusal to hand over Usama bin LADIN to the US for his suspected involvement in the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in the US, a US-led international coalition was formed; after several weeks of aerial bombardment by coalition forces and military action on the ground, including Afghan opposition forces, the Taliban was ousted from power on 17 November 2001; in December 2001, a number of prominent Afghans met under UN auspices in Bonn, Germany, to decide on a plan for governing the country; as a result, the Afghan Interim Authority (AIA) - made up of 30 members, headed by a chairman - was inaugurated on 22 December 2001 with a six-month mandate to be followed by a two-year Transitional Authority (TA), after which elections are to be held; the structure of the follow-on TA was announced on 10 June 2002, when the Loya Jirga (Grand Assembly) convened establishing the Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan (TISA), which has 18 months to hold a Loya Jirga to adopt a constitution and 24 months to hold nationwide elections chief of state: President of the TISA, Hamid KARZAI (since 10 June 2002); note - presently the president and head of government head of government: President of the TISA, Hamid KARZAI (since 10 June 2002); note - presently the president and head of government cabinet: the 30-member TISA elections: nationwide elections are to be held by June 2004, according to the Bonn Agreement
Afghanistan Legislative branch nonfunctioning as of June 1993
Afghanistan Judicial branch the Bonn Agreement called for the establishment of a Supreme Court; there is also a Minister of Justice
Afghanistan Political parties and leaders NA; note - political parties in Afghanistan are in flux and many prominent players have plans to create new parties; the Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan (TISA) is headed by President Hamid KARZAI; the TISA is a coalition government formed of leaders from across the Afghan political spectrum; there are also several political factions not holding positions in the Transitional government that are forming new groups and parties in the hopes of participating in 2004 elections
Afghanistan Political pressure groups and leaders NA; note - ministries formed under the Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan (TISA) include former influential Afghans, diaspora members, and former political leaders
Afghanistan International organization participation AsDB, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GUUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO
Afghanistan Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: ambassador Seyyed Tayeb JAWAD chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 FAX: 202-483-6487 consulate(s) general: New York telephone: 202-483-6410
Afghanistan Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Robert Patrick John FINN; note - embassy in Kabul reopened 16 December 2001, following closure in January 1989 embassy: Great Masood Road, Kabul mailing address: 6180 Kabul Place, Dulles, VA 20189-6180 telephone: [93] (2) 290002, 290005, 290154 FAX: 00932290153
Afghanistan Flag description three equal vertical bands of black (hoist), red, and green, with a gold emblem centered on the red band; the emblem features a temple-like structure encircled by a wreath on the left and right and by a bold Islamic inscription above
Afghanistan Economy - overview Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked country, highly dependent on foreign aid, farming and livestock raising (sheep and goats), and trade with neighboring countries. Economic considerations have played second fiddle to political and military upheavals during more than two decades of war, including the nearly 10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended 15 February 1989). During that conflict, one-third of the population fled the country, with Pakistan and Iran sheltering a combined peak of 4 to 6 million refugees. Gross domestic product has fallen substantially over the past 20 years because of the loss of labor and capital and the disruption of trade and transport; severe drought added to the nation's difficulties in 1998-2002. The majority of the population continues to suffer from insufficient food, clothing, housing, and medical care, and a dearth of jobs, problems exacerbated by political uncertainties and the general level of lawlessness. International efforts to rebuild Afghanistan were addressed at the Tokyo Donors Conference for Afghan Reconstruction in January 2002, when $4.5 billion was pledged, $1.7 billion for 2002. Of that approximately $900 million was directed to humanitarian aid - food, clothing, and shelter - and another $90 million for the Afghan Transitional Authority. Further World Bank and other aid came in 2003. Priority areas for reconstruction include upgrading education, health, and sanitation facilities; providing income generating opportunities; enhancing administrative and security arrangements, especially in regional areas; developing the agricultural sector; rebuilding transportation, energy, and telecommunication infrastructure; and reabsorbing 2 million returning refugees. The replacement of the opium trade - which may account for one-third of GDP - and the search for oil and gas resources in the northern region are two major long-term issues.
Afghanistan GDP purchasing power parity - $19 billion (2002 est.)
Afghanistan GDP - real growth rate NA%
Afghanistan GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $700 (2002 est.)
Afghanistan GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 60% industry: 20% services: 20% (1990 est.)
Afghanistan Population below poverty line NA%
Afghanistan Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Afghanistan Inflation rate (consumer prices) NA%
Afghanistan Labor force 10 million (2000 est.)
Afghanistan Labor force - by occupation agriculture 80%, industry 10%, services 10% (1990 est.)
Afghanistan Unemployment rate NA%
Afghanistan Budget revenues: $200 million expenditures: $550 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2003 plan est.)
Afghanistan Industries small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, coal, copper
Afghanistan Industrial production growth rate NA%
Afghanistan Electricity - production 334.8 million kWh (2001)
Afghanistan Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 36.3% hydro: 63.7% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Afghanistan Electricity - consumption 511.4 million kWh (2001)
Afghanistan Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Afghanistan Electricity - imports 200 million kWh (2001)
Afghanistan Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Afghanistan Oil - consumption 3,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Afghanistan Oil - exports NA (2001)
Afghanistan Oil - imports NA (2001)
Afghanistan Oil - proved reserves 0 bbl (37257)
Afghanistan Natural gas - production 220 million cu m (2001 est.)
Afghanistan Natural gas - consumption 220 million cu m (2001 est.)
Afghanistan Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Afghanistan Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Afghanistan Natural gas - proved reserves 49.98 billion cu m (37257)
Afghanistan Agriculture - products opium, wheat, fruits, nuts, wool, mutton, sheepskins, lambskins
Afghanistan Exports $1.2 billion (not including illicit exports) (2001 est.)
Afghanistan Exports - commodities opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems
Afghanistan Exports - partners Pakistan 26.8%, India 26.5%, Finland 5.8%, Germany 5.1%, UAE 4.4%, Belgium 4.3%, Russia 4.2%, US 4.2% (2002)
Afghanistan Imports $1.3 billion (2001 est.)
Afghanistan Imports - commodities capital goods, food, textiles, petroleum products
Afghanistan Imports - partners Pakistan 25.1%, South Korea 14.4%, Japan 9.4%, US 9%, Kenya 5.8%, Germany 5.4% (2002)
Afghanistan Debt - external NA (1996 est.)
Afghanistan Economic aid - recipient international pledges made by more than 60 countries and international financial institutions at the Tokyo Donors Conference for Afghan reconstruction in January 2002 reached $4.5 billion through 2006, with $1.8 billion allocated for 2002; another $1.7 billion was pledged for 2003.
Afghanistan Currency afghani (AFA)
Afghanistan Currency code AFA
Afghanistan Exchange rates afghanis per US dollar - 3,000 (October-December 2002), 3,000 (2001), 3,000 (2000), 3,000 (1999), 3,000 (1998), note: before 2002 the market rate varied widely from the official rate; in 2002 the afghani was revalued and the currency stabilized
Afghanistan Fiscal year 21 March - 20 March
Afghanistan Telephones - main lines in use 29,000 (1998)
Afghanistan Telephones - mobile cellular NA
Afghanistan Telephone system general assessment: very limited telephone and telegraph service domestic: in 1997, telecommunications links were established between Mazar-e Sharif, Herat, Kandahar, Jalalabad, and Kabul through satellite and microwave systems international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) linked only to Iran and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); commercial satellite telephone center in Ghazni
Afghanistan Radio broadcast stations AM 7 (6 are inactive; the active station is in Kabul), FM 1, shortwave 1 (broadcasts in Pashtu, Afghan Persian (Dari), Urdu, and English) (1999)
Afghanistan Television broadcast stations at least 10 (one government-run central television station in Kabul and regional stations in nine of the 32 provinces; the regional stations operate on a reduced schedule; also, in 1997, there was a station in Mazar-e Sharif reaching four northern Afghanistan provinces) (1998)
Afghanistan Internet country code .af
Afghanistan Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Afghanistan Internet users NA
Afghanistan Railways total: 24.6 km broad gauge: 9.6 km 1.524-m gauge from Gushgy (Turkmenistan) to Towraghondi; 15 km 1.524-m gauge from Termiz (Uzbekistan) to Kheyrabad transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya (2001)
Afghanistan Highways total: 21,000 km paved: 2,793 km unpaved: 18,207 km (1999 est.)
Afghanistan Waterways 1,200 km note: chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to 500 DWT (2001)
Afghanistan Pipelines gas 651 km (2003)
Afghanistan Ports and harbors Kheyrabad, Shir Khan
Afghanistan Airports 47 (2002)
Afghanistan Airports - with paved runways total: 10 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 under 914 m: 1 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
Afghanistan Airports - with unpaved runways total: 37 under 914 m: 11 (2002) 914 to 1,523 m: 4 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
Afghanistan Heliports 5 (2002)
Afghanistan Military branches NA; note - the December 2001 Bonn Agreement called for all militia forces to come under the authority of the central government, but regional leaders have continued to retain their militias and the formation of a nation army will be a gradual process; Afghanistan's forces continue to be factionalized, largely along ethnic lines
Afghanistan Military manpower - military age 22 years of age (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 7,160,603 (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 3,837,646 (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 275,223 (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Military expenditures - dollar figure $525.2 million (FY02)
Afghanistan Military expenditures - percent of GDP 7.7% (FY02)
Afghanistan Disputes - international thousands of Afghan refugees still reside in Iran and Pakistan; isolating terrain and close ties among Pashtuns in Pakistan make cross-border activities difficult to control; prolonged regional drought strains water-sharing arrangements for Amu Darya and Helmand River states
Afghanistan Illicit drugs world's largest producer of opium; cultivation of opium poppy - used to make heroin - expanded to 30,750 hectares in 2002, despite eradication; potential opium production of 1,278 metric tons; source of hashish; many narcotics-processing labs throughout the country; drug trade source of instability and some government groups profit from the trade; 80-90% of the heroin consumed in Europe comes from Afghan opium; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through the hawala system
Afghanistan Background Afghanistan's recent history is characterized by war and civil unrest. The Soviet Union invaded in 1979, but was forced to withdraw 10 years later by anti-Communist mujahidin forces supplied and trained by the US, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and others. Fighting subsequently continued among the various mujahidin factions, giving rise to a state of warlordism that eventually spawned the Taliban. Backed by foreign sponsors, the Taliban developed as a political force and eventually seized power. The Taliban were able to capture most of the country, aside from Northern Alliance strongholds primarily in the northeast, until US and allied military action in support of the opposition following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks forced the group's downfall. In late 2001, major leaders from the Afghan opposition groups and diaspora met in Bonn, Germany, and agreed on a plan for the formulation of a new government structure that resulted in the inauguration of Hamid KARZAI as Chairman of the Afghan Interim Authority (AIA) on 22 December 2001. The AIA held a nationwide Loya Jirga (Grand Assembly) in June 2002, and KARZAI was elected President by secret ballot of the Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan (TISA). The Transitional Authority has an 18-month mandate to hold a nationwide Loya Jirga to adopt a constitution and a 24-month mandate to hold nationwide elections. In December 2002, the TISA marked the one-year anniversary of the fall of the Taliban. In addition to occasionally violent political jockeying and ongoing military action to root out remaining terrorists and Taliban elements, the country suffers from enormous poverty, a crumbling infrastructure, and widespread land mines.
Afghanistan Location Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran
Afghanistan Geographic coordinates 33 00 N, 65 00 E
Afghanistan Map references Asia
Afghanistan Area total: 647,500 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 647,500 sq km
Afghanistan Area - comparative slightly smaller than Texas
Afghanistan Land boundaries total: 5,529 km border countries: China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km, Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km
Afghanistan Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Afghanistan Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Afghanistan Climate arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers
Afghanistan Terrain mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest
Afghanistan Elevation extremes lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m highest point: Nowshak 7,485 m
Afghanistan Natural resources natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, chromite, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones
Afghanistan Land use arable land: 12.13% permanent crops: 0.22% other: 87.65% (1998 est.)
Afghanistan Irrigated land 23,860 sq km (1998 est.)
Afghanistan Natural hazards damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; flooding; droughts
Afghanistan Environment - current issues limited natural fresh water resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building materials); desertification; air and water pollution
Afghanistan Environment - international agreements party to: Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation
Afghanistan Geography - note landlocked; the Hindu Kush mountains that run northeast to southwest divide the northern provinces from the rest of the country; the highest peaks are in the northern Vakhan (Wakhan Corridor)
Afghanistan Population 28,717,213 (July 2003 est.)
Afghanistan Age structure 0-14 years: 41.8% (male 6,123,971; female 5,868,013) 15-64 years: 55.4% (male 8,240,743; female 7,671,242) 65 years and over: 2.8% (male 427,710; female 385,534) (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Median age total: 18.9 years male: 19.1 years female: 18.7 years (2002)
Afghanistan Population growth rate 3.38% note: this rate does not take into consideration the recent war and its continuing impact (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Birth rate 40.63 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Death rate 17.15 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Net migration rate 10.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.11 male(s)/female total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Infant mortality rate total: 142.48 deaths/1,000 live births female: 138.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 145.99 deaths/1,000 live births
Afghanistan Life expectancy at birth total population: 46.97 years male: 47.67 years female: 46.23 years (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Total fertility rate 5.64 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Afghanistan HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.01% (2001 est.)
Afghanistan HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
Afghanistan HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Afghanistan Nationality noun: Afghan(s) adjective: Afghan
Afghanistan Ethnic groups Pashtun 44%, Tajik 25%, Hazara 10%, minor ethnic groups (Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others) 13%, Uzbek 8%
Afghanistan Religions Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1%
Afghanistan Languages Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism
Afghanistan Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write female: 21% (1999 est.) total population: 36% male: 51%
Afghanistan People - note large numbers of Afghan refugees create burdens on neighboring states
Afghanistan Country name conventional long form: Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan conventional short form: Afghanistan local short form: Afghanestan former: Republic of Afghanistan local long form: Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan
Afghanistan Government type transitional
Afghanistan Capital Kabul
Afghanistan Administrative divisions 32 provinces (velayat, singular - velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Khowst, Konar, Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Nurestan, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, and Zabol
Afghanistan Independence 19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs)
Afghanistan National holiday Independence Day, 19 August (1919)
Afghanistan Constitution the Bonn Agreement called for a Loya Jirga (Grand Council) to be convened within 18 months of the establishment of the Transitional Authority to draft a new constitution for the country; the basis for the next constitution is the 1964 Constitution, according to the Bonn Agreement
Afghanistan Legal system the Bonn Agreement calls for a judicial commission to rebuild the justice system in accordance with Islamic principles, international standards, the rule of law, and Afghan legal traditions
Afghanistan Suffrage NA; previously males 15-50 years of age
Afghanistan Executive branch note: following the Taliban's refusal to hand over Usama bin LADIN to the US for his suspected involvement in the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in the US, a US-led international coalition was formed; after several weeks of aerial bombardment by coalition forces and military action on the ground, including Afghan opposition forces, the Taliban was ousted from power on 17 November 2001; in December 2001, a number of prominent Afghans met under UN auspices in Bonn, Germany, to decide on a plan for governing the country; as a result, the Afghan Interim Authority (AIA) - made up of 30 members, headed by a chairman - was inaugurated on 22 December 2001 with a six-month mandate to be followed by a two-year Transitional Authority (TA), after which elections are to be held; the structure of the follow-on TA was announced on 10 June 2002, when the Loya Jirga (Grand Assembly) convened establishing the Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan (TISA), which has 18 months to hold a Loya Jirga to adopt a constitution and 24 months to hold nationwide elections chief of state: President of the TISA, Hamid KARZAI (since 10 June 2002); note - presently the president and head of government head of government: President of the TISA, Hamid KARZAI (since 10 June 2002); note - presently the president and head of government cabinet: the 30-member TISA elections: nationwide elections are to be held by June 2004, according to the Bonn Agreement
Afghanistan Legislative branch nonfunctioning as of June 1993
Afghanistan Judicial branch the Bonn Agreement called for the establishment of a Supreme Court; there is also a Minister of Justice
Afghanistan Political parties and leaders NA; note - political parties in Afghanistan are in flux and many prominent players have plans to create new parties; the Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan (TISA) is headed by President Hamid KARZAI; the TISA is a coalition government formed of leaders from across the Afghan political spectrum; there are also several political factions not holding positions in the Transitional government that are forming new groups and parties in the hopes of participating in 2004 elections
Afghanistan Political pressure groups and leaders NA; note - ministries formed under the Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan (TISA) include former influential Afghans, diaspora members, and former political leaders
Afghanistan International organization participation AsDB, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GUUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO
Afghanistan Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: ambassador Seyyed Tayeb JAWAD chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 FAX: 202-483-6487 consulate(s) general: New York telephone: 202-483-6410
Afghanistan Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Robert Patrick John FINN; note - embassy in Kabul reopened 16 December 2001, following closure in January 1989 embassy: Great Masood Road, Kabul mailing address: 6180 Kabul Place, Dulles, VA 20189-6180 telephone: [93] (2) 290002, 290005, 290154 FAX: 00932290153
Afghanistan Flag description three equal vertical bands of black (hoist), red, and green, with a gold emblem centered on the red band; the emblem features a temple-like structure encircled by a wreath on the left and right and by a bold Islamic inscription above
Afghanistan Economy - overview Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked country, highly dependent on foreign aid, farming and livestock raising (sheep and goats), and trade with neighboring countries. Economic considerations have played second fiddle to political and military upheavals during more than two decades of war, including the nearly 10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended 15 February 1989). During that conflict, one-third of the population fled the country, with Pakistan and Iran sheltering a combined peak of 4 to 6 million refugees. Gross domestic product has fallen substantially over the past 20 years because of the loss of labor and capital and the disruption of trade and transport; severe drought added to the nation's difficulties in 1998-2002. The majority of the population continues to suffer from insufficient food, clothing, housing, and medical care, and a dearth of jobs, problems exacerbated by political uncertainties and the general level of lawlessness. International efforts to rebuild Afghanistan were addressed at the Tokyo Donors Conference for Afghan Reconstruction in January 2002, when $4.5 billion was pledged, $1.7 billion for 2002. Of that approximately $900 million was directed to humanitarian aid - food, clothing, and shelter - and another $90 million for the Afghan Transitional Authority. Further World Bank and other aid came in 2003. Priority areas for reconstruction include upgrading education, health, and sanitation facilities; providing income generating opportunities; enhancing administrative and security arrangements, especially in regional areas; developing the agricultural sector; rebuilding transportation, energy, and telecommunication infrastructure; and reabsorbing 2 million returning refugees. The replacement of the opium trade - which may account for one-third of GDP - and the search for oil and gas resources in the northern region are two major long-term issues.
Afghanistan GDP purchasing power parity - $19 billion (2002 est.)
Afghanistan GDP - real growth rate NA%
Afghanistan GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $700 (2002 est.)
Afghanistan GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 60% industry: 20% services: 20% (1990 est.)
Afghanistan Population below poverty line NA%
Afghanistan Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Afghanistan Inflation rate (consumer prices) NA%
Afghanistan Labor force 10 million (2000 est.)
Afghanistan Labor force - by occupation agriculture 80%, industry 10%, services 10% (1990 est.)
Afghanistan Unemployment rate NA%
Afghanistan Budget revenues: $200 million expenditures: $550 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2003 plan est.)
Afghanistan Industries small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, coal, copper
Afghanistan Industrial production growth rate NA%
Afghanistan Electricity - production 334.8 million kWh (2001)
Afghanistan Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 36.3% hydro: 63.7% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Afghanistan Electricity - consumption 511.4 million kWh (2001)
Afghanistan Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Afghanistan Electricity - imports 200 million kWh (2001)
Afghanistan Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Afghanistan Oil - consumption 3,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Afghanistan Oil - exports NA (2001)
Afghanistan Oil - imports NA (2001)
Afghanistan Oil - proved reserves 0 bbl (37257)
Afghanistan Natural gas - production 220 million cu m (2001 est.)
Afghanistan Natural gas - consumption 220 million cu m (2001 est.)
Afghanistan Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Afghanistan Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Afghanistan Natural gas - proved reserves 49.98 billion cu m (37257)
Afghanistan Agriculture - products opium, wheat, fruits, nuts, wool, mutton, sheepskins, lambskins
Afghanistan Exports $1.2 billion (not including illicit exports) (2001 est.)
Afghanistan Exports - commodities opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems
Afghanistan Exports - partners Pakistan 26.8%, India 26.5%, Finland 5.8%, Germany 5.1%, UAE 4.4%, Belgium 4.3%, Russia 4.2%, US 4.2% (2002)
Afghanistan Imports $1.3 billion (2001 est.)
Afghanistan Imports - commodities capital goods, food, textiles, petroleum products
Afghanistan Imports - partners Pakistan 25.1%, South Korea 14.4%, Japan 9.4%, US 9%, Kenya 5.8%, Germany 5.4% (2002)
Afghanistan Debt - external NA (1996 est.)
Afghanistan Economic aid - recipient international pledges made by more than 60 countries and international financial institutions at the Tokyo Donors Conference for Afghan reconstruction in January 2002 reached $4.5 billion through 2006, with $1.8 billion allocated for 2002; another $1.7 billion was pledged for 2003.
Afghanistan Currency afghani (AFA)
Afghanistan Currency code AFA
Afghanistan Exchange rates afghanis per US dollar - 3,000 (October-December 2002), 3,000 (2001), 3,000 (2000), 3,000 (1999), 3,000 (1998), note: before 2002 the market rate varied widely from the official rate; in 2002 the afghani was revalued and the currency stabilized
Afghanistan Fiscal year 21 March - 20 March
Afghanistan Telephones - main lines in use 29,000 (1998)
Afghanistan Telephones - mobile cellular NA
Afghanistan Telephone system general assessment: very limited telephone and telegraph service domestic: in 1997, telecommunications links were established between Mazar-e Sharif, Herat, Kandahar, Jalalabad, and Kabul through satellite and microwave systems international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) linked only to Iran and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); commercial satellite telephone center in Ghazni
Afghanistan Radio broadcast stations AM 7 (6 are inactive; the active station is in Kabul), FM 1, shortwave 1 (broadcasts in Pashtu, Afghan Persian (Dari), Urdu, and English) (1999)
Afghanistan Television broadcast stations at least 10 (one government-run central television station in Kabul and regional stations in nine of the 32 provinces; the regional stations operate on a reduced schedule; also, in 1997, there was a station in Mazar-e Sharif reaching four northern Afghanistan provinces) (1998)
Afghanistan Internet country code .af
Afghanistan Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Afghanistan Internet users NA
Afghanistan Railways total: 24.6 km broad gauge: 9.6 km 1.524-m gauge from Gushgy (Turkmenistan) to Towraghondi; 15 km 1.524-m gauge from Termiz (Uzbekistan) to Kheyrabad transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya (2001)
Afghanistan Highways total: 21,000 km paved: 2,793 km unpaved: 18,207 km (1999 est.)
Afghanistan Waterways 1,200 km note: chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to 500 DWT (2001)
Afghanistan Pipelines gas 651 km (2003)
Afghanistan Ports and harbors Kheyrabad, Shir Khan
Afghanistan Airports 47 (2002)
Afghanistan Airports - with paved runways total: 10 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 under 914 m: 1 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
Afghanistan Airports - with unpaved runways total: 37 under 914 m: 11 (2002) 914 to 1,523 m: 4 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
Afghanistan Heliports 5 (2002)
Afghanistan Military branches NA; note - the December 2001 Bonn Agreement called for all militia forces to come under the authority of the central government, but regional leaders have continued to retain their militias and the formation of a nation army will be a gradual process; Afghanistan's forces continue to be factionalized, largely along ethnic lines
Afghanistan Military manpower - military age 22 years of age (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 7,160,603 (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 3,837,646 (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 275,223 (2003 est.)
Afghanistan Military expenditures - dollar figure $525.2 million (FY02)
Afghanistan Military expenditures - percent of GDP 7.7% (FY02)
Afghanistan Disputes - international thousands of Afghan refugees still reside in Iran and Pakistan; isolating terrain and close ties among Pashtuns in Pakistan make cross-border activities difficult to control; prolonged regional drought strains water-sharing arrangements for Amu Darya and Helmand River states
Afghanistan Illicit drugs world's largest producer of opium; cultivation of opium poppy - used to make heroin - expanded to 30,750 hectares in 2002, despite eradication; potential opium production of 1,278 metric tons; source of hashish; many narcotics-processing labs throughout the country; drug trade source of instability and some government groups profit from the trade; 80-90% of the heroin consumed in Europe comes from Afghan opium; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through the hawala system
Albania Background Between 1990 and 1992 Albania ended 46 years of xenophobic Communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The transition has proven difficult as corrupt governments have tried to deal with high unemployment, a dilapidated infrastructure, widespread gangsterism, and disruptive political opponents. International observers judged legislative elections in 2001 to be acceptable and a step toward democratic development, but identified serious deficiencies that should be addressed through reforms in the Albanian electoral code.
Albania Location Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea, between Greece and Serbia and Montenegro
Albania Geographic coordinates 41 00 N, 20 00 E
Albania Map references Europe
Albania Area total: 28,748 sq km water: 1,350 sq km land: 27,398 sq km
Albania Area - comparative slightly smaller than Maryland
Albania Land boundaries total: 720 km border countries: Greece 282 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km
Albania Coastline 362 km
Albania Maritime claims continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation territorial sea: 12 NM
Albania Climate mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter
Albania Terrain mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast
Albania Elevation extremes lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m highest point: Maja e Korabit (Golem Korab) 2,753 m
Albania Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, timber, nickel, hydropower
Albania Land use arable land: 21.09% permanent crops: 4.45% other: 74.46% (1998 est.)
Albania Irrigated land 3,400 sq km (1998 est.)
Albania Natural hazards destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along southwestern coast; floods; drought
Albania Environment - current issues deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and domestic effluents
Albania Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Albania Geography - note strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)
Albania Population 3,582,205 (July 2003 est.)
Albania Age structure 0-14 years: 28.1% (male 520,714; female 486,911) 15-64 years: 64.6% (male 1,115,887; female 1,196,477) 65 years and over: 7.3% (male 115,754; female 146,462) (2003 est.)
Albania Median age total: 26.5 years male: 24.8 years female: 28.1 years (2002)
Albania Population growth rate 1.03% (2003 est.)
Albania Birth rate 18.2 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Albania Death rate 6.48 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Albania Net migration rate -1.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Albania Sex ratio at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Albania Infant mortality rate total: 37.28 deaths/1,000 live births female: 34.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 39.68 deaths/1,000 live births
Albania Life expectancy at birth total population: 72.37 years male: 69.53 years female: 75.42 years (2003 est.)
Albania Total fertility rate 2.22 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Albania HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate NA
Albania HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
Albania HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Albania Nationality noun: Albanian(s) adjective: Albanian
Albania Ethnic groups Albanian 95%, Greek 3%, other 2% (Vlach, Gypsy, Serb, and Bulgarian) (1989 est.) note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from 1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)
Albania Religions Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10% note: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice
Albania Languages Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek
Albania Literacy definition: age 9 and over can read and write total population: 86.5% male: 93.3% female: 79.5% (2003 est.)
Albania Country name conventional long form: Republic of Albania conventional short form: Albania local short form: Shqiperia former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania local long form: Republika e Shqiperise
Albania Government type emerging democracy
Albania Capital Tirana
Albania Administrative divisions 12 counties (qarqe, singular - qark); Qarku i Beratit, Qarku i Dibres, Qarku i Durresit, Qarku i Elbasanit, Qarku i Fierit, Qarku i Gjirokastres, Qarku i Korces, Qarku i Kukesit, Qarku i Lezhes, Qarku i Shkodres, Qarku i Tiranes, Qarku i Vlores
Albania Independence 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)
Albania National holiday Independence Day, 28 November (1912)
Albania Constitution a constitution was adopted by popular referendum on 28 November 1998; note - the opposition Democratic Party boycotted the vote
Albania Legal system has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Albania Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Albania Executive branch chief of state: President of the Republic Alfred MOISIU (since 24 July 2002) head of government: Prime Minister Fatos NANO (since 31 July 2002) cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and approved by the president elections: president elected by the People's Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 24 June 2002 (next to be held NA June 2007); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Alfred MOISIU elected president; People's Assembly vote by number - total votes 116, for 97, against 19
Albania Legislative branch unicameral People's Assembly or Kuvendi Popullor (140 seats; 100 are elected by direct popular vote and 40 by proportional vote for four-year terms) elections: last held 24 June 2001 with subsequent rounds on 8 July, 22 July, 29 July, 19 August 2001 (next to be held NA June 2005) election results: percent of vote by party - PS 41.5%, PD and coalition allies 36.8%, NDP 5.2%, PSD 3.6%, PBDNJ 2.6%, PASH 2.6%, PAD 2.5%; seats by party - PS 73, PD and coalition allies 46, NDP 6, PSD 4, PBDNJ 3, PASH 3, PAD 3, independents 2
Albania Judicial branch Supreme Court (chairman is elected by the People's Assembly for a four-year term)
Albania Political parties and leaders Agrarian Party of Albania or PASH [Lufter XHUVELI]; Christian Democratic Party or PDK [Zef BUSHATI]; Communist Party of Albania or PKSH [Hysni MILLOSHI]; Democratic Alliance or PAD [Nerltan CEKA]; Democratic Party or PD [Sali BERISHA]; Legality Movement Party or PLL [Guri DUROLLARI]; National Front Party (Balli Kombetar) or PBK [Abaz ERMENJI]; Party of National Unity or PUK [Idajet BEQUIRI]; Republican Party or PR [Fatmir MEDIU]; Social Democracy or DS [Paskal MILO]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Skender GJINUSHI]; Socialist Party or PS (formerly the Albanian Party of Labor) [Fatos NANO]; Union for Human Rights Party or PBDNJ [Vasil MELO]
Albania Political pressure groups and leaders Omonia [Vangjel DULES]
Albania International organization participation ACCT, BSEC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Albania Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Fatos TARIFA FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342 telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942 chancery: 2100 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Albania Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador James F. JEFFREY embassy: Rruga Elbasanit, Labinoti #103, Tirana mailing address: U. S. Department of State, 9510 Tirana Place, Washington, DC 20521-9510 telephone: [355] (4) 247285 FAX: [355] (4) 232222
Albania Flag description red with a black two-headed eagle in the center
Albania Economy - overview Poor and backward by European standards, Albania is making the difficult transition to a more modern open-market economy. The government has taken measures to curb violent crime and to spur economic activity and trade. The economy is bolstered by remittances from abroad of $400-$600 million annually, mostly from Greece and Italy; this helps offset the sizable trade deficit. Agriculture, which accounts for half of GDP, is held back because of frequent drought and the need to modernize equipment and consolidate small plots of land. Severe energy shortages are forcing small firms out of business, increasing unemployment, scaring off foreign investors, and spurring inflation. The government plans to boost energy imports to relieve the shortages. In addition, the government is moving to improve the poor national road network, a long-standing barrier to sustained economic growth.
Albania GDP purchasing power parity - $15.69 billion (2002 est.)
Albania GDP - real growth rate 7.3% (2002 est.)
Albania GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $4,400 (2002 est.)
Albania GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 49% industry: 27% services: 24% (2002 est.)
Albania Population below poverty line 30% (2001 est.)
Albania Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Albania Inflation rate (consumer prices) 6% (2002 est.)
Albania Labor force 1.283 million (not including 352,000 emigrant workers and 261,000 domestically unemployed) (2000 est.)
Albania Labor force - by occupation agriculture 50%, industry and services 50%
Albania Unemployment rate 17% officially; may be as high as 30% (2001 est.)
Albania Budget revenues: $697 million expenditures: $1.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $368 million (2002 est.)
Albania Industries food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower
Albania Industrial production growth rate 9% (2000 est.)
Albania Electricity - production 5.289 billion kWh (2001)
Albania Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 2.9% hydro: 97.1% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Albania Electricity - consumption 5.898 billion kWh (2001)
Albania Electricity - exports 221 million kWh (2001)
Albania Electricity - imports 1.2 billion kWh (2001)
Albania Oil - production 5,952 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Albania Oil - consumption 22,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Albania Oil - exports NA (2001)
Albania Oil - imports NA (2001)
Albania Oil - proved reserves 185.5 million bbl (37257)
Albania Natural gas - production 30 million cu m (2001 est.)
Albania Natural gas - consumption 30 million cu m (2001 est.)
Albania Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Albania Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Albania Natural gas - proved reserves 3.316 billion cu m (37257)
Albania Agriculture - products wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beets, grapes; meat, dairy products
Albania Exports $340 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Albania Exports - commodities textiles and footwear; asphalt, metals and metallic ores, crude oil; vegetables, fruits, tobacco
Albania Exports - partners Italy 76.6%, Germany 5.6%, Greece 2.7% (2002)
Albania Imports $1.5 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Albania Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, chemicals
Albania Imports - partners Italy 39.4%, Greece 24.5%, Turkey 6%, Germany 5% (2002)
Albania Debt - external $784 million (2000)
Albania Economic aid - recipient ODA: $315 million (top donors were Italy, EU, Germany) (2000 est.)
Albania Currency lek (ALL)
Albania Currency code ALL
Albania Exchange rates leke per US dollar - NA (2002), 143.49 (2001), 143.71 (2000), 137.69 (1999), 150.63 (1998)
Albania Fiscal year calendar year
Albania Telephones - main lines in use 120,000 (2001)
Albania Telephones - mobile cellular 250,000 (2001)
Albania Telephone system general assessment: Albania has the poorest telephone service in Europe with fewer than two telephones per 100 inhabitants; it is doubtful that every village has telephone service domestic: obsolete wire system; no longer provides a telephone for every village; in 1992, following the fall of the Communist government, peasants cut the wire to about 1,000 villages and used it to build fences international: inadequate; international traffic carried by microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece
Albania Radio broadcast stations AM 13, FM 4, shortwave 2 (2001)
Albania Television broadcast stations 3 (plus 58 repeaters) (2001)
Albania Internet country code .al
Albania Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 10 (2001)
Albania Internet users 12,000 (2001)
Albania Railways total: 447 km standard gauge: 447 km 1.435-m gauge (2002)
Albania Highways total: 18,000 km paved: 5,400 km unpaved: 12,600 km (2000)
Albania Waterways 43 km note: includes Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and Lake Prespa (1990)
Albania Pipelines gas 339 km; oil 207 km (2003)
Albania Ports and harbors Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore
Albania Merchant marine total: 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 21,954 GRT/34,412 DWT ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 11, roll on/roll off 1, includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Croatia 1, Honduras 1 (2002 est.)
Albania Airports 12 (2002)
Albania Airports - with paved runways total: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)
Albania Airports - with unpaved runways total: 8 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m: 4 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 over 3,047 m: 1
Albania Heliports 1 (2002)
Albania Military branches Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior Ministry Troops, Border Guards
Albania Military manpower - military age 19 years of age (2003 est.)
Albania Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 906,168 (2003 est.)
Albania Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 742,837 (2003 est.)
Albania Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 36,985 (2003 est.)
Albania Military expenditures - dollar figure $56.5 million (FY02)
Albania Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.49% (FY02)
Albania Disputes - international the Albanian Government calls for the protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians outside its borders in the Kosovo region of Serbia and Montenegro, and in the northern Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, while continuing to seek regional cooperation; some outside ethnic Albanian groups voice union with Albania
Albania Illicit drugs increasingly active transshipment point for Southwest Asian opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting the Balkan route and - to a far lesser extent - cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; limited opium and growing cannabis production; ethnic Albanian narcotrafficking organizations active and rapidly expanding in Europe; vulnerable to money laundering associated with regional trafficking in narcotics, arms, contraband, and illegal aliens
Albania Background Between 1990 and 1992 Albania ended 46 years of xenophobic Communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The transition has proven difficult as corrupt governments have tried to deal with high unemployment, a dilapidated infrastructure, widespread gangsterism, and disruptive political opponents. International observers judged legislative elections in 2001 to be acceptable and a step toward democratic development, but identified serious deficiencies that should be addressed through reforms in the Albanian electoral code.
Albania Location Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea, between Greece and Serbia and Montenegro
Albania Geographic coordinates 41 00 N, 20 00 E
Albania Map references Europe
Albania Area total: 28,748 sq km water: 1,350 sq km land: 27,398 sq km
Albania Area - comparative slightly smaller than Maryland
Albania Land boundaries total: 720 km border countries: Greece 282 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km
Albania Coastline 362 km
Albania Maritime claims continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation territorial sea: 12 NM
Albania Climate mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter
Albania Terrain mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast
Albania Elevation extremes lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m highest point: Maja e Korabit (Golem Korab) 2,753 m
Albania Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, timber, nickel, hydropower
Albania Land use arable land: 21.09% permanent crops: 4.45% other: 74.46% (1998 est.)
Albania Irrigated land 3,400 sq km (1998 est.)
Albania Natural hazards destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along southwestern coast; floods; drought
Albania Environment - current issues deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and domestic effluents
Albania Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Albania Geography - note strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)
Albania Population 3,582,205 (July 2003 est.)
Albania Age structure 0-14 years: 28.1% (male 520,714; female 486,911) 15-64 years: 64.6% (male 1,115,887; female 1,196,477) 65 years and over: 7.3% (male 115,754; female 146,462) (2003 est.)
Albania Median age total: 26.5 years male: 24.8 years female: 28.1 years (2002)
Albania Population growth rate 1.03% (2003 est.)
Albania Birth rate 18.2 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Albania Death rate 6.48 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Albania Net migration rate -1.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Albania Sex ratio at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Albania Infant mortality rate total: 37.28 deaths/1,000 live births female: 34.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 39.68 deaths/1,000 live births
Albania Life expectancy at birth total population: 72.37 years male: 69.53 years female: 75.42 years (2003 est.)
Albania Total fertility rate 2.22 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Albania HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate NA
Albania HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
Albania HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Albania Nationality noun: Albanian(s) adjective: Albanian
Albania Ethnic groups Albanian 95%, Greek 3%, other 2% (Vlach, Gypsy, Serb, and Bulgarian) (1989 est.) note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from 1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)
Albania Religions Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10% note: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice
Albania Languages Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek
Albania Literacy definition: age 9 and over can read and write total population: 86.5% male: 93.3% female: 79.5% (2003 est.)
Albania Country name conventional long form: Republic of Albania conventional short form: Albania local short form: Shqiperia former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania local long form: Republika e Shqiperise
Albania Government type emerging democracy
Albania Capital Tirana
Albania Administrative divisions 12 counties (qarqe, singular - qark); Qarku i Beratit, Qarku i Dibres, Qarku i Durresit, Qarku i Elbasanit, Qarku i Fierit, Qarku i Gjirokastres, Qarku i Korces, Qarku i Kukesit, Qarku i Lezhes, Qarku i Shkodres, Qarku i Tiranes, Qarku i Vlores
Albania Independence 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)
Albania National holiday Independence Day, 28 November (1912)
Albania Constitution a constitution was adopted by popular referendum on 28 November 1998; note - the opposition Democratic Party boycotted the vote
Albania Legal system has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Albania Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Albania Executive branch chief of state: President of the Republic Alfred MOISIU (since 24 July 2002) head of government: Prime Minister Fatos NANO (since 31 July 2002) cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and approved by the president elections: president elected by the People's Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 24 June 2002 (next to be held NA June 2007); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Alfred MOISIU elected president; People's Assembly vote by number - total votes 116, for 97, against 19
Albania Legislative branch unicameral People's Assembly or Kuvendi Popullor (140 seats; 100 are elected by direct popular vote and 40 by proportional vote for four-year terms) elections: last held 24 June 2001 with subsequent rounds on 8 July, 22 July, 29 July, 19 August 2001 (next to be held NA June 2005) election results: percent of vote by party - PS 41.5%, PD and coalition allies 36.8%, NDP 5.2%, PSD 3.6%, PBDNJ 2.6%, PASH 2.6%, PAD 2.5%; seats by party - PS 73, PD and coalition allies 46, NDP 6, PSD 4, PBDNJ 3, PASH 3, PAD 3, independents 2
Albania Judicial branch Supreme Court (chairman is elected by the People's Assembly for a four-year term)
Albania Political parties and leaders Agrarian Party of Albania or PASH [Lufter XHUVELI]; Christian Democratic Party or PDK [Zef BUSHATI]; Communist Party of Albania or PKSH [Hysni MILLOSHI]; Democratic Alliance or PAD [Nerltan CEKA]; Democratic Party or PD [Sali BERISHA]; Legality Movement Party or PLL [Guri DUROLLARI]; National Front Party (Balli Kombetar) or PBK [Abaz ERMENJI]; Party of National Unity or PUK [Idajet BEQUIRI]; Republican Party or PR [Fatmir MEDIU]; Social Democracy or DS [Paskal MILO]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Skender GJINUSHI]; Socialist Party or PS (formerly the Albanian Party of Labor) [Fatos NANO]; Union for Human Rights Party or PBDNJ [Vasil MELO]
Albania Political pressure groups and leaders Omonia [Vangjel DULES]
Albania International organization participation ACCT, BSEC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Albania Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Fatos TARIFA FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342 telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942 chancery: 2100 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Albania Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador James F. JEFFREY embassy: Rruga Elbasanit, Labinoti #103, Tirana mailing address: U. S. Department of State, 9510 Tirana Place, Washington, DC 20521-9510 telephone: [355] (4) 247285 FAX: [355] (4) 232222
Albania Flag description red with a black two-headed eagle in the center
Albania Economy - overview Poor and backward by European standards, Albania is making the difficult transition to a more modern open-market economy. The government has taken measures to curb violent crime and to spur economic activity and trade. The economy is bolstered by remittances from abroad of $400-$600 million annually, mostly from Greece and Italy; this helps offset the sizable trade deficit. Agriculture, which accounts for half of GDP, is held back because of frequent drought and the need to modernize equipment and consolidate small plots of land. Severe energy shortages are forcing small firms out of business, increasing unemployment, scaring off foreign investors, and spurring inflation. The government plans to boost energy imports to relieve the shortages. In addition, the government is moving to improve the poor national road network, a long-standing barrier to sustained economic growth.
Albania GDP purchasing power parity - $15.69 billion (2002 est.)
Albania GDP - real growth rate 7.3% (2002 est.)
Albania GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $4,400 (2002 est.)
Albania GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 49% industry: 27% services: 24% (2002 est.)
Albania Population below poverty line 30% (2001 est.)
Albania Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Albania Inflation rate (consumer prices) 6% (2002 est.)
Albania Labor force 1.283 million (not including 352,000 emigrant workers and 261,000 domestically unemployed) (2000 est.)
Albania Labor force - by occupation agriculture 50%, industry and services 50%
Albania Unemployment rate 17% officially; may be as high as 30% (2001 est.)
Albania Budget revenues: $697 million expenditures: $1.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $368 million (2002 est.)
Albania Industries food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower
Albania Industrial production growth rate 9% (2000 est.)
Albania Electricity - production 5.289 billion kWh (2001)
Albania Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 2.9% hydro: 97.1% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Albania Electricity - consumption 5.898 billion kWh (2001)
Albania Electricity - exports 221 million kWh (2001)
Albania Electricity - imports 1.2 billion kWh (2001)
Albania Oil - production 5,952 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Albania Oil - consumption 22,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Albania Oil - exports NA (2001)
Albania Oil - imports NA (2001)
Albania Oil - proved reserves 185.5 million bbl (37257)
Albania Natural gas - production 30 million cu m (2001 est.)
Albania Natural gas - consumption 30 million cu m (2001 est.)
Albania Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Albania Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Albania Natural gas - proved reserves 3.316 billion cu m (37257)
Albania Agriculture - products wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beets, grapes; meat, dairy products
Albania Exports $340 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Albania Exports - commodities textiles and footwear; asphalt, metals and metallic ores, crude oil; vegetables, fruits, tobacco
Albania Exports - partners Italy 76.6%, Germany 5.6%, Greece 2.7% (2002)
Albania Imports $1.5 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Albania Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, chemicals
Albania Imports - partners Italy 39.4%, Greece 24.5%, Turkey 6%, Germany 5% (2002)
Albania Debt - external $784 million (2000)
Albania Economic aid - recipient ODA: $315 million (top donors were Italy, EU, Germany) (2000 est.)
Albania Currency lek (ALL)
Albania Currency code ALL
Albania Exchange rates leke per US dollar - NA (2002), 143.49 (2001), 143.71 (2000), 137.69 (1999), 150.63 (1998)
Albania Fiscal year calendar year
Albania Telephones - main lines in use 120,000 (2001)
Albania Telephones - mobile cellular 250,000 (2001)
Albania Telephone system general assessment: Albania has the poorest telephone service in Europe with fewer than two telephones per 100 inhabitants; it is doubtful that every village has telephone service domestic: obsolete wire system; no longer provides a telephone for every village; in 1992, following the fall of the Communist government, peasants cut the wire to about 1,000 villages and used it to build fences international: inadequate; international traffic carried by microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece
Albania Radio broadcast stations AM 13, FM 4, shortwave 2 (2001)
Albania Television broadcast stations 3 (plus 58 repeaters) (2001)
Albania Internet country code .al
Albania Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 10 (2001)
Albania Internet users 12,000 (2001)
Albania Railways total: 447 km standard gauge: 447 km 1.435-m gauge (2002)
Albania Highways total: 18,000 km paved: 5,400 km unpaved: 12,600 km (2000)
Albania Waterways 43 km note: includes Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and Lake Prespa (1990)
Albania Pipelines gas 339 km; oil 207 km (2003)
Albania Ports and harbors Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore
Albania Merchant marine total: 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 21,954 GRT/34,412 DWT ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 11, roll on/roll off 1, includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Croatia 1, Honduras 1 (2002 est.)
Albania Airports 12 (2002)
Albania Airports - with paved runways total: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)
Albania Airports - with unpaved runways total: 8 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m: 4 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 over 3,047 m: 1
Albania Heliports 1 (2002)
Albania Military branches Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior Ministry Troops, Border Guards
Albania Military manpower - military age 19 years of age (2003 est.)
Albania Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 906,168 (2003 est.)
Albania Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 742,837 (2003 est.)
Albania Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 36,985 (2003 est.)
Albania Military expenditures - dollar figure $56.5 million (FY02)
Albania Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.49% (FY02)
Albania Disputes - international the Albanian Government calls for the protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians outside its borders in the Kosovo region of Serbia and Montenegro, and in the northern Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, while continuing to seek regional cooperation; some outside ethnic Albanian groups voice union with Albania
Albania Illicit drugs increasingly active transshipment point for Southwest Asian opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting the Balkan route and - to a far lesser extent - cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; limited opium and growing cannabis production; ethnic Albanian narcotrafficking organizations active and rapidly expanding in Europe; vulnerable to money laundering associated with regional trafficking in narcotics, arms, contraband, and illegal aliens
Algeria Background After a century of rule by France, Algeria became independent in 1962. The surprising first round success of the fundamentalist FIS (Islamic Salvation Front) party in the December 1991 balloting caused the army to intervene, crack down on the FIS, and postpone the subsequent elections. The fundamentalist response has resulted in a continuous low-grade civil conflict with the secular state apparatus, which nonetheless has allowed elections featuring pro-government and moderate religious-based parties. The FIS's armed wing, the Islamic Salvation Army, disbanded in January 2000 and many armed militants of other groups surrendered under an amnesty program designed to promote national reconciliation. Nevertheless, small numbers of armed militants persist in confronting government forces and carrying out isolated attacks on villages and other types of terrorist attacks. Other concerns include Berber unrest, large-scale unemployment, a shortage of housing, and the need to diversify the petroleum-based economy.
Algeria Location Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia
Algeria Geographic coordinates 28 00 N, 3 00 E
Algeria Map references Africa
Algeria Area total: 2,381,740 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 2,381,740 sq km
Algeria Area - comparative slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas
Algeria Land boundaries total: 6,343 km border countries: Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km, Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km
Algeria Coastline 998 km
Algeria Maritime claims exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
Algeria Climate arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer
Algeria Terrain mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain
Algeria Elevation extremes lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m highest point: Tahat 3,003 m
Algeria Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc
Algeria Land use arable land: 3.21% permanent crops: 0.21% other: 96.58% (1998 est.)
Algeria Irrigated land 5,600 sq km (1998 est.)
Algeria Natural hazards mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides and floods in rainy season
Algeria Environment - current issues soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water
Algeria Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban
Algeria Geography - note second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)
Algeria Population 32,818,500 (July 2003 est.)
Algeria Age structure 0-14 years: 32.8% (male 5,485,197; female 5,285,434) 15-64 years: 63% (male 10,460,475; female 10,224,389) 65 years and over: 4.2% (male 624,839; female 738,166) (2003 est.)
Algeria Median age total: 22.5 years male: 22.3 years female: 22.6 years (2002)
Algeria Population growth rate 1.65% (2003 est.)
Algeria Birth rate 21.94 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Algeria Death rate 5.09 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Algeria Net migration rate -0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Algeria Sex ratio at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Algeria Infant mortality rate total: 37.74 deaths/1,000 live births female: 35.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 40.34 deaths/1,000 live births
Algeria Life expectancy at birth total population: 70.54 years male: 69.14 years female: 72.01 years (2003 est.)
Algeria Total fertility rate 2.55 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Algeria HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.1% - note: no country specific models provided (2001 est.)
Algeria HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
Algeria HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Algeria Nationality noun: Algerian(s) adjective: Algerian
Algeria Ethnic groups Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%
Algeria Religions Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%
Algeria Languages Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects
Algeria Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 70% male: 78.8% female: 61% (2003 est.)
Algeria Country name conventional long form: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria conventional short form: Algeria local short form: Al Jaza'ir local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Sha'biyah
Algeria Government type republic
Algeria Capital Algiers
Algeria Administrative divisions 48 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen
Algeria Independence 5 July 1962 (from France)
Algeria National holiday Revolution Day, 1 November (1954)
Algeria Constitution 19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised 3 November 1988, 23 February 1989, and 28 November 1996
Algeria Legal system socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Algeria Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Algeria Executive branch chief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999) head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed OUYAHIA (since 9 May 2003) cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 15 April 1999 (next to be held NA April 2004); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA elected president; percent of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA over 70%; note - his six opposing candidates withdrew on the eve of the election citing electoral fraud
Algeria Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of the National People's Assembly or Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani (389 seats - changed from 380 seats in the 2002 elections; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Council of Nations (144 seats; one-third of the members appointed by the president, two-thirds elected by indirect vote; members serve six-year terms; the constitution requires half the council to be renewed every three years) elections: National People's Assembly - last held 30 May 2002 (next to be held NA 2007); Council of Nations - last held 30 December 2000 (next to be held NA 2003) election results: National People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - FLN 199, RND 48, MRN 43, MSP 38, PT 21, FNA 8, Nahda 1, PRA 1, MEN 1, independents 29; Council of Nations - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RND 79, FLN 12, FFS 4, MSP 1 (remaining 48 seats appointed by the president, party breakdown NA)
Algeria Judicial branch Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Algeria Political parties and leaders Algerian National Front or FNA [Moussa TOUATI]; Democratic National Rally or RND [Ahmed OUYAHIA, chairman]; Islamic Salvation Front or FIS (outlawed April 1992) [Ali BELHADJ and Dr. Abassi MADANI, Rabeh KEBIR (self-exile in Germany)]; Society of Peace Movement or MSP [Boujerra SOLTANI]; National Entente Movement or MEN [Ali BOUKHAZNA]; National Liberation Front or FLN [Ali BENFLIS, secretary general]; National Reform Movement or MRN [Abdellah DJABALLAH]; National Renewal Party or PRA [leader NA]; Progressive Republican Party [Khadir DRISS]; Rally for Culture and Democracy or RCD [Said SAADI, secretary general]; Renaissance Movement or EnNahda Movement [Lahbib ADAMI]; Social Liberal Party or PSL [Ahmed KHELIL]; Socialist Forces Front or FFS [Hocine Ait AHMED, secretary general (self-exile in Switzerland)]; Union for Democracy and Liberty [Mouley BOUKHALAFA]; Workers Party or PT [Louisa HANOUN] note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted in March 1997
Algeria Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Algeria International organization participation ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Algeria Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Idriss JAZAIRY chancery: 2137 Wyoming Ave NW, Washington, DC 20008 FAX: [1] (202) 667-2174 telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800
Algeria Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Richard W. ERDMAN (as of 10 July 2003) embassy: 4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers mailing address: B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers telephone: [213] (21) 691-425/255/186 FAX: [213] (21) 69-39-79
Algeria Flag description two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white; a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent centered over the two-color boundary; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)
Algeria Economy - overview The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 60% of budget revenues, 30% of GDP, and over 95% of export earnings. Algeria has the fifth-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the second-largest gas exporter; it ranks 14th in oil reserves. Algeria's financial and economic indicators improved during the mid-1990s, in part because of policy reforms supported by the IMF and debt rescheduling from the Paris Club. Algeria's finances in 2000-03 benefited from substantial trade surpluses, record foreign exchange reserves, and reductions in foreign debt. Real GDP has risen due to higher oil output and increased government spending. The government's continued efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector, however, has had little success in reducing high unemployment and improving living standards.
Algeria GDP purchasing power parity - $173.8 billion (2002 est.)
Algeria GDP - real growth rate 3.3% (2002 est.)
Algeria GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $5,400 (2002 est.)
Algeria GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 8% industry: 60% services: 32% (2002 est.)
Algeria Population below poverty line 23% (1999 est.)
Algeria Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.8% highest 10%: 26.8% (1995)
Algeria Distribution of family income - Gini index 35.3 (1995)
Algeria Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3% (2002 est.)
Algeria Labor force 9.4 million (2001 est.)
Algeria Labor force - by occupation government 29%, agriculture 25%, construction and public works 15%, industry 11%, other 20% (1996 est.)
Algeria Unemployment rate 31% (2002 est.)
Algeria Budget revenues: $20.3 billion expenditures: $18.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.8 billion (2001 est.)
Algeria Industries petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing
Algeria Industrial production growth rate 6% (2001 est.)
Algeria Electricity - production 24.69 billion kWh (2001)
Algeria Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 99.7% hydro: 0.3% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Algeria Electricity - consumption 22.9 billion kWh (2001)
Algeria Electricity - exports 340 million kWh (2001)
Algeria Electricity - imports 275 million kWh (2001)
Algeria Oil - production 1.52 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Algeria Oil - consumption 209,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Algeria Oil - exports NA (2001)
Algeria Oil - imports NA (2001)
Algeria Oil - proved reserves 13.1 billion bbl (37257)
Algeria Natural gas - production 80.3 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Algeria Natural gas - consumption 22.32 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Algeria Natural gas - exports 57.98 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Algeria Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Algeria Natural gas - proved reserves 4.739 trillion cu m (37257)
Algeria Agriculture - products wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle
Algeria Exports $19.5 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Algeria Exports - commodities petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97%
Algeria Exports - partners Italy 18.9%, Spain 13.1%, France 13%, US 12.1%, Netherlands 6%, Brazil 5.9%, Canada 5.7%, Turkey 5.3%, Belgium 5.1% (2002)
Algeria Imports $10.6 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Algeria Imports - commodities capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods
Algeria Imports - partners France 31%, Italy 10%, US 8.3%, Germany 6.6%, Spain 5.9%, Turkey 4.2% (2002)
Algeria Debt - external $21.6 billion (2002 est.)
Algeria Economic aid - recipient $162 million (2000 est.)
Algeria Currency Algerian dinar (DZD)
Algeria Currency code DZD
Algeria Exchange rates Algerian dinars per US dollar - 79.68 (2002), 77.22 (2001), 75.26 (2000), 66.57 (1999), 58.74 (1998)
Algeria Fiscal year calendar year
Algeria Telephones - main lines in use 2.3 million (1998)
Algeria Telephones - mobile cellular 33,500 (1999)
Algeria Telephone system general assessment: telephone density in Algeria is very low, not exceeding five telephones per 100 persons; the number of fixed main lines increased in the last few years to a little more than 2,000,000, but only about two-thirds of these have subscribers; much of the infrastructure is outdated and inefficient domestic: good service in north but sparse in south; domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations (20 additional domestic earth stations are planned) international: 5 submarine cables; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat (1998)
Algeria Radio broadcast stations AM 25, FM 1, shortwave 8 (1999)
Algeria Television broadcast stations 46 (plus 216 repeaters) (1995)
Algeria Internet country code .dz
Algeria Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 2 (2000)
Algeria Internet users 180,000 (2001)
Algeria Railways total: 3,973 km standard gauge: 2,888 km 1.435-m gauge (283 km electrified) narrow gauge: 1,085 km 1.055-m gauge (2002)
Algeria Highways total: 104,000 km paved: 71,656 km (including 640 km of expressways) unpaved: 32,344 km (1999)
Algeria Waterways none
Algeria Pipelines condensate 1,344 km; gas 87,347 km; liquid petroleum gas 2,213 km; oil 6,496 km (2003)
Algeria Ports and harbors Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Beni Saf, Dellys, Djendjene, Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda, Tenes
Algeria Merchant marine total: 69 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 884,032 GRT/1,010,777 DWT ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 23, chemical tanker 6, liquefied gas 10, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 12, short-sea passenger 4, specialized tanker 1, includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: United Arab Emirates 2 (2002 est.)
Algeria Airports 136 (2002)
Algeria Airports - with paved runways total: 54 over 3,047 m: 9 2,438 to 3,047 m: 27 914 to 1,523 m: 5 under 914 m: 1 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
Algeria Airports - with unpaved runways total: 82 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 23 under 914 m: 19 (2002) 914 to 1,523 m: 38
Algeria Heliports 1 (2002)
Algeria Military branches People's National Army (ANP), Algerian National Navy (ANN), Air Force, Territorial Air Defense, National Gendarmerie
Algeria Military manpower - military age 19 years of age (2003 est.)
Algeria Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 9,243,884 (2003 est.)
Algeria Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 5,646,418 (2003 est.)
Algeria Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 412,545 (2003 est.)
Algeria Military expenditures - dollar figure $1.87 billion (FY99)
Algeria Military expenditures - percent of GDP 4.1% (FY99)
Algeria Disputes - international Libya claims about 32,000 sq km in a dormant dispute still reflected on its maps in southeastern Algeria; armed bandits based in Mali attack southern Algerian towns; border with Morocco remains closed over mutual claims of harboring militants, arms smuggling; Algeria supports the exiled Sahrawi Polisario Front and rejects Moroccan administration of Western Sahara
Algeria Background After a century of rule by France, Algeria became independent in 1962. The surprising first round success of the fundamentalist FIS (Islamic Salvation Front) party in the December 1991 balloting caused the army to intervene, crack down on the FIS, and postpone the subsequent elections. The fundamentalist response has resulted in a continuous low-grade civil conflict with the secular state apparatus, which nonetheless has allowed elections featuring pro-government and moderate religious-based parties. The FIS's armed wing, the Islamic Salvation Army, disbanded in January 2000 and many armed militants of other groups surrendered under an amnesty program designed to promote national reconciliation. Nevertheless, small numbers of armed militants persist in confronting government forces and carrying out isolated attacks on villages and other types of terrorist attacks. Other concerns include Berber unrest, large-scale unemployment, a shortage of housing, and the need to diversify the petroleum-based economy.
Algeria Location Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia
Algeria Geographic coordinates 28 00 N, 3 00 E
Algeria Map references Africa
Algeria Area total: 2,381,740 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 2,381,740 sq km
Algeria Area - comparative slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas
Algeria Land boundaries total: 6,343 km border countries: Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km, Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km
Algeria Coastline 998 km
Algeria Maritime claims exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
Algeria Climate arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer
Algeria Terrain mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain
Algeria Elevation extremes lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m highest point: Tahat 3,003 m
Algeria Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc
Algeria Land use arable land: 3.21% permanent crops: 0.21% other: 96.58% (1998 est.)
Algeria Irrigated land 5,600 sq km (1998 est.)
Algeria Natural hazards mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides and floods in rainy season
Algeria Environment - current issues soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water
Algeria Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban
Algeria Geography - note second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)
Algeria Population 32,818,500 (July 2003 est.)
Algeria Age structure 0-14 years: 32.8% (male 5,485,197; female 5,285,434) 15-64 years: 63% (male 10,460,475; female 10,224,389) 65 years and over: 4.2% (male 624,839; female 738,166) (2003 est.)
Algeria Median age total: 22.5 years male: 22.3 years female: 22.6 years (2002)
Algeria Population growth rate 1.65% (2003 est.)
Algeria Birth rate 21.94 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Algeria Death rate 5.09 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Algeria Net migration rate -0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Algeria Sex ratio at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Algeria Infant mortality rate total: 37.74 deaths/1,000 live births female: 35.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 40.34 deaths/1,000 live births
Algeria Life expectancy at birth total population: 70.54 years male: 69.14 years female: 72.01 years (2003 est.)
Algeria Total fertility rate 2.55 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Algeria HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.1% - note: no country specific models provided (2001 est.)
Algeria HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
Algeria HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Algeria Nationality noun: Algerian(s) adjective: Algerian
Algeria Ethnic groups Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%
Algeria Religions Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%
Algeria Languages Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects
Algeria Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 70% male: 78.8% female: 61% (2003 est.)
Algeria Country name conventional long form: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria conventional short form: Algeria local short form: Al Jaza'ir local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Sha'biyah
Algeria Government type republic
Algeria Capital Algiers
Algeria Administrative divisions 48 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen
Algeria Independence 5 July 1962 (from France)
Algeria National holiday Revolution Day, 1 November (1954)
Algeria Constitution 19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised 3 November 1988, 23 February 1989, and 28 November 1996
Algeria Legal system socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Algeria Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Algeria Executive branch chief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999) head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed OUYAHIA (since 9 May 2003) cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 15 April 1999 (next to be held NA April 2004); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA elected president; percent of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA over 70%; note - his six opposing candidates withdrew on the eve of the election citing electoral fraud
Algeria Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of the National People's Assembly or Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani (389 seats - changed from 380 seats in the 2002 elections; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Council of Nations (144 seats; one-third of the members appointed by the president, two-thirds elected by indirect vote; members serve six-year terms; the constitution requires half the council to be renewed every three years) elections: National People's Assembly - last held 30 May 2002 (next to be held NA 2007); Council of Nations - last held 30 December 2000 (next to be held NA 2003) election results: National People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - FLN 199, RND 48, MRN 43, MSP 38, PT 21, FNA 8, Nahda 1, PRA 1, MEN 1, independents 29; Council of Nations - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RND 79, FLN 12, FFS 4, MSP 1 (remaining 48 seats appointed by the president, party breakdown NA)
Algeria Judicial branch Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Algeria Political parties and leaders Algerian National Front or FNA [Moussa TOUATI]; Democratic National Rally or RND [Ahmed OUYAHIA, chairman]; Islamic Salvation Front or FIS (outlawed April 1992) [Ali BELHADJ and Dr. Abassi MADANI, Rabeh KEBIR (self-exile in Germany)]; Society of Peace Movement or MSP [Boujerra SOLTANI]; National Entente Movement or MEN [Ali BOUKHAZNA]; National Liberation Front or FLN [Ali BENFLIS, secretary general]; National Reform Movement or MRN [Abdellah DJABALLAH]; National Renewal Party or PRA [leader NA]; Progressive Republican Party [Khadir DRISS]; Rally for Culture and Democracy or RCD [Said SAADI, secretary general]; Renaissance Movement or EnNahda Movement [Lahbib ADAMI]; Social Liberal Party or PSL [Ahmed KHELIL]; Socialist Forces Front or FFS [Hocine Ait AHMED, secretary general (self-exile in Switzerland)]; Union for Democracy and Liberty [Mouley BOUKHALAFA]; Workers Party or PT [Louisa HANOUN] note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted in March 1997
Algeria Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Algeria International organization participation ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Algeria Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Idriss JAZAIRY chancery: 2137 Wyoming Ave NW, Washington, DC 20008 FAX: [1] (202) 667-2174 telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800
Algeria Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Richard W. ERDMAN (as of 10 July 2003) embassy: 4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers mailing address: B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers telephone: [213] (21) 691-425/255/186 FAX: [213] (21) 69-39-79
Algeria Flag description two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white; a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent centered over the two-color boundary; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)
Algeria Economy - overview The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 60% of budget revenues, 30% of GDP, and over 95% of export earnings. Algeria has the fifth-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the second-largest gas exporter; it ranks 14th in oil reserves. Algeria's financial and economic indicators improved during the mid-1990s, in part because of policy reforms supported by the IMF and debt rescheduling from the Paris Club. Algeria's finances in 2000-03 benefited from substantial trade surpluses, record foreign exchange reserves, and reductions in foreign debt. Real GDP has risen due to higher oil output and increased government spending. The government's continued efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector, however, has had little success in reducing high unemployment and improving living standards.
Algeria GDP purchasing power parity - $173.8 billion (2002 est.)
Algeria GDP - real growth rate 3.3% (2002 est.)
Algeria GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $5,400 (2002 est.)
Algeria GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 8% industry: 60% services: 32% (2002 est.)
Algeria Population below poverty line 23% (1999 est.)
Algeria Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.8% highest 10%: 26.8% (1995)
Algeria Distribution of family income - Gini index 35.3 (1995)
Algeria Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3% (2002 est.)
Algeria Labor force 9.4 million (2001 est.)
Algeria Labor force - by occupation government 29%, agriculture 25%, construction and public works 15%, industry 11%, other 20% (1996 est.)
Algeria Unemployment rate 31% (2002 est.)
Algeria Budget revenues: $20.3 billion expenditures: $18.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.8 billion (2001 est.)
Algeria Industries petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing
Algeria Industrial production growth rate 6% (2001 est.)
Algeria Electricity - production 24.69 billion kWh (2001)
Algeria Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 99.7% hydro: 0.3% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Algeria Electricity - consumption 22.9 billion kWh (2001)
Algeria Electricity - exports 340 million kWh (2001)
Algeria Electricity - imports 275 million kWh (2001)
Algeria Oil - production 1.52 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Algeria Oil - consumption 209,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Algeria Oil - exports NA (2001)
Algeria Oil - imports NA (2001)
Algeria Oil - proved reserves 13.1 billion bbl (37257)
Algeria Natural gas - production 80.3 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Algeria Natural gas - consumption 22.32 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Algeria Natural gas - exports 57.98 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Algeria Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Algeria Natural gas - proved reserves 4.739 trillion cu m (37257)
Algeria Agriculture - products wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle
Algeria Exports $19.5 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Algeria Exports - commodities petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97%
Algeria Exports - partners Italy 18.9%, Spain 13.1%, France 13%, US 12.1%, Netherlands 6%, Brazil 5.9%, Canada 5.7%, Turkey 5.3%, Belgium 5.1% (2002)
Algeria Imports $10.6 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Algeria Imports - commodities capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods
Algeria Imports - partners France 31%, Italy 10%, US 8.3%, Germany 6.6%, Spain 5.9%, Turkey 4.2% (2002)
Algeria Debt - external $21.6 billion (2002 est.)
Algeria Economic aid - recipient $162 million (2000 est.)
Algeria Currency Algerian dinar (DZD)
Algeria Currency code DZD
Algeria Exchange rates Algerian dinars per US dollar - 79.68 (2002), 77.22 (2001), 75.26 (2000), 66.57 (1999), 58.74 (1998)
Algeria Fiscal year calendar year
Algeria Telephones - main lines in use 2.3 million (1998)
Algeria Telephones - mobile cellular 33,500 (1999)
Algeria Telephone system general assessment: telephone density in Algeria is very low, not exceeding five telephones per 100 persons; the number of fixed main lines increased in the last few years to a little more than 2,000,000, but only about two-thirds of these have subscribers; much of the infrastructure is outdated and inefficient domestic: good service in north but sparse in south; domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations (20 additional domestic earth stations are planned) international: 5 submarine cables; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat (1998)
Algeria Radio broadcast stations AM 25, FM 1, shortwave 8 (1999)
Algeria Television broadcast stations 46 (plus 216 repeaters) (1995)
Algeria Internet country code .dz
Algeria Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 2 (2000)
Algeria Internet users 180,000 (2001)
Algeria Railways total: 3,973 km standard gauge: 2,888 km 1.435-m gauge (283 km electrified) narrow gauge: 1,085 km 1.055-m gauge (2002)
Algeria Highways total: 104,000 km paved: 71,656 km (including 640 km of expressways) unpaved: 32,344 km (1999)
Algeria Waterways none
Algeria Pipelines condensate 1,344 km; gas 87,347 km; liquid petroleum gas 2,213 km; oil 6,496 km (2003)
Algeria Ports and harbors Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Beni Saf, Dellys, Djendjene, Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda, Tenes
Algeria Merchant marine total: 69 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 884,032 GRT/1,010,777 DWT ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 23, chemical tanker 6, liquefied gas 10, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 12, short-sea passenger 4, specialized tanker 1, includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: United Arab Emirates 2 (2002 est.)
Algeria Airports 136 (2002)
Algeria Airports - with paved runways total: 54 over 3,047 m: 9 2,438 to 3,047 m: 27 914 to 1,523 m: 5 under 914 m: 1 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
Algeria Airports - with unpaved runways total: 82 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 23 under 914 m: 19 (2002) 914 to 1,523 m: 38
Algeria Heliports 1 (2002)
Algeria Military branches People's National Army (ANP), Algerian National Navy (ANN), Air Force, Territorial Air Defense, National Gendarmerie
Algeria Military manpower - military age 19 years of age (2003 est.)
Algeria Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 9,243,884 (2003 est.)
Algeria Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 5,646,418 (2003 est.)
Algeria Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 412,545 (2003 est.)
Algeria Military expenditures - dollar figure $1.87 billion (FY99)
Algeria Military expenditures - percent of GDP 4.1% (FY99)
Algeria Disputes - international Libya claims about 32,000 sq km in a dormant dispute still reflected on its maps in southeastern Algeria; armed bandits based in Mali attack southern Algerian towns; border with Morocco remains closed over mutual claims of harboring militants, arms smuggling; Algeria supports the exiled Sahrawi Polisario Front and rejects Moroccan administration of Western Sahara
American Samoa Background Settled as early as 1000 B.C., Samoa was "discovered" by European explorers in the 18th century. International rivalries in the latter half of the 19th century were settled by an 1899 treaty in which Germany and the US divided the Samoan archipelago. The US formally occupied its portion - a smaller group of eastern islands with the excellent harbor of Pago Pago - the following year.
American Samoa Location Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about half way between Hawaii and New Zealand
American Samoa Geographic coordinates 14 20 S, 170 00 W
American Samoa Map references Oceania
American Samoa Area total: 199 sq km note: includes Rose Island and Swains Island water: 0 sq km land: 199 sq km
American Samoa Area - comparative slightly larger than Washington, DC
American Samoa Land boundaries 0 km
American Samoa Coastline 116 km
American Samoa Maritime claims exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
American Samoa Climate tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual rainfall averages about 3 m; rainy season from November to April, dry season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation
American Samoa Terrain five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains, two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)
American Samoa Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Lata 966 m
American Samoa Natural resources pumice, pumicite
American Samoa Land use arable land: 5% permanent crops: 10% other: 85% (1998 est.)
American Samoa Irrigated land NA sq km
American Samoa Natural hazards typhoons common from December to March
American Samoa Environment - current issues limited natural fresh water resources; the water division of the government has spent substantial funds in the past few years to improve water catchments and pipelines
American Samoa Geography - note Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic location in the South Pacific Ocean
American Samoa Population 70,260 (July 2003 est.)
American Samoa Age structure 0-14 years: 37.5% (male 13,557; female 12,818) 15-64 years: 57% (male 19,712; female 20,346) 65 years and over: 5.4% (male 2,081; female 1,746) (2003 est.)
American Samoa Median age total: 21.6 years male: 21.1 years female: 22.2 years (2002)
American Samoa Population growth rate 2.22% (2003 est.)
American Samoa Birth rate 23.26 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
American Samoa Death rate 4.38 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
American Samoa Net migration rate 3.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
American Samoa Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.19 male(s)/female total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
American Samoa Infant mortality rate total: 9.82 deaths/1,000 live births female: 7.93 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 11.61 deaths/1,000 live births
American Samoa Life expectancy at birth total population: 75.75 years male: 71.35 years female: 80.41 years (2003 est.)
American Samoa Total fertility rate 3.3 children born/woman (2003 est.)
American Samoa HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate NA%
American Samoa HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
American Samoa HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
American Samoa Nationality noun: American Samoan(s) adjective: American Samoan
American Samoa Ethnic groups Samoan (Polynesian) 89%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 4%, other 5%
American Samoa Religions Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%, Protestant and other 30%
American Samoa Languages Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian languages), English note: most people are bilingual
American Samoa Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 97% male: 98% female: 97% (1980 est.)
American Samoa Country name conventional long form: Territory of American Samoa conventional short form: American Samoa abbreviation: AS
American Samoa Dependency status unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US; administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, US Department of the Interior
American Samoa Government type NA
American Samoa Capital Pago Pago
American Samoa Administrative divisions none (territory of the US); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are three districts and two islands* at the second order; Eastern, Manu'a, Rose Island*, Swains Island*, Western
American Samoa Independence none (territory of the US)
American Samoa National holiday Flag Day, 17 April (1900)
American Samoa Constitution ratified 1966, in effect 1967
American Samoa Legal system NA
American Samoa Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
American Samoa Executive branch chief of state: President George W. BUSH of the US (since 20 January 2001) and Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 January 2001) election results: Tauese P. SUNIA reelected governor; percent of vote - Tauese P. SUNIA (Democrat) 50.7%, Lealaifuaneva Peter REID (independent) 47.8% note: Togiola TULAFONO became acting governor 26 March 2003 upon the death of Governor Tauese P. SUNIA elections: US president and vice president elected on the same ticket for four-year terms; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2004) head of government: Governor Togiola TULAFONO (since 7 April 2003) following the death of Governor Tauese P. SUNIA on 26 March 2003; TULAFONO had been the Lieutenant Governor cabinet: NA
American Samoa Legislative branch bicameral Fono or Legislative Assembly consists of the House of Representatives (21 seats - 20 of which are elected by popular vote and 1 is an appointed, nonvoting delegate from Swains Island; members serve two-year terms) and the Senate (18 seats; members are elected from local chiefs and serve four-year terms) election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - independents 18 note: American Samoa elects one nonvoting representative to the US House of Representatives; election last held 7 November 2002 (next to be held NA November 2004); results - Eni F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA (Democrat) reelected as delegate elections: House of Representatives - last held 7 November 2002 (next to be held NA November 2004); Senate - last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2004)
American Samoa Judicial branch High Court (chief justice and associate justices are appointed by the US Secretary of the Interior)
American Samoa Political parties and leaders Democratic Party [leader NA]; Republican Party [leader NA]
American Samoa Political pressure groups and leaders NA
American Samoa International organization participation ESCAP (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, SPC
American Samoa Diplomatic representation in the US none (territory of the US)
American Samoa Diplomatic representation from the US none (territory of the US)
American Samoa Flag description blue, with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the outer side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional Samoan symbols of authority, a staff and a war club
American Samoa Economy - overview This is a traditional Polynesian economy in which more than 90% of the land is communally owned. Economic activity is strongly linked to the US, with which American Samoa conducts most of its foreign trade. Tuna fishing and tuna processing plants are the backbone of the private sector, with canned tuna the primary export. Transfers from the US Government add substantially to American Samoa's economic well-being. Attempts by the government to develop a larger and broader economy are restrained by Samoa's remote location, its limited transportation, and its devastating hurricanes. Tourism, a developing sector, has been held back by the recurring financial difficulties in East Asia.
American Samoa GDP purchasing power parity - $500 million (2000 est.)
American Samoa GDP - real growth rate NA%
American Samoa GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $8,000 (2000 est.)
American Samoa GDP - composition by sector agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%
American Samoa Population below poverty line NA%
American Samoa Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
American Samoa Inflation rate (consumer prices) NA%
American Samoa Labor force 14,000 (1996)
American Samoa Labor force - by occupation government 33%, tuna canneries 34%, other 33% (1990)
American Samoa Unemployment rate 6% (2000)
American Samoa Budget revenues: $121 million (37% in local revenue and 63% in US grants) expenditures: $127 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY96/97)
American Samoa Industries tuna canneries (largely supplied by foreign fishing vessels), handicrafts
American Samoa Industrial production growth rate NA%
American Samoa Electricity - production 130 million kWh (2001)
American Samoa Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
American Samoa Electricity - consumption 120.9 million kWh (2001)
American Samoa Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
American Samoa Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
American Samoa Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
American Samoa Oil - consumption 3,800 bbl/day (2001 est.)
American Samoa Oil - exports NA (2001)
American Samoa Oil - imports NA (2001)
American Samoa Agriculture - products bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams, copra, pineapples, papayas; dairy products, livestock
American Samoa Exports $345 million (1999)
American Samoa Exports - commodities canned tuna 93%
American Samoa Exports - partners Indonesia 71.1%, Japan 7.7%, Samoa 7.7%, Australia 6.7% (2002)
American Samoa Imports $452 million (1999)
American Samoa Imports - commodities materials for canneries 56%, food 8%, petroleum products 7%, machinery and parts 6%
American Samoa Imports - partners Australia 41%, New Zealand 23%, South Korea 18% (2002)
American Samoa Debt - external $NA
American Samoa Economic aid - recipient important financial support from the US, more than $40 million in 1994
American Samoa Currency US dollar (USD)
American Samoa Currency code USD
American Samoa Exchange rates the US dollar is used
American Samoa Fiscal year 1 October - 30 September
American Samoa Telephones - main lines in use 13,000 (1997)
American Samoa Telephones - mobile cellular 2,550 (1997)
American Samoa Telephone system general assessment: NA domestic: good telex, telegraph, facsimile and cellular telephone services; domestic satellite system with 1 Comsat earth station international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
American Samoa Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)
American Samoa Television broadcast stations 1 (1997)
American Samoa Internet country code .as
American Samoa Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
American Samoa Internet users NA
American Samoa Railways 0 km
American Samoa Highways total: 350 km paved: 150 km unpaved: 200 km
American Samoa Waterways none
American Samoa Ports and harbors Aunu'u (new construction), Auasi, Faleosao, Ofu, Pago Pago, Ta'u
American Samoa Merchant marine none (2002 est.)
American Samoa Airports 3 (2002)
American Samoa Airports - with paved runways total: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2002)
American Samoa Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2002)
American Samoa Military - note defense is the responsibility of the US
American Samoa Disputes - international none
American Samoa Background Settled as early as 1000 B.C., Samoa was "discovered" by European explorers in the 18th century. International rivalries in the latter half of the 19th century were settled by an 1899 treaty in which Germany and the US divided the Samoan archipelago. The US formally occupied its portion - a smaller group of eastern islands with the excellent harbor of Pago Pago - the following year.
American Samoa Location Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about half way between Hawaii and New Zealand
American Samoa Geographic coordinates 14 20 S, 170 00 W
American Samoa Map references Oceania
American Samoa Area total: 199 sq km note: includes Rose Island and Swains Island water: 0 sq km land: 199 sq km
American Samoa Area - comparative slightly larger than Washington, DC
American Samoa Land boundaries 0 km
American Samoa Coastline 116 km
American Samoa Maritime claims exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
American Samoa Climate tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual rainfall averages about 3 m; rainy season from November to April, dry season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation
American Samoa Terrain five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains, two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)
American Samoa Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Lata 966 m
American Samoa Natural resources pumice, pumicite
American Samoa Land use arable land: 5% permanent crops: 10% other: 85% (1998 est.)
American Samoa Irrigated land NA sq km
American Samoa Natural hazards typhoons common from December to March
American Samoa Environment - current issues limited natural fresh water resources; the water division of the government has spent substantial funds in the past few years to improve water catchments and pipelines
American Samoa Geography - note Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic location in the South Pacific Ocean
American Samoa Population 70,260 (July 2003 est.)
American Samoa Age structure 0-14 years: 37.5% (male 13,557; female 12,818) 15-64 years: 57% (male 19,712; female 20,346) 65 years and over: 5.4% (male 2,081; female 1,746) (2003 est.)
American Samoa Median age total: 21.6 years male: 21.1 years female: 22.2 years (2002)
American Samoa Population growth rate 2.22% (2003 est.)
American Samoa Birth rate 23.26 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
American Samoa Death rate 4.38 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
American Samoa Net migration rate 3.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
American Samoa Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.19 male(s)/female total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
American Samoa Infant mortality rate total: 9.82 deaths/1,000 live births female: 7.93 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 11.61 deaths/1,000 live births
American Samoa Life expectancy at birth total population: 75.75 years male: 71.35 years female: 80.41 years (2003 est.)
American Samoa Total fertility rate 3.3 children born/woman (2003 est.)
American Samoa HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate NA%
American Samoa HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
American Samoa HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
American Samoa Nationality noun: American Samoan(s) adjective: American Samoan
American Samoa Ethnic groups Samoan (Polynesian) 89%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 4%, other 5%
American Samoa Religions Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%, Protestant and other 30%
American Samoa Languages Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian languages), English note: most people are bilingual
American Samoa Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 97% male: 98% female: 97% (1980 est.)
American Samoa Country name conventional long form: Territory of American Samoa conventional short form: American Samoa abbreviation: AS
American Samoa Dependency status unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US; administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, US Department of the Interior
American Samoa Government type NA
American Samoa Capital Pago Pago
American Samoa Administrative divisions none (territory of the US); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are three districts and two islands* at the second order; Eastern, Manu'a, Rose Island*, Swains Island*, Western
American Samoa Independence none (territory of the US)
American Samoa National holiday Flag Day, 17 April (1900)
American Samoa Constitution ratified 1966, in effect 1967
American Samoa Legal system NA
American Samoa Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
American Samoa Executive branch chief of state: President George W. BUSH of the US (since 20 January 2001) and Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 January 2001) election results: Tauese P. SUNIA reelected governor; percent of vote - Tauese P. SUNIA (Democrat) 50.7%, Lealaifuaneva Peter REID (independent) 47.8% note: Togiola TULAFONO became acting governor 26 March 2003 upon the death of Governor Tauese P. SUNIA elections: US president and vice president elected on the same ticket for four-year terms; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2004) head of government: Governor Togiola TULAFONO (since 7 April 2003) following the death of Governor Tauese P. SUNIA on 26 March 2003; TULAFONO had been the Lieutenant Governor cabinet: NA
American Samoa Legislative branch bicameral Fono or Legislative Assembly consists of the House of Representatives (21 seats - 20 of which are elected by popular vote and 1 is an appointed, nonvoting delegate from Swains Island; members serve two-year terms) and the Senate (18 seats; members are elected from local chiefs and serve four-year terms) election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - independents 18 note: American Samoa elects one nonvoting representative to the US House of Representatives; election last held 7 November 2002 (next to be held NA November 2004); results - Eni F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA (Democrat) reelected as delegate elections: House of Representatives - last held 7 November 2002 (next to be held NA November 2004); Senate - last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2004)
American Samoa Judicial branch High Court (chief justice and associate justices are appointed by the US Secretary of the Interior)
American Samoa Political parties and leaders Democratic Party [leader NA]; Republican Party [leader NA]
American Samoa Political pressure groups and leaders NA
American Samoa International organization participation ESCAP (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, SPC
American Samoa Diplomatic representation in the US none (territory of the US)
American Samoa Diplomatic representation from the US none (territory of the US)
American Samoa Flag description blue, with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the outer side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional Samoan symbols of authority, a staff and a war club
American Samoa Economy - overview This is a traditional Polynesian economy in which more than 90% of the land is communally owned. Economic activity is strongly linked to the US, with which American Samoa conducts most of its foreign trade. Tuna fishing and tuna processing plants are the backbone of the private sector, with canned tuna the primary export. Transfers from the US Government add substantially to American Samoa's economic well-being. Attempts by the government to develop a larger and broader economy are restrained by Samoa's remote location, its limited transportation, and its devastating hurricanes. Tourism, a developing sector, has been held back by the recurring financial difficulties in East Asia.
American Samoa GDP purchasing power parity - $500 million (2000 est.)
American Samoa GDP - real growth rate NA%
American Samoa GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $8,000 (2000 est.)
American Samoa GDP - composition by sector agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%
American Samoa Population below poverty line NA%
American Samoa Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
American Samoa Inflation rate (consumer prices) NA%
American Samoa Labor force 14,000 (1996)
American Samoa Labor force - by occupation government 33%, tuna canneries 34%, other 33% (1990)
American Samoa Unemployment rate 6% (2000)
American Samoa Budget revenues: $121 million (37% in local revenue and 63% in US grants) expenditures: $127 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY96/97)
American Samoa Industries tuna canneries (largely supplied by foreign fishing vessels), handicrafts
American Samoa Industrial production growth rate NA%
American Samoa Electricity - production 130 million kWh (2001)
American Samoa Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
American Samoa Electricity - consumption 120.9 million kWh (2001)
American Samoa Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
American Samoa Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
American Samoa Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
American Samoa Oil - consumption 3,800 bbl/day (2001 est.)
American Samoa Oil - exports NA (2001)
American Samoa Oil - imports NA (2001)
American Samoa Agriculture - products bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams, copra, pineapples, papayas; dairy products, livestock
American Samoa Exports $345 million (1999)
American Samoa Exports - commodities canned tuna 93%
American Samoa Exports - partners Indonesia 71.1%, Japan 7.7%, Samoa 7.7%, Australia 6.7% (2002)
American Samoa Imports $452 million (1999)
American Samoa Imports - commodities materials for canneries 56%, food 8%, petroleum products 7%, machinery and parts 6%
American Samoa Imports - partners Australia 41%, New Zealand 23%, South Korea 18% (2002)
American Samoa Debt - external $NA
American Samoa Economic aid - recipient important financial support from the US, more than $40 million in 1994
American Samoa Currency US dollar (USD)
American Samoa Currency code USD
American Samoa Exchange rates the US dollar is used
American Samoa Fiscal year 1 October - 30 September
American Samoa Telephones - main lines in use 13,000 (1997)
American Samoa Telephones - mobile cellular 2,550 (1997)
American Samoa Telephone system general assessment: NA domestic: good telex, telegraph, facsimile and cellular telephone services; domestic satellite system with 1 Comsat earth station international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
American Samoa Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)
American Samoa Television broadcast stations 1 (1997)
American Samoa Internet country code .as
American Samoa Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
American Samoa Internet users NA
American Samoa Railways 0 km
American Samoa Highways total: 350 km paved: 150 km unpaved: 200 km
American Samoa Waterways none
American Samoa Ports and harbors Aunu'u (new construction), Auasi, Faleosao, Ofu, Pago Pago, Ta'u
American Samoa Merchant marine none (2002 est.)
American Samoa Airports 3 (2002)
American Samoa Airports - with paved runways total: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2002)
American Samoa Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2002)
American Samoa Military - note defense is the responsibility of the US
American Samoa Disputes - international none
Andorra Background For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique co-principality, ruled by the French chief of state and the Spanish bishop of Urgel. In 1993, this feudal system was modified with the titular heads of state retained, but the government transformed into a parliamentary democracy. Long isolated and impoverished, mountainous Andorra achieved considerable prosperity since World War II through its tourist industry. Many immigrants (legal and illegal) are attracted to the thriving economy with its lack of income taxes.
Andorra Location Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain
Andorra Geographic coordinates 42 30 N, 1 30 E
Andorra Map references Europe
Andorra Area total: 468 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 468 sq km
Andorra Area - comparative 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Andorra Land boundaries total: 120.3 km border countries: France 56.6 km, Spain 63.7 km
Andorra Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Andorra Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Andorra Climate temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers
Andorra Terrain rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys
Andorra Elevation extremes lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m highest point: Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m
Andorra Natural resources hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead
Andorra Land use arable land: 2.22% permanent crops: 0% other: 97.78% (1998 est.)
Andorra Irrigated land NA sq km
Andorra Natural hazards avalanches
Andorra Environment - current issues deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal
Andorra Environment - international agreements party to: Hazardous Wastes signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Andorra Geography - note landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in the Pyrenees
Andorra Population 69,150 (July 2003 est.)
Andorra Age structure 0-14 years: 15.1% (male 5,473; female 4,974) 15-64 years: 71.7% (male 26,063; female 23,542) 65 years and over: 13.2% (male 4,543; female 4,555) (2003 est.)
Andorra Median age total: 39.1 years male: 39.4 years female: 38.8 years (2002)
Andorra Population growth rate 1.06% (2003 est.)
Andorra Birth rate 9.65 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Andorra Death rate 5.74 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Andorra Net migration rate 6.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Andorra Sex ratio at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female total population: 1.09 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Andorra Infant mortality rate total: 4.06 deaths/1,000 live births female: 3.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births
Andorra Life expectancy at birth total population: 83.49 years male: 80.58 years female: 86.58 years (2003 est.)
Andorra Total fertility rate 1.27 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Andorra HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate NA%
Andorra HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
Andorra HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Andorra Nationality noun: Andorran(s) adjective: Andorran
Andorra Ethnic groups Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%, other 6% (1998)
Andorra Religions Roman Catholic (predominant)
Andorra Languages Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese
Andorra Literacy definition: NA total population: 100% male: NA% female: NA%
Andorra Country name conventional long form: Principality of Andorra conventional short form: Andorra local short form: Andorra local long form: Principat d'Andorra
Andorra Government type parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its heads of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are represented locally by coprinces' representatives
Andorra Capital Andorra la Vella
Andorra Administrative divisions 7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Escaldes-Engordany, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria
Andorra Independence 1278 (was formed under the joint suzerainty of the French count of Foix and the Spanish bishop of Urgel)
Andorra National holiday Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)
Andorra Constitution Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; approved by referendum 14 March 1993; came into force 4 May 1993
Andorra Legal system based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Andorra Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Andorra Executive branch chief of state: French Coprince Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995), represented by Philippe MASSONI (since 26 July 2002); Spanish Coprince Episcopal Monsignor Joan Enric VIVES SICILIA (since 12 May 2003), represented by Nemesi MARQUES OSTE (since NA) elections: Executive Council president elected by the General Council and formally appointed by the coprinces for a four-year term; election last held 4 March 2001 (next to be held NA 2005) election results: Marc FORNE Molne elected executive council president; percent of General Council vote - NA% cabinet: Executive Council or Govern designated by the Executive Council president head of government: Executive Council President Marc FORNE MOLNE (since 21 December 1994)
Andorra Legislative branch unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de las Valls (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14 to represent each of the 7 parishes; members serve four-year terms) elections: last held 4 March 2001 (next to be held NA March 2005) election results: percent of vote by party - PLA 46.1%, PSD 30%, PD 23.8%, other 0.1%; seats by party - PLA 15, PSD 6, PD 5, independents 2
Andorra Judicial branch Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or Tribunal Superior de Justicia d'Andorra; Supreme Council of Justice or Consell Superior de la Justicia; Fiscal Ministry or Ministeri Fiscal; Constitutional Tribunal or Tribunal Constitucional
Andorra Political parties and leaders Democratic Party or PD (formerly part of National Democratic Group or AND) [Ladislau BARO SOLO]; Liberal Party of Andorra or PLA [Marc FORNE MOLNE] (used to be Liberal Union or UL); Liberal Union or UL [Francesc CERQUEDA]; National Democratic Group or AND [Ladislau BARO SOLO]; National Democratic Initiative or IDN [Vicenc MATEU ZAMORA]; New Democracy or ND [Jaume BARTOMEU CASSANY]; Social Democratic Party or PSD (formerly part of National Democratic Group of AND) [leader NA]; Union of the People of Ordino (Unio Parroquial d'Ordino) or UPO [Simo DURO COMA] note: there are two other small parties
Andorra Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Andorra International organization participation CE, ECE, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OSCE, UN, UNESCO, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Andorra Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Jelena V. PIA-COMELLA chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017 FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630 telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064
Andorra Diplomatic representation from the US the US does not have an embassy in Andorra; the US Ambassador to Spain is accredited to Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the Consulate General's office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; telephone: (3493) 280-2227; FAX: (3493) 205-7705
Andorra Flag description three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in the center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem
Andorra Economy - overview Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do economy, accounts for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 9 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative advantage has recently eroded as the economies of neighboring France and Spain have been opened up, providing broader availability of goods and lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its "tax haven" status, also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is limited - only 2% of the land is arable - and most food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing output consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.
Andorra GDP purchasing power parity - $1.3 billion (2000 est.)
Andorra GDP - real growth rate 3.8% (2000 est.)
Andorra GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $19,000 (2000 est.)
Andorra GDP - composition by sector agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%
Andorra Population below poverty line NA%
Andorra Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Andorra Inflation rate (consumer prices) 4.3% (2000)
Andorra Labor force 33,000 (2001 est.)
Andorra Labor force - by occupation agriculture 1%, industry 21%, services 78% (2000 est.)
Andorra Unemployment rate 0%
Andorra Budget revenues: $385 million expenditures: $342 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997)
Andorra Industries tourism (particularly skiing), cattle raising, timber, banking
Andorra Industrial production growth rate NA%
Andorra Electricity - production NA kWh
Andorra Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 0% hydro: 0% other: 0% nuclear: 0%
Andorra Electricity - consumption NA kWh
Andorra Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2002)
Andorra Electricity - imports NA kWh; note - most electricity supplied by Spain and France; Andorra generates a small amount of hydropower
Andorra Agriculture - products small quantities of rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables; sheep
Andorra Exports $58 million f.o.b. (1998)
Andorra Exports - commodities tobacco products, furniture
Andorra Exports - partners Spain 58%, France 34% (2000)
Andorra Imports $1.077 billion (1998)
Andorra Imports - commodities consumer goods, food, electricity
Andorra Imports - partners Spain 48%, France 35%, US 2.3% (2000)
Andorra Debt - external $NA
Andorra Economic aid - recipient none
Andorra Currency euro (EUR)
Andorra Currency code EUR
Andorra Exchange rates euros per US dollar - 1.06 (2002), 1.12 (2001), 1.09 (2000), 0.94 (1999)
Andorra Fiscal year calendar year
Andorra Telephones - main lines in use 32,946 (December 1998)
Andorra Telephones - mobile cellular 14,117 (December 1998)
Andorra Telephone system general assessment: NA domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges international: landline circuits to France and Spain
Andorra Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 15, shortwave 0 (1998)
Andorra Television broadcast stations 0 (1997)
Andorra Internet country code .ad
Andorra Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Andorra Internet users 24,500 (2001)
Andorra Railways 0 km
Andorra Highways total: 269 km paved: 198 km unpaved: 71 km (1994)
Andorra Waterways none
Andorra Ports and harbors none
Andorra Airports none (2002)
Andorra Military branches no regular military forces, but there is a police force
Andorra Military - note defense is the responsibility of France and Spain
Andorra Disputes - international none; border is undemarcated in sections but is not in dispute (a few French farmers still remain upset about the transfer of 35 hectares of land to Andorra)
Andorra Background For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique co-principality, ruled by the French chief of state and the Spanish bishop of Urgel. In 1993, this feudal system was modified with the titular heads of state retained, but the government transformed into a parliamentary democracy. Long isolated and impoverished, mountainous Andorra achieved considerable prosperity since World War II through its tourist industry. Many immigrants (legal and illegal) are attracted to the thriving economy with its lack of income taxes.
Andorra Location Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain
Andorra Geographic coordinates 42 30 N, 1 30 E
Andorra Map references Europe
Andorra Area total: 468 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 468 sq km
Andorra Area - comparative 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Andorra Land boundaries total: 120.3 km border countries: France 56.6 km, Spain 63.7 km
Andorra Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Andorra Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Andorra Climate temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers
Andorra Terrain rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys
Andorra Elevation extremes lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m highest point: Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m
Andorra Natural resources hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead
Andorra Land use arable land: 2.22% permanent crops: 0% other: 97.78% (1998 est.)
Andorra Irrigated land NA sq km
Andorra Natural hazards avalanches
Andorra Environment - current issues deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal
Andorra Environment - international agreements party to: Hazardous Wastes signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Andorra Geography - note landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in the Pyrenees
Andorra Population 69,150 (July 2003 est.)
Andorra Age structure 0-14 years: 15.1% (male 5,473; female 4,974) 15-64 years: 71.7% (male 26,063; female 23,542) 65 years and over: 13.2% (male 4,543; female 4,555) (2003 est.)
Andorra Median age total: 39.1 years male: 39.4 years female: 38.8 years (2002)
Andorra Population growth rate 1.06% (2003 est.)
Andorra Birth rate 9.65 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Andorra Death rate 5.74 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Andorra Net migration rate 6.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Andorra Sex ratio at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female total population: 1.09 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Andorra Infant mortality rate total: 4.06 deaths/1,000 live births female: 3.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births
Andorra Life expectancy at birth total population: 83.49 years male: 80.58 years female: 86.58 years (2003 est.)
Andorra Total fertility rate 1.27 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Andorra HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate NA%
Andorra HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
Andorra HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Andorra Nationality noun: Andorran(s) adjective: Andorran
Andorra Ethnic groups Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%, other 6% (1998)
Andorra Religions Roman Catholic (predominant)
Andorra Languages Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese
Andorra Literacy definition: NA total population: 100% male: NA% female: NA%
Andorra Country name conventional long form: Principality of Andorra conventional short form: Andorra local short form: Andorra local long form: Principat d'Andorra
Andorra Government type parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its heads of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are represented locally by coprinces' representatives
Andorra Capital Andorra la Vella
Andorra Administrative divisions 7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Escaldes-Engordany, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria
Andorra Independence 1278 (was formed under the joint suzerainty of the French count of Foix and the Spanish bishop of Urgel)
Andorra National holiday Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)
Andorra Constitution Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; approved by referendum 14 March 1993; came into force 4 May 1993
Andorra Legal system based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Andorra Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Andorra Executive branch chief of state: French Coprince Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995), represented by Philippe MASSONI (since 26 July 2002); Spanish Coprince Episcopal Monsignor Joan Enric VIVES SICILIA (since 12 May 2003), represented by Nemesi MARQUES OSTE (since NA) elections: Executive Council president elected by the General Council and formally appointed by the coprinces for a four-year term; election last held 4 March 2001 (next to be held NA 2005) election results: Marc FORNE Molne elected executive council president; percent of General Council vote - NA% cabinet: Executive Council or Govern designated by the Executive Council president head of government: Executive Council President Marc FORNE MOLNE (since 21 December 1994)
Andorra Legislative branch unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de las Valls (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14 to represent each of the 7 parishes; members serve four-year terms) elections: last held 4 March 2001 (next to be held NA March 2005) election results: percent of vote by party - PLA 46.1%, PSD 30%, PD 23.8%, other 0.1%; seats by party - PLA 15, PSD 6, PD 5, independents 2
Andorra Judicial branch Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or Tribunal Superior de Justicia d'Andorra; Supreme Council of Justice or Consell Superior de la Justicia; Fiscal Ministry or Ministeri Fiscal; Constitutional Tribunal or Tribunal Constitucional
Andorra Political parties and leaders Democratic Party or PD (formerly part of National Democratic Group or AND) [Ladislau BARO SOLO]; Liberal Party of Andorra or PLA [Marc FORNE MOLNE] (used to be Liberal Union or UL); Liberal Union or UL [Francesc CERQUEDA]; National Democratic Group or AND [Ladislau BARO SOLO]; National Democratic Initiative or IDN [Vicenc MATEU ZAMORA]; New Democracy or ND [Jaume BARTOMEU CASSANY]; Social Democratic Party or PSD (formerly part of National Democratic Group of AND) [leader NA]; Union of the People of Ordino (Unio Parroquial d'Ordino) or UPO [Simo DURO COMA] note: there are two other small parties
Andorra Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Andorra International organization participation CE, ECE, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OSCE, UN, UNESCO, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Andorra Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Jelena V. PIA-COMELLA chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017 FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630 telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064
Andorra Diplomatic representation from the US the US does not have an embassy in Andorra; the US Ambassador to Spain is accredited to Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the Consulate General's office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; telephone: (3493) 280-2227; FAX: (3493) 205-7705
Andorra Flag description three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in the center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem
Andorra Economy - overview Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do economy, accounts for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 9 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative advantage has recently eroded as the economies of neighboring France and Spain have been opened up, providing broader availability of goods and lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its "tax haven" status, also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is limited - only 2% of the land is arable - and most food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing output consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.
Andorra GDP purchasing power parity - $1.3 billion (2000 est.)
Andorra GDP - real growth rate 3.8% (2000 est.)
Andorra GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $19,000 (2000 est.)
Andorra GDP - composition by sector agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%
Andorra Population below poverty line NA%
Andorra Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Andorra Inflation rate (consumer prices) 4.3% (2000)
Andorra Labor force 33,000 (2001 est.)
Andorra Labor force - by occupation agriculture 1%, industry 21%, services 78% (2000 est.)
Andorra Unemployment rate 0%
Andorra Budget revenues: $385 million expenditures: $342 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997)
Andorra Industries tourism (particularly skiing), cattle raising, timber, banking
Andorra Industrial production growth rate NA%
Andorra Electricity - production NA kWh
Andorra Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 0% hydro: 0% other: 0% nuclear: 0%
Andorra Electricity - consumption NA kWh
Andorra Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2002)
Andorra Electricity - imports NA kWh; note - most electricity supplied by Spain and France; Andorra generates a small amount of hydropower
Andorra Agriculture - products small quantities of rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables; sheep
Andorra Exports $58 million f.o.b. (1998)
Andorra Exports - commodities tobacco products, furniture
Andorra Exports - partners Spain 58%, France 34% (2000)
Andorra Imports $1.077 billion (1998)
Andorra Imports - commodities consumer goods, food, electricity
Andorra Imports - partners Spain 48%, France 35%, US 2.3% (2000)
Andorra Debt - external $NA
Andorra Economic aid - recipient none
Andorra Currency euro (EUR)
Andorra Currency code EUR
Andorra Exchange rates euros per US dollar - 1.06 (2002), 1.12 (2001), 1.09 (2000), 0.94 (1999)
Andorra Fiscal year calendar year
Andorra Telephones - main lines in use 32,946 (December 1998)
Andorra Telephones - mobile cellular 14,117 (December 1998)
Andorra Telephone system general assessment: NA domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges international: landline circuits to France and Spain
Andorra Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 15, shortwave 0 (1998)
Andorra Television broadcast stations 0 (1997)
Andorra Internet country code .ad
Andorra Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Andorra Internet users 24,500 (2001)
Andorra Railways 0 km
Andorra Highways total: 269 km paved: 198 km unpaved: 71 km (1994)
Andorra Waterways none
Andorra Ports and harbors none
Andorra Airports none (2002)
Andorra Military branches no regular military forces, but there is a police force
Andorra Military - note defense is the responsibility of France and Spain
Andorra Disputes - international none; border is undemarcated in sections but is not in dispute (a few French farmers still remain upset about the transfer of 35 hectares of land to Andorra)
Angola Background Civil war has been the norm in Angola since independence from Portugal in 1975. A 1994 peace accord between the government and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) provided for the integration of former UNITA insurgents into the government and armed forces. A national unity government was installed in April of 1997, but serious fighting resumed in late 1998, rendering hundreds of thousands of people homeless. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost in fighting over the past quarter century. The death of insurgent leader Jonas SAVIMBI in 2002 and a subsequent cease-fire with UNITA may bode well for the country.
Angola Location Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo
Angola Geographic coordinates 12 30 S, 18 30 E
Angola Map references Africa
Angola Area total: 1,246,700 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 1,246,700 sq km
Angola Area - comparative slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Angola Land boundaries total: 5,198 km border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km
Angola Coastline 1,600 km
Angola Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
Angola Climate semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
Angola Terrain narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
Angola Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m
Angola Natural resources petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium
Angola Land use arable land: 2.41% permanent crops: 0.4% other: 97.19% (1998 est.)
Angola Irrigated land 750 sq km (1998 est.)
Angola Natural hazards locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau
Angola Environment - current issues overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water
Angola Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Angola Geography - note the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Angola Population 10,766,471 (July 2003 est.)
Angola Age structure 0-14 years: 43.5% (male 2,363,829; female 2,317,610) 15-64 years: 53.7% (male 2,941,999; female 2,842,923) 65 years and over: 2.8% (male 134,330; female 165,780) (2003 est.)
Angola Median age total: 18.2 years male: 18.2 years female: 18.2 years (2002)
Angola Population growth rate 1.97% (2003 est.)
Angola Birth rate 45.57 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Angola Death rate 25.83 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Angola Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Angola Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Angola Infant mortality rate total: 193.82 deaths/1,000 live births female: 180.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 206.26 deaths/1,000 live births
Angola Life expectancy at birth total population: 36.96 years male: 36.13 years female: 37.83 years (2003 est.)
Angola Total fertility rate 6.38 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Angola HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 5.5% (2001 est.)
Angola HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 350,000 (2001 est.)
Angola HIV/AIDS - deaths 24,000 (2001 est.)
Angola Nationality noun: Angolan(s) adjective: Angolan
Angola Ethnic groups Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%
Angola Religions indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998 est.)
Angola Languages Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages
Angola Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 42% male: 56% female: 28% (1998 est.)
Angola Country name conventional long form: Republic of Angola conventional short form: Angola local short form: Angola former: People's Republic of Angola local long form: Republica de Angola
Angola Government type republic, nominally a multiparty democracy with a strong presidential system
Angola Capital Luanda
Angola Administrative divisions 18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire
Angola Independence 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
Angola National holiday Independence Day, 11 November (1975)
Angola Constitution 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, 6 March 1991, and 26 August 1992
Angola Legal system based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of free markets
Angola Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Angola Executive branch chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; Fernando de Piedade Dias DOS SANTOS was appointed Prime Minister on 6 December 2002, but this is not a position of real power cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections: president elected by universal ballot for a NA-year term; President DOS SANTOS originally elected (in 1979) without opposition under a one-party system and stood for reelection in Angola's first multiparty elections 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA) election results: DOS SANTOS 49.6%, Jonas SAVIMBI 40.1%, making a run-off election necessary; the run-off was not held and SAVIMBI's National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) repudiated the results of the first election; the civil war resumed
Angola Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members elected by proportional vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA) election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 54%, UNITA 34%, others 12%; seats by party - MPLA 129, UNITA 70, PRS 6, FNLA 5, PLD 3, others 7
Angola Judicial branch Supreme Court or Tribunal da Relacao (judges are appointed by the president)
Angola Political parties and leaders Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Analia de Victoria PEREIRA]; National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [disputed leadership: Lucas NGONDA, Holden ROBERTO]; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [interim leader: PAULO Lukamba "Gato"], largest opposition party has engaged in years of armed resistance; Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS], ruling party in power since 1975; Social Renewal Party or PRS [disputed leadership: Eduardo KUANGANA, Antonio MUACHICUNGO] note: about a dozen minor parties participated in the 1992 elections but only won a few seats and have little influence in the National Assembly
Angola Political pressure groups and leaders Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO; Antonio Bento BEMBE] note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province
Angola International organization participation ACP, AfDB, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU, SADC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Angola Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Josefina Perpetua Pitra DIAKIDI FAX: [1] (202) 785-1258 consulate(s) general: Houston and New York telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156 chancery: 2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
Angola Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher William DELL embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of Luanda), Luanda mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda; pouch: American Embassy Luanda, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2550 telephone: [244] (2) 445-481, 447-028, 446-224 FAX: [244] (2) 446-924
Angola Flag description two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)
Angola Economy - overview Angola has been an economy in disarray because of a quarter century of nearly continuous warfare. An apparently durable peace was established after the death of rebel leader Jonas SAVIMBI on February 22, 2002, but consequences from the conflict continue including the impact of wide-spread land mines. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 85% of the population. Oil production and the supporting activities are vital to the economy, contributing about 45% to GDP and more than half of exports. Much of the country's food must still be imported. To fully take advantage of its rich natural resources - gold, diamonds, extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries, and large oil deposits - Angola will need to continue reforming government policies. While Angola made progress in bringing inflation down further, from 325% in 2000 to about 106% in 2002, the government has failed to make sufficient progress on reforms recommended by the IMF such as increasing foreign exchange reserves and promoting greater transparency in government spending. Increased oil production should bring about 6% GDP growth in 2003.
Angola GDP purchasing power parity - $18.36 billion (2002 est.)
Angola GDP - real growth rate 9.4% (2002 est.)
Angola GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,700 (2002 est.)
Angola GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 8% industry: 67% services: 25% (2001 est.)
Angola Population below poverty line NA%
Angola Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Angola Inflation rate (consumer prices) 106% (2002 est.)
Angola Labor force 5 million (1997 est.)
Angola Labor force - by occupation agriculture 85%, industry and services 15% (1997 est.)
Angola Unemployment rate extensive unemployment and underemployment affecting more than half the population (2001 est.)
Angola Budget revenues: $928 million expenditures: $2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $963 million (1992 est.)
Angola Industries petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing; brewing; tobacco products; sugar; textiles
Angola Industrial production growth rate 1%
Angola Electricity - production 1.45 billion kWh (2001)
Angola Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 36.4% hydro: 63.6% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Angola Electricity - consumption 1.348 billion kWh (2001)
Angola Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Angola Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Angola Oil - production 742,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Angola Oil - consumption 31,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Angola Oil - exports NA (2001)
Angola Oil - imports NA (2001)
Angola Oil - proved reserves 5.691 billion bbl (37257)
Angola Natural gas - production 530 million cu m (2001 est.)
Angola Natural gas - consumption 530 million cu m (2001 est.)
Angola Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Angola Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Angola Natural gas - proved reserves 79.57 billion cu m (37257)
Angola Agriculture - products bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish
Angola Exports $8.6 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Angola Exports - commodities crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
Angola Exports - partners US 41.2%, China 13.7%, France 8%, Belgium 6.3%, Taiwan 6.3%, Japan 4.9%, Spain 4.3% (2002)
Angola Imports $4.1 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Angola Imports - commodities machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods
Angola Imports - partners Portugal 20.2%, US 13.9%, South Africa 12.4%, France 6.7%, Brazil 5.8%, Belgium 5.3%, Netherlands 4% (2002)
Angola Debt - external $9.9 billion (2002 est.)
Angola Economic aid - recipient $383.5 million (1999)
Angola Currency kwanza (AOA)
Angola Currency code AOA
Angola Exchange rates kwanza per US dollar - 43.53 (2002), 22.06 (2001), 10.04 (2000), 2.79 (1999), 0.39 (1998); note - in December 1999 the kwanza was revalued with six zeroes dropped off the old value
Angola Fiscal year calendar year
Angola Telephones - main lines in use 72,000 (1998)
Angola Telephones - mobile cellular 25,800 (2000)
Angola Telephone system general assessment: telephone service limited mostly to government and business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for military links domestic: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Angola Radio broadcast stations AM 21, FM 6, shortwave 7 (2000)
Angola Television broadcast stations 6 (2000)
Angola Internet country code .ao
Angola Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Angola Internet users 60,000 (2002)
Angola Railways total: 2,761 km narrow gauge: 2,638 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2002)
Angola Highways total: 51,429 km paved: 5,349 km unpaved: 46,080 km (1999)
Angola Waterways 1,295 km
Angola Pipelines gas 214 km; liquid natural gas 14 km; liquid petroleum gas 30 km; oil 845 km; refined products 56 km (2003)
Angola Ports and harbors Ambriz, Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Malongo, Mocamedes, Namibe, Porto Amboim, Soyo
Angola Merchant marine total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 30,311 GRT/48,924 DWT ships by type: cargo 7, petroleum tanker 1 (2002 est.)
Angola Airports 243 (2002)
Angola Airports - with paved runways total: 32 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 8 1,524 to 2,437 m: 14 914 to 1,523 m: 5 under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Angola Airports - with unpaved runways total: 211 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 30 914 to 1,523 m: 95 under 914 m: 80 (2002)
Angola Military branches Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Police Force
Angola Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Angola Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,568,082 (2003 est.)
Angola Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,290,884 (2003 est.)
Angola Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 109,752 (2003 est.)
Angola Military expenditures - dollar figure $222.7 million (FY02)
Angola Military expenditures - percent of GDP 5.4% (FY02)
Angola Disputes - international gives shelter to thousands of refugees from the Democratic Republic of the Congo while thousands of Angolan refugees still remain in neighboring states as a consequence of the protracted civil wars in both states
Angola Illicit drugs used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western Europe and other African states
Angola Background Civil war has been the norm in Angola since independence from Portugal in 1975. A 1994 peace accord between the government and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) provided for the integration of former UNITA insurgents into the government and armed forces. A national unity government was installed in April of 1997, but serious fighting resumed in late 1998, rendering hundreds of thousands of people homeless. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost in fighting over the past quarter century. The death of insurgent leader Jonas SAVIMBI in 2002 and a subsequent cease-fire with UNITA may bode well for the country.
Angola Location Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo
Angola Geographic coordinates 12 30 S, 18 30 E
Angola Map references Africa
Angola Area total: 1,246,700 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 1,246,700 sq km
Angola Area - comparative slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Angola Land boundaries total: 5,198 km border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km
Angola Coastline 1,600 km
Angola Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
Angola Climate semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
Angola Terrain narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
Angola Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m
Angola Natural resources petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium
Angola Land use arable land: 2.41% permanent crops: 0.4% other: 97.19% (1998 est.)
Angola Irrigated land 750 sq km (1998 est.)
Angola Natural hazards locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau
Angola Environment - current issues overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water
Angola Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Angola Geography - note the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Angola Population 10,766,471 (July 2003 est.)
Angola Age structure 0-14 years: 43.5% (male 2,363,829; female 2,317,610) 15-64 years: 53.7% (male 2,941,999; female 2,842,923) 65 years and over: 2.8% (male 134,330; female 165,780) (2003 est.)
Angola Median age total: 18.2 years male: 18.2 years female: 18.2 years (2002)
Angola Population growth rate 1.97% (2003 est.)
Angola Birth rate 45.57 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Angola Death rate 25.83 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Angola Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Angola Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Angola Infant mortality rate total: 193.82 deaths/1,000 live births female: 180.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 206.26 deaths/1,000 live births
Angola Life expectancy at birth total population: 36.96 years male: 36.13 years female: 37.83 years (2003 est.)
Angola Total fertility rate 6.38 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Angola HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 5.5% (2001 est.)
Angola HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 350,000 (2001 est.)
Angola HIV/AIDS - deaths 24,000 (2001 est.)
Angola Nationality noun: Angolan(s) adjective: Angolan
Angola Ethnic groups Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%
Angola Religions indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998 est.)
Angola Languages Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages
Angola Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 42% male: 56% female: 28% (1998 est.)
Angola Country name conventional long form: Republic of Angola conventional short form: Angola local short form: Angola former: People's Republic of Angola local long form: Republica de Angola
Angola Government type republic, nominally a multiparty democracy with a strong presidential system
Angola Capital Luanda
Angola Administrative divisions 18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire
Angola Independence 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
Angola National holiday Independence Day, 11 November (1975)
Angola Constitution 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, 6 March 1991, and 26 August 1992
Angola Legal system based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of free markets
Angola Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Angola Executive branch chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; Fernando de Piedade Dias DOS SANTOS was appointed Prime Minister on 6 December 2002, but this is not a position of real power cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections: president elected by universal ballot for a NA-year term; President DOS SANTOS originally elected (in 1979) without opposition under a one-party system and stood for reelection in Angola's first multiparty elections 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA) election results: DOS SANTOS 49.6%, Jonas SAVIMBI 40.1%, making a run-off election necessary; the run-off was not held and SAVIMBI's National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) repudiated the results of the first election; the civil war resumed
Angola Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members elected by proportional vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA) election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 54%, UNITA 34%, others 12%; seats by party - MPLA 129, UNITA 70, PRS 6, FNLA 5, PLD 3, others 7
Angola Judicial branch Supreme Court or Tribunal da Relacao (judges are appointed by the president)
Angola Political parties and leaders Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Analia de Victoria PEREIRA]; National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [disputed leadership: Lucas NGONDA, Holden ROBERTO]; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [interim leader: PAULO Lukamba "Gato"], largest opposition party has engaged in years of armed resistance; Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS], ruling party in power since 1975; Social Renewal Party or PRS [disputed leadership: Eduardo KUANGANA, Antonio MUACHICUNGO] note: about a dozen minor parties participated in the 1992 elections but only won a few seats and have little influence in the National Assembly
Angola Political pressure groups and leaders Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO; Antonio Bento BEMBE] note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province
Angola International organization participation ACP, AfDB, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU, SADC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Angola Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Josefina Perpetua Pitra DIAKIDI FAX: [1] (202) 785-1258 consulate(s) general: Houston and New York telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156 chancery: 2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
Angola Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher William DELL embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of Luanda), Luanda mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda; pouch: American Embassy Luanda, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2550 telephone: [244] (2) 445-481, 447-028, 446-224 FAX: [244] (2) 446-924
Angola Flag description two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)
Angola Economy - overview Angola has been an economy in disarray because of a quarter century of nearly continuous warfare. An apparently durable peace was established after the death of rebel leader Jonas SAVIMBI on February 22, 2002, but consequences from the conflict continue including the impact of wide-spread land mines. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 85% of the population. Oil production and the supporting activities are vital to the economy, contributing about 45% to GDP and more than half of exports. Much of the country's food must still be imported. To fully take advantage of its rich natural resources - gold, diamonds, extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries, and large oil deposits - Angola will need to continue reforming government policies. While Angola made progress in bringing inflation down further, from 325% in 2000 to about 106% in 2002, the government has failed to make sufficient progress on reforms recommended by the IMF such as increasing foreign exchange reserves and promoting greater transparency in government spending. Increased oil production should bring about 6% GDP growth in 2003.
Angola GDP purchasing power parity - $18.36 billion (2002 est.)
Angola GDP - real growth rate 9.4% (2002 est.)
Angola GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,700 (2002 est.)
Angola GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 8% industry: 67% services: 25% (2001 est.)
Angola Population below poverty line NA%
Angola Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Angola Inflation rate (consumer prices) 106% (2002 est.)
Angola Labor force 5 million (1997 est.)
Angola Labor force - by occupation agriculture 85%, industry and services 15% (1997 est.)
Angola Unemployment rate extensive unemployment and underemployment affecting more than half the population (2001 est.)
Angola Budget revenues: $928 million expenditures: $2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $963 million (1992 est.)
Angola Industries petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing; brewing; tobacco products; sugar; textiles
Angola Industrial production growth rate 1%
Angola Electricity - production 1.45 billion kWh (2001)
Angola Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 36.4% hydro: 63.6% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Angola Electricity - consumption 1.348 billion kWh (2001)
Angola Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Angola Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Angola Oil - production 742,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Angola Oil - consumption 31,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Angola Oil - exports NA (2001)
Angola Oil - imports NA (2001)
Angola Oil - proved reserves 5.691 billion bbl (37257)
Angola Natural gas - production 530 million cu m (2001 est.)
Angola Natural gas - consumption 530 million cu m (2001 est.)
Angola Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Angola Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Angola Natural gas - proved reserves 79.57 billion cu m (37257)
Angola Agriculture - products bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish
Angola Exports $8.6 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Angola Exports - commodities crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
Angola Exports - partners US 41.2%, China 13.7%, France 8%, Belgium 6.3%, Taiwan 6.3%, Japan 4.9%, Spain 4.3% (2002)
Angola Imports $4.1 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Angola Imports - commodities machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods
Angola Imports - partners Portugal 20.2%, US 13.9%, South Africa 12.4%, France 6.7%, Brazil 5.8%, Belgium 5.3%, Netherlands 4% (2002)
Angola Debt - external $9.9 billion (2002 est.)
Angola Economic aid - recipient $383.5 million (1999)
Angola Currency kwanza (AOA)
Angola Currency code AOA
Angola Exchange rates kwanza per US dollar - 43.53 (2002), 22.06 (2001), 10.04 (2000), 2.79 (1999), 0.39 (1998); note - in December 1999 the kwanza was revalued with six zeroes dropped off the old value
Angola Fiscal year calendar year
Angola Telephones - main lines in use 72,000 (1998)
Angola Telephones - mobile cellular 25,800 (2000)
Angola Telephone system general assessment: telephone service limited mostly to government and business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for military links domestic: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Angola Radio broadcast stations AM 21, FM 6, shortwave 7 (2000)
Angola Television broadcast stations 6 (2000)
Angola Internet country code .ao
Angola Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Angola Internet users 60,000 (2002)
Angola Railways total: 2,761 km narrow gauge: 2,638 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2002)
Angola Highways total: 51,429 km paved: 5,349 km unpaved: 46,080 km (1999)
Angola Waterways 1,295 km
Angola Pipelines gas 214 km; liquid natural gas 14 km; liquid petroleum gas 30 km; oil 845 km; refined products 56 km (2003)
Angola Ports and harbors Ambriz, Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Malongo, Mocamedes, Namibe, Porto Amboim, Soyo
Angola Merchant marine total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 30,311 GRT/48,924 DWT ships by type: cargo 7, petroleum tanker 1 (2002 est.)
Angola Airports 243 (2002)
Angola Airports - with paved runways total: 32 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 8 1,524 to 2,437 m: 14 914 to 1,523 m: 5 under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Angola Airports - with unpaved runways total: 211 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 30 914 to 1,523 m: 95 under 914 m: 80 (2002)
Angola Military branches Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Police Force
Angola Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Angola Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,568,082 (2003 est.)
Angola Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,290,884 (2003 est.)
Angola Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 109,752 (2003 est.)
Angola Military expenditures - dollar figure $222.7 million (FY02)
Angola Military expenditures - percent of GDP 5.4% (FY02)
Angola Disputes - international gives shelter to thousands of refugees from the Democratic Republic of the Congo while thousands of Angolan refugees still remain in neighboring states as a consequence of the protracted civil wars in both states
Angola Illicit drugs used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western Europe and other African states
Anguilla Background Colonized by English settlers from Saint Kitts in 1650, Anguilla was administered by Great Britain until the early 19th century, when the island - against the wishes of the inhabitants - was incorporated into a single British dependency, along with Saint Kitts and Nevis. Several attempts at separation failed. In 1971, two years after a revolt, Anguilla was finally allowed to secede; this arrangement was formally recognized in 1980, with Anguilla becoming a separate British dependency.
Anguilla Location Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, east of Puerto Rico
Anguilla Geographic coordinates 18 15 N, 63 10 W
Anguilla Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Anguilla Area total: 102 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 102 sq km
Anguilla Area - comparative about half the size of Washington, DC
Anguilla Land boundaries 0 km
Anguilla Coastline 61 km
Anguilla Maritime claims exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 3 NM
Anguilla Climate tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds
Anguilla Terrain flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone
Anguilla Elevation extremes lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Crocus Hill 65 m
Anguilla Natural resources salt, fish, lobster
Anguilla Land use arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some commercial salt ponds) (1998 est.)
Anguilla Irrigated land NA sq km
Anguilla Natural hazards frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July to October)
Anguilla Environment - current issues supplies of potable water sometimes cannot meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution system
Anguilla Geography - note the most northerly of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles
Anguilla Population 12,738 (July 2003 est.)
Anguilla Age structure 0-14 years: 24.3% (male 1,575; female 1,526) 15-64 years: 68.8% (male 4,504; female 4,262) 65 years and over: 6.8% (male 387; female 484) (2003 est.)
Anguilla Median age total: 30 years male: 30 years female: 29.9 years (2002)
Anguilla Population growth rate 2.21% (2003 est.)
Anguilla Birth rate 14.68 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Anguilla Death rate 5.42 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Anguilla Net migration rate 12.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Anguilla Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Anguilla Infant mortality rate total: 22.8 deaths/1,000 live births female: 15.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 29.84 deaths/1,000 live births
Anguilla Life expectancy at birth total population: 76.7 years male: 73.79 years female: 79.7 years (2003 est.)
Anguilla Total fertility rate 1.76 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Anguilla HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate NA%
Anguilla HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
Anguilla HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Anguilla Nationality noun: Anguillan(s) adjective: Anguillan
Anguilla Ethnic groups black (predominant), mulatto, white
Anguilla Religions Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%, Baptist 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, other 12%
Anguilla Languages English (official)
Anguilla Literacy definition: age 12 and over can read and write total population: 95% male: 95% female: 95% (1984 est.)
Anguilla Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Anguilla
Anguilla Dependency status overseas territory of the UK
Anguilla Government type NA
Anguilla Capital The Valley
Anguilla Administrative divisions none (overseas territory of the UK)
Anguilla Independence none (overseas territory of the UK)
Anguilla National holiday Anguilla Day, 30 May
Anguilla Constitution Anguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982; amended 1990
Anguilla Legal system based on English common law
Anguilla Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Anguilla Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Peter JOHNSTONE (since NA February 2000) elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed chief minister by the governor head of government: Chief Minister Osbourne FLEMING (since 3 March 2000) cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among the elected members of the House of Assembly
Anguilla Legislative branch unicameral House of Assembly (11 seats total, 7 elected by direct popular vote, 2 ex officio members, and 2 appointed; members serve five-year terms) elections: last held 3 March 2000 (next to be held NA June 2005) election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - ANA 3, AUP 2, ADP 1, independent 1
Anguilla Judicial branch High Court (judge provided by Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court)
Anguilla Political parties and leaders Anguilla United Party or AUP [Hubert HUGHES]; The United Front or UF [Osbourne FLEMING, Victor BANKS], a coalition of the Anguilla Democratic Party or ADP and the Anguilla National Alliance or ANA
Anguilla Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Anguilla International organization participation Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), OECS (associate), ECLAC (associate)
Anguilla Diplomatic representation in the US none (overseas territory of the UK)
Anguilla Diplomatic representation from the US none (overseas territory of the UK)
Anguilla Flag description blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design on a white background with blue wavy water below
Anguilla Economy - overview Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends heavily on luxury tourism, offshore banking, lobster fishing, and remittances from emigrants. Increased activity in the tourism industry, which has spurred the growth of the construction sector, has contributed to economic growth. Anguillan officials have put substantial effort into developing the offshore financial sector, which is small, but growing. In the medium term, prospects for the economy will depend largely on the tourism sector and, therefore, on revived income growth in the industrialized nations as well as on favorable weather conditions.
Anguilla GDP purchasing power parity - $104 million (2001 est.)
Anguilla GDP - real growth rate 2.8% (2001 est.)
Anguilla GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $8,600 (2001 est.)
Anguilla GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 4% industry: 18% services: 78% (1997 est.)
Anguilla Population below poverty line NA%
Anguilla Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Anguilla Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.3%
Anguilla Labor force 6,049 (2001)
Anguilla Labor force - by occupation commerce 36%, services 29%, construction 18%, transportation and utilities 10%, manufacturing 3%, agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining 4% (2000 est,)
Anguilla Unemployment rate 6.7% (2001)
Anguilla Budget revenues: $22.8 million expenditures: $22.5 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2000 est.)
Anguilla Industries tourism, boat building, offshore financial services
Anguilla Industrial production growth rate 3.1% (1997 est.)
Anguilla Electricity - production NA (2000)
Anguilla Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: NA% hydro: NA% other: NA% nuclear: NA%
Anguilla Electricity - consumption 42.6 million kWh
Anguilla Agriculture - products small quantities of tobacco, vegetables; cattle raising
Anguilla Exports $2.6 million (1999)
Anguilla Exports - commodities lobster, fish, livestock, salt, concrete blocks, rum
Anguilla Exports - partners UK, US, Puerto Rico, Saint-Martin (2000)
Anguilla Imports $80.9 million (1999)
Anguilla Imports - commodities fuels, foodstuffs, manufactures, chemicals, trucks, textiles
Anguilla Imports - partners US, Puerto Rico, UK (2000)
Anguilla Debt - external $8.8 million (1998)
Anguilla Economic aid - recipient $3.5 million (1995)
Anguilla Currency East Caribbean dollar (XCD)
Anguilla Currency code XCD
Anguilla Exchange rates East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7000 (fixed rate since 1976)
Anguilla Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Anguilla Telephones - main lines in use 4,974 (2000)
Anguilla Telephones - mobile cellular 1,629 (2000)
Anguilla Telephone system general assessment: NA domestic: modern internal telephone system international: microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin (Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles)
Anguilla Radio broadcast stations AM 5, FM 6, shortwave 1 (1998)
Anguilla Television broadcast stations 1 (1997)
Anguilla Internet country code .ai
Anguilla Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 16 (2000)
Anguilla Internet users 919 (2000)
Anguilla Railways 0 km
Anguilla Highways total: 105 km paved: 65 km unpaved: 40 km (1997)
Anguilla Waterways none
Anguilla Ports and harbors Blowing Point, Road Bay
Anguilla Merchant marine none (2002 est.)
Anguilla Airports 3 (2002)
Anguilla Airports - with paved runways total: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)
Anguilla Airports - with unpaved runways total: 2 under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Anguilla Military - note defense is the responsibility of the UK
Anguilla Disputes - international none
Anguilla Illicit drugs transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the US and Europe
Anguilla Background Colonized by English settlers from Saint Kitts in 1650, Anguilla was administered by Great Britain until the early 19th century, when the island - against the wishes of the inhabitants - was incorporated into a single British dependency, along with Saint Kitts and Nevis. Several attempts at separation failed. In 1971, two years after a revolt, Anguilla was finally allowed to secede; this arrangement was formally recognized in 1980, with Anguilla becoming a separate British dependency.
Anguilla Location Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, east of Puerto Rico
Anguilla Geographic coordinates 18 15 N, 63 10 W
Anguilla Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Anguilla Area total: 102 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 102 sq km
Anguilla Area - comparative about half the size of Washington, DC
Anguilla Land boundaries 0 km
Anguilla Coastline 61 km
Anguilla Maritime claims exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 3 NM
Anguilla Climate tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds
Anguilla Terrain flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone
Anguilla Elevation extremes lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Crocus Hill 65 m
Anguilla Natural resources salt, fish, lobster
Anguilla Land use arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some commercial salt ponds) (1998 est.)
Anguilla Irrigated land NA sq km
Anguilla Natural hazards frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July to October)
Anguilla Environment - current issues supplies of potable water sometimes cannot meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution system
Anguilla Geography - note the most northerly of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles
Anguilla Population 12,738 (July 2003 est.)
Anguilla Age structure 0-14 years: 24.3% (male 1,575; female 1,526) 15-64 years: 68.8% (male 4,504; female 4,262) 65 years and over: 6.8% (male 387; female 484) (2003 est.)
Anguilla Median age total: 30 years male: 30 years female: 29.9 years (2002)
Anguilla Population growth rate 2.21% (2003 est.)
Anguilla Birth rate 14.68 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Anguilla Death rate 5.42 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Anguilla Net migration rate 12.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Anguilla Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Anguilla Infant mortality rate total: 22.8 deaths/1,000 live births female: 15.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 29.84 deaths/1,000 live births
Anguilla Life expectancy at birth total population: 76.7 years male: 73.79 years female: 79.7 years (2003 est.)
Anguilla Total fertility rate 1.76 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Anguilla HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate NA%
Anguilla HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
Anguilla HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Anguilla Nationality noun: Anguillan(s) adjective: Anguillan
Anguilla Ethnic groups black (predominant), mulatto, white
Anguilla Religions Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%, Baptist 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, other 12%
Anguilla Languages English (official)
Anguilla Literacy definition: age 12 and over can read and write total population: 95% male: 95% female: 95% (1984 est.)
Anguilla Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Anguilla
Anguilla Dependency status overseas territory of the UK
Anguilla Government type NA
Anguilla Capital The Valley
Anguilla Administrative divisions none (overseas territory of the UK)
Anguilla Independence none (overseas territory of the UK)
Anguilla National holiday Anguilla Day, 30 May
Anguilla Constitution Anguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982; amended 1990
Anguilla Legal system based on English common law
Anguilla Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Anguilla Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Peter JOHNSTONE (since NA February 2000) elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed chief minister by the governor head of government: Chief Minister Osbourne FLEMING (since 3 March 2000) cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among the elected members of the House of Assembly
Anguilla Legislative branch unicameral House of Assembly (11 seats total, 7 elected by direct popular vote, 2 ex officio members, and 2 appointed; members serve five-year terms) elections: last held 3 March 2000 (next to be held NA June 2005) election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - ANA 3, AUP 2, ADP 1, independent 1
Anguilla Judicial branch High Court (judge provided by Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court)
Anguilla Political parties and leaders Anguilla United Party or AUP [Hubert HUGHES]; The United Front or UF [Osbourne FLEMING, Victor BANKS], a coalition of the Anguilla Democratic Party or ADP and the Anguilla National Alliance or ANA
Anguilla Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Anguilla International organization participation Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), OECS (associate), ECLAC (associate)
Anguilla Diplomatic representation in the US none (overseas territory of the UK)
Anguilla Diplomatic representation from the US none (overseas territory of the UK)
Anguilla Flag description blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design on a white background with blue wavy water below
Anguilla Economy - overview Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends heavily on luxury tourism, offshore banking, lobster fishing, and remittances from emigrants. Increased activity in the tourism industry, which has spurred the growth of the construction sector, has contributed to economic growth. Anguillan officials have put substantial effort into developing the offshore financial sector, which is small, but growing. In the medium term, prospects for the economy will depend largely on the tourism sector and, therefore, on revived income growth in the industrialized nations as well as on favorable weather conditions.
Anguilla GDP purchasing power parity - $104 million (2001 est.)
Anguilla GDP - real growth rate 2.8% (2001 est.)
Anguilla GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $8,600 (2001 est.)
Anguilla GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 4% industry: 18% services: 78% (1997 est.)
Anguilla Population below poverty line NA%
Anguilla Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Anguilla Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.3%
Anguilla Labor force 6,049 (2001)
Anguilla Labor force - by occupation commerce 36%, services 29%, construction 18%, transportation and utilities 10%, manufacturing 3%, agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining 4% (2000 est,)
Anguilla Unemployment rate 6.7% (2001)
Anguilla Budget revenues: $22.8 million expenditures: $22.5 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2000 est.)
Anguilla Industries tourism, boat building, offshore financial services
Anguilla Industrial production growth rate 3.1% (1997 est.)
Anguilla Electricity - production NA (2000)
Anguilla Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: NA% hydro: NA% other: NA% nuclear: NA%
Anguilla Electricity - consumption 42.6 million kWh
Anguilla Agriculture - products small quantities of tobacco, vegetables; cattle raising
Anguilla Exports $2.6 million (1999)
Anguilla Exports - commodities lobster, fish, livestock, salt, concrete blocks, rum
Anguilla Exports - partners UK, US, Puerto Rico, Saint-Martin (2000)
Anguilla Imports $80.9 million (1999)
Anguilla Imports - commodities fuels, foodstuffs, manufactures, chemicals, trucks, textiles
Anguilla Imports - partners US, Puerto Rico, UK (2000)
Anguilla Debt - external $8.8 million (1998)
Anguilla Economic aid - recipient $3.5 million (1995)
Anguilla Currency East Caribbean dollar (XCD)
Anguilla Currency code XCD
Anguilla Exchange rates East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7000 (fixed rate since 1976)
Anguilla Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Anguilla Telephones - main lines in use 4,974 (2000)
Anguilla Telephones - mobile cellular 1,629 (2000)
Anguilla Telephone system general assessment: NA domestic: modern internal telephone system international: microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin (Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles)
Anguilla Radio broadcast stations AM 5, FM 6, shortwave 1 (1998)
Anguilla Television broadcast stations 1 (1997)
Anguilla Internet country code .ai
Anguilla Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 16 (2000)
Anguilla Internet users 919 (2000)
Anguilla Railways 0 km
Anguilla Highways total: 105 km paved: 65 km unpaved: 40 km (1997)
Anguilla Waterways none
Anguilla Ports and harbors Blowing Point, Road Bay
Anguilla Merchant marine none (2002 est.)
Anguilla Airports 3 (2002)
Anguilla Airports - with paved runways total: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)
Anguilla Airports - with unpaved runways total: 2 under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Anguilla Military - note defense is the responsibility of the UK
Anguilla Disputes - international none
Anguilla Illicit drugs transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the US and Europe
Antarctica Background Speculation over the existence of a "southern land" was not confirmed until the early 1820s when British and American commercial operators and British and Russian national expeditions began exploring the Antarctic Peninsula region and other areas south of the Antarctic Circle. Not until 1840 was it established that Antarctica was indeed a continent and not just a group of islands. Several exploration "firsts" were achieved in the early 20th century. Following World War II, there was an upsurge in scientific research on the continent. A number of countries have set up year-round research stations on Antarctica. Seven have made territorial claims, but no other country recognizes these claims. In order to form a legal framework for the activities of nations on the continent, an Antarctic Treaty was negotiated that neither denies nor gives recognition to existing territorial claims; signed in 1959, it entered into force in 1961.
Antarctica Location continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle
Antarctica Geographic coordinates 90 00 S, 0 00 E
Antarctica Map references Antarctic Region
Antarctica Area total: 14 million sq km note: fifth-largest continent, following Asia, Africa, North America, and South America, but larger than Australia and the subcontinent of Europe land: 14 million sq km (280,000 sq km ice-free, 13.72 million sq km ice-covered) (est.)
Antarctica Area - comparative slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US
Antarctica Land boundaries 0 km note: see entry on International disputes
Antarctica Coastline 17,968 km
Antarctica Maritime claims none; 20 of 27 Antarctic consultative nations have made no claims to Antarctic territory (although Russia and the US have reserved the right to do so) and do not recognize the claims of the other nations; also see the Disputes - international entry
Antarctica Climate severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the coast and average slightly below freezing
Antarctica Terrain about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock, with average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to nearly 5,000 meters; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves constitute 11% of the area of the continent
Antarctica Elevation extremes lowest point: Bentley Subglacial Trench -2,555 m highest point: Vinson Massif 4,897 m note: the lowest known land point in Antarctica is hidden in the Bentley Subglacial Trench; at its surface is the deepest ice yet discovered and the world's lowest elevation not under seawater
Antarctica Natural resources iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum and other minerals, and coal and hydrocarbons have been found in small uncommercial quantities; none presently exploited; krill, finfish, and crab have been taken by commercial fisheries
Antarctica Land use arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%) (1998 est.)
Antarctica Irrigated land 0 sq km (1998 est.)
Antarctica Natural hazards katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along the coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak; large icebergs may calve from ice shelf
Antarctica Environment - current issues in 1998, NASA satellite data showed that the antarctic ozone hole was the largest on record, covering 27 million square kilometers; researchers in 1997 found that increased ultraviolet light coming through the hole damages the DNA of icefish, an antarctic fish lacking hemoglobin; ozone depletion earlier was shown to harm one-celled antarctic marine plants; in 2002, significant areas of ice shelves disintegrated in response to regional warming
Antarctica Geography - note the coldest, windiest, highest (on average), and driest continent; during summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; mostly uninhabitable
Antarctica Population no indigenous inhabitants, but there are seasonally staffed research stations note: approximately 27 nations, all signatory to the Antarctic Treaty, send personnel to perform seasonal (summer) and year-round research on the continent and in its surrounding oceans; the population of persons doing and supporting science on the continent and its nearby islands south of 60 degrees south latitude (the region covered by the Antarctic Treaty) varies from approximately 4,000 in summer to 1,000 in winter; in addition, approximately 1,000 personnel including ship's crew and scientists doing onboard research are present in the waters of the treaty region; summer (January) population - 3,687 total; Argentina 302, Australia 201, Belgium 13, Brazil 80, Bulgaria 16, Chile 352, China 70, Finland 11, France 100, Germany 51, India 60, Italy 106, Japan 136, South Korea 14, Netherlands 10, NZ 60, Norway 40, Peru 28, Poland 70, Russia 254, South Africa 80, Spain 43, Sweden 20, UK 192, US 1,378 (1998-99); winter (July) population - 964 total; Argentina 165, Australia 75, Brazil 12, Chile 129, China 33, France 33, Germany 9, India 25, Japan 40, South Korea 14, NZ 10, Poland 20, Russia 102, South Africa 10, UK 39, US 248 (1998-99); year-round stations - 42 total; Argentina 6, Australia 4, Brazil 1, Chile 4, China 2, Finland 1, France 1, Germany 1, India 1, Italy 1, Japan 1, South Korea 1, NZ 1, Norway 1, Poland 1, Russia 6, South Africa 1, Spain 1, Ukraine 1, UK 2, US 3, Uruguay 1 (1998-99); summer-only stations - 32 total; Argentina 3, Australia 4, Bulgaria 1, Chile 7, Germany 1, India 1, Japan 3, NZ 1, Peru 1, Russia 3, Sweden 2, UK 5 (1998-99); in addition, during the austral summer some nations have numerous occupied locations such as tent camps, summer-long temporary facilities, and mobile traverses in support of research (July 2003 est.)
Antarctica Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Antarctica
Antarctica Government type Antarctic Treaty Summary - the Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, establishes the legal framework for the management of Antarctica. The 24th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was held in Russia in July 2001. At the end of 2001, there were 45 treaty member nations: 27 consultative and 18 non-consultative. Consultative (voting) members include the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica as national territory (some claims overlap) and 20 nonclaimant nations. The US and Russia have reserved the right to make claims. The US does not recognize the claims of others. Antarctica is administered through meetings of the consultative member nations. Decisions from these meetings are carried out by these member nations (within their areas) in accordance with their own national laws. The year in parentheses indicates when an acceding nation was voted to full consultative (voting) status, while no date indicates the country was an original 1959 treaty signatory. Claimant nations are - Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant consultative nations are - Belgium, Brazil (1983), Bulgaria (1998) China (1985), Ecuador (1990), Finland (1989), Germany (1981), India (1983), Italy (1987), Japan, South Korea (1989), Netherlands (1990), Peru (1989), Poland (1977), Russia, South Africa, Spain (1988), Sweden (1988), Uruguay (1985), and the US. Non-consultative (nonvoting) members, with year of accession in parentheses, are - Austria (1987), Canada (1988), Colombia (1989), Cuba (1984), Czech Republic (1993), Denmark (1965), Estonia (2001), Greece (1987), Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea (1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia (1993), Switzerland (1990), Turkey (1995), Ukraine (1992), and Venezuela (1999). Article 1 - area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel and equipment may be used for scientific research or any other peaceful purpose; Article 2 - freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue; Article 3 - free exchange of information and personnel, cooperation with the UN and other international agencies; Article 4 - does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims and no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force; Article 5 - prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes; Article 6 - includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees 00 minutes south and reserves high seas rights; Article 7 - treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial observation, to any area and may inspect all stations, installations, and equipment; advance notice of all expeditions and of the introduction of military personnel must be given; Article 8 - allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own states; Article 9 - frequent consultative meetings take place among member nations; Article 10 - treaty states will discourage activities by any country in Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty; Article 11 - disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ; Articles 12, 13, 14 - deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among involved nations. Other agreements - some 200 recommendations adopted at treaty consultative meetings and ratified by governments include - Agreed Measures for Fauna and Flora (1964) which were later incorporated into the Environmental Protocol; Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980); a mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988 but remains unratified; the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed 4 October 1991 and entered into force 14 January 1998; this agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment through five specific annexes: 1) marine pollution, 2) fauna and flora, 3) environmental impact assessments, 4) waste management, and 5) protected area management; it prohibits all activities relating to mineral resources except scientific research.
Antarctica Legal system Antarctica is administered through meetings of the consultative member nations. Decisions from these meetings are carried out by these member nations (within their areas) in accordance with their own national laws. US law, including certain criminal offenses by or against US nationals, such as murder, may apply extra-territorially. Some US laws directly apply to Antarctica. For example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C. section 2401 et seq., provides civil and criminal penalties for the following activities, unless authorized by regulation of statute: the taking of native mammals or birds; the introduction of nonindigenous plants and animals; entry into specially protected areas; the discharge or disposal of pollutants; and the importation into the US of certain items from Antarctica. Violation of the Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000 in fines and one year in prison. The National Science Foundation and Department of Justice share enforcement responsibilities. Public Law 95-541, the US Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, as amended in 1996, requires expeditions from the US to Antarctica to notify, in advance, the Office of Oceans, Room 5805, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520, which reports such plans to other nations as required by the Antarctic Treaty. For more information, contact Permit Office, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia 22230; telephone: (703) 292-8030, or visit their website at www.nsf.gov.
Antarctica Economy - overview Fishing off the coast and tourism, both based abroad, account for the limited economic activity. Antarctic fisheries in 2000-01 (1 July-30 June) reported landing 112,934 metric tons. Unregulated fishing, particularly of tooth fish, is a serious problem. Allegedly illegal fishing in antarctic waters in 1998 resulted in the seizure (by France and Australia) of at least eight fishing ships. The Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources determines the recommended catch limits for marine species. A total of 12,248 tourists visited in the 2000-01 antarctic summer, down from the 14,762 who visited the previous year. Nearly all of them were passengers on 21 commercial (nongovernmental) ships and several yachts that made trips during the summer. Most tourist trips lasted approximately two weeks.
Antarctica Telephones - main lines in use 0 note: information for US bases only (2001)
Antarctica Telephones - mobile cellular NA; Iridium system in use
Antarctica Telephone system general assessment: local systems at some research stations domestic: NA international: via satellite from some research stations
Antarctica Radio broadcast stations AM NA, FM 2, shortwave 1 note: information for US bases only (2002)
Antarctica Television broadcast stations 1 (cable system with six channels; American Forces Antarctic Network-McMurdo) note: information for US bases only (2002)
Antarctica Internet country code .aq
Antarctica Internet Service Providers (ISPs) NA
Antarctica Ports and harbors there are no developed ports and harbors in Antarctica; most coastal stations have offshore anchorages, and supplies are transferred from ship to shore by small boats, barges, and helicopters; a few stations have a basic wharf facility; US coastal stations include McMurdo (77 51 S, 166 40 E), Palmer (64 43 S, 64 03 W); government use only except by permit (see Permit Office under "Legal System"); all ships at port are subject to inspection in accordance with Article 7, Antarctic Treaty; offshore anchorage is sparse and intermittent
Antarctica Airports 30 note: 30 stations, operated by 16 national governments party to the Antarctic Treaty, have aircraft landing facilities for either helicopters and/or fixed-wing aircraft; commercial enterprises operate two additional aircraft landing facilities; helicopter pads are available at 27 stations; runways at 15 locations are gravel, sea-ice, blue-ice, or compacted snow suitable for landing wheeled, fixed-wing aircraft; of these, 1 is greater than 3 km in length, 6 are between 2 km and 3 km in length, 3 are between 1 km and 2 km in length, 3 are less than 1 km in length, and 2 are of unknown length; snow surface skiways, limited to use by ski-equipped, fixed-wing aircraft, are available at another 15 locations; of these, 4 are greater than 3 km in length, 3 are between 2 km and 3 km in length, 2 are between 1 km and 2 km in length, 2 are less than 1 km in length, and 4 are of unknown length; aircraft landing facilities generally subject to severe restrictions and limitations resulting from extreme seasonal and geographic conditions; aircraft landing facilities do not meet ICAO standards; advance approval from the respective governmental or nongovernmental operating organization required for landing; landed aircraft are subject to inspection in accordance with Article 7, Antarctic Treaty (2002)
Antarctica Airports - with unpaved runways total: 19 over 3,047 m: 6 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 4 under 914 m: 5 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
Antarctica Heliports 27 stations have helicopter landing facilities (helipads) (2002)
Antarctica Military - note the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a military nature, such as the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the carrying out of military maneuvers, or the testing of any type of weapon; it permits the use of military personnel or equipment for scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes
Antarctica Disputes - international Antarctic Treaty freezes claims (see Antarctic Treaty Summary in Government type entry); sections (some overlapping) claimed by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, NZ, Norway, and UK; the US and most other states do not recognize the territorial claims of other states and have made no claims themselves (the US and Russia reserve the right to do so); no claims have been made in the sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west; several states with land claims in Antarctica have expressed their intention to submit data to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf to extend their continental shelf claims to adjoining undersea ridges
Antarctica Background Speculation over the existence of a "southern land" was not confirmed until the early 1820s when British and American commercial operators and British and Russian national expeditions began exploring the Antarctic Peninsula region and other areas south of the Antarctic Circle. Not until 1840 was it established that Antarctica was indeed a continent and not just a group of islands. Several exploration "firsts" were achieved in the early 20th century. Following World War II, there was an upsurge in scientific research on the continent. A number of countries have set up year-round research stations on Antarctica. Seven have made territorial claims, but no other country recognizes these claims. In order to form a legal framework for the activities of nations on the continent, an Antarctic Treaty was negotiated that neither denies nor gives recognition to existing territorial claims; signed in 1959, it entered into force in 1961.
Antarctica Location continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle
Antarctica Geographic coordinates 90 00 S, 0 00 E
Antarctica Map references Antarctic Region
Antarctica Area total: 14 million sq km note: fifth-largest continent, following Asia, Africa, North America, and South America, but larger than Australia and the subcontinent of Europe land: 14 million sq km (280,000 sq km ice-free, 13.72 million sq km ice-covered) (est.)
Antarctica Area - comparative slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US
Antarctica Land boundaries 0 km note: see entry on International disputes
Antarctica Coastline 17,968 km
Antarctica Maritime claims none; 20 of 27 Antarctic consultative nations have made no claims to Antarctic territory (although Russia and the US have reserved the right to do so) and do not recognize the claims of the other nations; also see the Disputes - international entry
Antarctica Climate severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the coast and average slightly below freezing
Antarctica Terrain about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock, with average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to nearly 5,000 meters; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves constitute 11% of the area of the continent
Antarctica Elevation extremes lowest point: Bentley Subglacial Trench -2,555 m highest point: Vinson Massif 4,897 m note: the lowest known land point in Antarctica is hidden in the Bentley Subglacial Trench; at its surface is the deepest ice yet discovered and the world's lowest elevation not under seawater
Antarctica Natural resources iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum and other minerals, and coal and hydrocarbons have been found in small uncommercial quantities; none presently exploited; krill, finfish, and crab have been taken by commercial fisheries
Antarctica Land use arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%) (1998 est.)
Antarctica Irrigated land 0 sq km (1998 est.)
Antarctica Natural hazards katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along the coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak; large icebergs may calve from ice shelf
Antarctica Environment - current issues in 1998, NASA satellite data showed that the antarctic ozone hole was the largest on record, covering 27 million square kilometers; researchers in 1997 found that increased ultraviolet light coming through the hole damages the DNA of icefish, an antarctic fish lacking hemoglobin; ozone depletion earlier was shown to harm one-celled antarctic marine plants; in 2002, significant areas of ice shelves disintegrated in response to regional warming
Antarctica Geography - note the coldest, windiest, highest (on average), and driest continent; during summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; mostly uninhabitable
Antarctica Population no indigenous inhabitants, but there are seasonally staffed research stations note: approximately 27 nations, all signatory to the Antarctic Treaty, send personnel to perform seasonal (summer) and year-round research on the continent and in its surrounding oceans; the population of persons doing and supporting science on the continent and its nearby islands south of 60 degrees south latitude (the region covered by the Antarctic Treaty) varies from approximately 4,000 in summer to 1,000 in winter; in addition, approximately 1,000 personnel including ship's crew and scientists doing onboard research are present in the waters of the treaty region; summer (January) population - 3,687 total; Argentina 302, Australia 201, Belgium 13, Brazil 80, Bulgaria 16, Chile 352, China 70, Finland 11, France 100, Germany 51, India 60, Italy 106, Japan 136, South Korea 14, Netherlands 10, NZ 60, Norway 40, Peru 28, Poland 70, Russia 254, South Africa 80, Spain 43, Sweden 20, UK 192, US 1,378 (1998-99); winter (July) population - 964 total; Argentina 165, Australia 75, Brazil 12, Chile 129, China 33, France 33, Germany 9, India 25, Japan 40, South Korea 14, NZ 10, Poland 20, Russia 102, South Africa 10, UK 39, US 248 (1998-99); year-round stations - 42 total; Argentina 6, Australia 4, Brazil 1, Chile 4, China 2, Finland 1, France 1, Germany 1, India 1, Italy 1, Japan 1, South Korea 1, NZ 1, Norway 1, Poland 1, Russia 6, South Africa 1, Spain 1, Ukraine 1, UK 2, US 3, Uruguay 1 (1998-99); summer-only stations - 32 total; Argentina 3, Australia 4, Bulgaria 1, Chile 7, Germany 1, India 1, Japan 3, NZ 1, Peru 1, Russia 3, Sweden 2, UK 5 (1998-99); in addition, during the austral summer some nations have numerous occupied locations such as tent camps, summer-long temporary facilities, and mobile traverses in support of research (July 2003 est.)
Antarctica Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Antarctica
Antarctica Government type Antarctic Treaty Summary - the Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, establishes the legal framework for the management of Antarctica. The 24th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was held in Russia in July 2001. At the end of 2001, there were 45 treaty member nations: 27 consultative and 18 non-consultative. Consultative (voting) members include the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica as national territory (some claims overlap) and 20 nonclaimant nations. The US and Russia have reserved the right to make claims. The US does not recognize the claims of others. Antarctica is administered through meetings of the consultative member nations. Decisions from these meetings are carried out by these member nations (within their areas) in accordance with their own national laws. The year in parentheses indicates when an acceding nation was voted to full consultative (voting) status, while no date indicates the country was an original 1959 treaty signatory. Claimant nations are - Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant consultative nations are - Belgium, Brazil (1983), Bulgaria (1998) China (1985), Ecuador (1990), Finland (1989), Germany (1981), India (1983), Italy (1987), Japan, South Korea (1989), Netherlands (1990), Peru (1989), Poland (1977), Russia, South Africa, Spain (1988), Sweden (1988), Uruguay (1985), and the US. Non-consultative (nonvoting) members, with year of accession in parentheses, are - Austria (1987), Canada (1988), Colombia (1989), Cuba (1984), Czech Republic (1993), Denmark (1965), Estonia (2001), Greece (1987), Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea (1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia (1993), Switzerland (1990), Turkey (1995), Ukraine (1992), and Venezuela (1999). Article 1 - area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel and equipment may be used for scientific research or any other peaceful purpose; Article 2 - freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue; Article 3 - free exchange of information and personnel, cooperation with the UN and other international agencies; Article 4 - does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims and no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force; Article 5 - prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes; Article 6 - includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees 00 minutes south and reserves high seas rights; Article 7 - treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial observation, to any area and may inspect all stations, installations, and equipment; advance notice of all expeditions and of the introduction of military personnel must be given; Article 8 - allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own states; Article 9 - frequent consultative meetings take place among member nations; Article 10 - treaty states will discourage activities by any country in Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty; Article 11 - disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ; Articles 12, 13, 14 - deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among involved nations. Other agreements - some 200 recommendations adopted at treaty consultative meetings and ratified by governments include - Agreed Measures for Fauna and Flora (1964) which were later incorporated into the Environmental Protocol; Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980); a mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988 but remains unratified; the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed 4 October 1991 and entered into force 14 January 1998; this agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment through five specific annexes: 1) marine pollution, 2) fauna and flora, 3) environmental impact assessments, 4) waste management, and 5) protected area management; it prohibits all activities relating to mineral resources except scientific research.
Antarctica Legal system Antarctica is administered through meetings of the consultative member nations. Decisions from these meetings are carried out by these member nations (within their areas) in accordance with their own national laws. US law, including certain criminal offenses by or against US nationals, such as murder, may apply extra-territorially. Some US laws directly apply to Antarctica. For example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C. section 2401 et seq., provides civil and criminal penalties for the following activities, unless authorized by regulation of statute: the taking of native mammals or birds; the introduction of nonindigenous plants and animals; entry into specially protected areas; the discharge or disposal of pollutants; and the importation into the US of certain items from Antarctica. Violation of the Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000 in fines and one year in prison. The National Science Foundation and Department of Justice share enforcement responsibilities. Public Law 95-541, the US Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, as amended in 1996, requires expeditions from the US to Antarctica to notify, in advance, the Office of Oceans, Room 5805, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520, which reports such plans to other nations as required by the Antarctic Treaty. For more information, contact Permit Office, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia 22230; telephone: (703) 292-8030, or visit their website at www.nsf.gov.
Antarctica Economy - overview Fishing off the coast and tourism, both based abroad, account for the limited economic activity. Antarctic fisheries in 2000-01 (1 July-30 June) reported landing 112,934 metric tons. Unregulated fishing, particularly of tooth fish, is a serious problem. Allegedly illegal fishing in antarctic waters in 1998 resulted in the seizure (by France and Australia) of at least eight fishing ships. The Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources determines the recommended catch limits for marine species. A total of 12,248 tourists visited in the 2000-01 antarctic summer, down from the 14,762 who visited the previous year. Nearly all of them were passengers on 21 commercial (nongovernmental) ships and several yachts that made trips during the summer. Most tourist trips lasted approximately two weeks.
Antarctica Telephones - main lines in use 0 note: information for US bases only (2001)
Antarctica Telephones - mobile cellular NA; Iridium system in use
Antarctica Telephone system general assessment: local systems at some research stations domestic: NA international: via satellite from some research stations
Antarctica Radio broadcast stations AM NA, FM 2, shortwave 1 note: information for US bases only (2002)
Antarctica Television broadcast stations 1 (cable system with six channels; American Forces Antarctic Network-McMurdo) note: information for US bases only (2002)
Antarctica Internet country code .aq
Antarctica Internet Service Providers (ISPs) NA
Antarctica Ports and harbors there are no developed ports and harbors in Antarctica; most coastal stations have offshore anchorages, and supplies are transferred from ship to shore by small boats, barges, and helicopters; a few stations have a basic wharf facility; US coastal stations include McMurdo (77 51 S, 166 40 E), Palmer (64 43 S, 64 03 W); government use only except by permit (see Permit Office under "Legal System"); all ships at port are subject to inspection in accordance with Article 7, Antarctic Treaty; offshore anchorage is sparse and intermittent
Antarctica Airports 30 note: 30 stations, operated by 16 national governments party to the Antarctic Treaty, have aircraft landing facilities for either helicopters and/or fixed-wing aircraft; commercial enterprises operate two additional aircraft landing facilities; helicopter pads are available at 27 stations; runways at 15 locations are gravel, sea-ice, blue-ice, or compacted snow suitable for landing wheeled, fixed-wing aircraft; of these, 1 is greater than 3 km in length, 6 are between 2 km and 3 km in length, 3 are between 1 km and 2 km in length, 3 are less than 1 km in length, and 2 are of unknown length; snow surface skiways, limited to use by ski-equipped, fixed-wing aircraft, are available at another 15 locations; of these, 4 are greater than 3 km in length, 3 are between 2 km and 3 km in length, 2 are between 1 km and 2 km in length, 2 are less than 1 km in length, and 4 are of unknown length; aircraft landing facilities generally subject to severe restrictions and limitations resulting from extreme seasonal and geographic conditions; aircraft landing facilities do not meet ICAO standards; advance approval from the respective governmental or nongovernmental operating organization required for landing; landed aircraft are subject to inspection in accordance with Article 7, Antarctic Treaty (2002)
Antarctica Airports - with unpaved runways total: 19 over 3,047 m: 6 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 4 under 914 m: 5 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
Antarctica Heliports 27 stations have helicopter landing facilities (helipads) (2002)
Antarctica Military - note the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a military nature, such as the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the carrying out of military maneuvers, or the testing of any type of weapon; it permits the use of military personnel or equipment for scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes
Antarctica Disputes - international Antarctic Treaty freezes claims (see Antarctic Treaty Summary in Government type entry); sections (some overlapping) claimed by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, NZ, Norway, and UK; the US and most other states do not recognize the territorial claims of other states and have made no claims themselves (the US and Russia reserve the right to do so); no claims have been made in the sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west; several states with land claims in Antarctica have expressed their intention to submit data to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf to extend their continental shelf claims to adjoining undersea ridges
Antigua and Barbuda Background The Siboney were the first to inhabit the islands of Antigua and Barbuda in 2400 B.C., but Arawak and Carib Indians populated the islands when Columbus landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early settlements by the Spanish and French were succeeded by the English who formed a colony in 1667. Slavery, established to run the sugar plantations on Antigua, was abolished in 1834. The islands became an independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981.
Antigua and Barbuda Location Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico
Antigua and Barbuda Geographic coordinates 17 03 N, 61 48 W
Antigua and Barbuda Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Antigua and Barbuda Area total: 443 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km) water: 0 sq km note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km land: 443 sq km
Antigua and Barbuda Area - comparative 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Antigua and Barbuda Land boundaries 0 km
Antigua and Barbuda Coastline 153 km
Antigua and Barbuda Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
Antigua and Barbuda Climate tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation
Antigua and Barbuda Terrain mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher volcanic areas
Antigua and Barbuda Elevation extremes lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m
Antigua and Barbuda Natural resources NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism
Antigua and Barbuda Land use arable land: 18.18% permanent crops: 0% other: 81.82% (1998 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Irrigated land NA sq km
Antigua and Barbuda Natural hazards hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts
Antigua and Barbuda Environment - current issues water management - a major concern because of limited natural fresh water resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly
Antigua and Barbuda Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Antigua and Barbuda Geography - note Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors and beaches; Barbuda has a very large western harbor
Antigua and Barbuda Population 67,897 (July 2003 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Age structure 0-14 years: 28.1% (male 9,706; female 9,371) 15-64 years: 67.4% (male 22,929; female 22,845) 65 years and over: 4.5% (male 1,218; female 1,828) (2003 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Median age total: 29.1 years male: 28.6 years female: 29.6 years (2002)
Antigua and Barbuda Population growth rate 0.64% (2003 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Birth rate 18.23 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Death rate 5.64 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Net migration rate -6.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Infant mortality rate total: 20.9 deaths/1,000 live births female: 16.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 25.14 deaths/1,000 live births
Antigua and Barbuda Life expectancy at birth total population: 71.31 years male: 68.99 years female: 73.75 years (2003 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Total fertility rate 2.28 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate NA%
Antigua and Barbuda HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
Antigua and Barbuda HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Antigua and Barbuda Nationality noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s) adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan
Antigua and Barbuda Ethnic groups black, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian
Antigua and Barbuda Religions Christian, (predominantly Anglican with other Protestant, and some Roman Catholic)
Antigua and Barbuda Languages English (official), local dialects
Antigua and Barbuda Literacy definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling total population: 89% male: 90% female: 88% (1960 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda Government type constitutional monarchy with UK-style parliament
Antigua and Barbuda Capital Saint John's
Antigua and Barbuda Administrative divisions 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip
Antigua and Barbuda Independence 1 November 1981 (from UK)
Antigua and Barbuda National holiday Independence Day (National Day), 1 November (1981)
Antigua and Barbuda Constitution 1 November 1981
Antigua and Barbuda Legal system based on English common law
Antigua and Barbuda Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Antigua and Barbuda Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General James B. CARLISLE (since NA 1993) elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general chosen by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister head of government: Prime Minister Lester Bryant BIRD (since 8 March 1994); Deputy Prime Minister Robin YEARWOOD
Antigua and Barbuda Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17-member body appointed by the governor general) and the House of Representatives (17 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve five-year terms) election results: percent of vote by party - ALP 53.2%, UPP 45.5%, independent 1.3%; seats by party - ALP 12, UPP 4, independent 1 elections: House of Representatives - last held 9 March 1999 (next to be held prior to March 2004)
Antigua and Barbuda Judicial branch Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia; one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction)
Antigua and Barbuda Political parties and leaders Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester Bryant BIRD]; Barbuda People's Movement or BPM [Thomas H. FRANK]; United Progressive Party or UPP [Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three opposition parties - United National Democratic Party or UNDP, Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM, and Progressive Labor Movement or PLM)
Antigua and Barbuda Political pressure groups and leaders Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]
Antigua and Barbuda International organization participation ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Antigua and Barbuda Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant) chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016 telephone: [1] (202) 362-5211 FAX: [1] (202) 362-5225 consulate(s) general: Miami
Antigua and Barbuda Diplomatic representation from the US the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda (embassy closed 30 June 1994); the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda Flag description red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the black band
Antigua and Barbuda Economy - overview Tourism continues to dominate the economy, accounting for more than half of GDP. Weak tourist arrival numbers since early 2000 have slowed the economy, however, and pressed the government into a tight fiscal corner. The dual-island nation's agricultural production is focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on income growth in the industrialized world, especially in the US, which accounts for slightly more than one-third of tourist arrivals.
Antigua and Barbuda GDP purchasing power parity - $750 million (2002 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda GDP - real growth rate 3% (2002 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $11,000 (2002 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 3.9% industry: 19.2% services: 76.8% (2002)
Antigua and Barbuda Population below poverty line NA%
Antigua and Barbuda Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Antigua and Barbuda Inflation rate (consumer prices) 0.4% (2000 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Labor force 30,000
Antigua and Barbuda Labor force - by occupation commerce and services 82%, agriculture 11%, industry 7% (1983)
Antigua and Barbuda Unemployment rate 11% (2001 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Budget revenues: $123.7 million expenditures: $145.9 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Industries tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)
Antigua and Barbuda Industrial production growth rate 6% (1997 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Electricity - production 105.3 million kWh (2001)
Antigua and Barbuda Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Antigua and Barbuda Electricity - consumption 97.89 million kWh (2001)
Antigua and Barbuda Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Antigua and Barbuda Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Antigua and Barbuda Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Oil - consumption 3,600 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Oil - exports NA (2001)
Antigua and Barbuda Oil - imports NA (2001)
Antigua and Barbuda Agriculture - products cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock
Antigua and Barbuda Exports $40 million
Antigua and Barbuda Exports - commodities petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, machinery and transport equipment 17%, food and live animals 4%, other 8%
Antigua and Barbuda Exports - partners France 68.5%, Germany 26.4%, Italy 1.2% (2002)
Antigua and Barbuda Imports $357 million (2000 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Imports - commodities food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil
Antigua and Barbuda Imports - partners France 23.4%, Germany 14.2%, US 13.2%, Poland 9.8%, South Korea 8.3%, Singapore 5%, UK 4.4% (2002)
Antigua and Barbuda Debt - external $231 million (1999)
Antigua and Barbuda Economic aid - recipient $2.3 million (1995)
Antigua and Barbuda Currency East Caribbean dollar (XCD)
Antigua and Barbuda Currency code XCD
Antigua and Barbuda Exchange rates East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7 (2002), 2.7 (2001), 2.7 (2000), 2.7 (1999), 2.7 (1998) (fixed rate since 1976)
Antigua and Barbuda Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Antigua and Barbuda Telephones - main lines in use 28,000 (1996)
Antigua and Barbuda Telephones - mobile cellular 1,300 (1996)
Antigua and Barbuda Telephone system general assessment: NA domestic: good automatic telephone system international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands Antilles) and Guadeloupe
Antigua and Barbuda Radio broadcast stations AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)
Antigua and Barbuda Television broadcast stations 2 (1997)
Antigua and Barbuda Internet country code .ag
Antigua and Barbuda Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 16 (2000)
Antigua and Barbuda Internet users 5,000 (2001)
Antigua and Barbuda Railways total: 77 km narrow gauge: 64 km 0.760-m gauge; 13 km 0.610-m gauge (used almost exclusively for handling sugarcane) (2001 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Highways total: 250 km (1999 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Waterways none
Antigua and Barbuda Ports and harbors Saint John's
Antigua and Barbuda Merchant marine total: 816 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 5,135,866 GRT/6,648,143 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Australia 1, Bangladesh 2, Belgium 3, Colombia 1, Cuba 1, Estonia 1, Germany 747, Greece 1, Iceland 8, Latvia 1, Lebanon 2, Lithuania 1, Netherlands 22, New Zealand 2, Portugal 1, Slovenia 6, South Africa 1, Sweden 2, United Kingdom 1, United States 7 (2002 est.) ships by type: bulk 16, cargo 474, chemical tanker 8, combination bulk 3, container 255, liquefied gas 10, multi-functional large-load carrier 6, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 8, roll on/roll off 35
Antigua and Barbuda Airports 3 (2002)
Antigua and Barbuda Airports - with paved runways total: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Antigua and Barbuda Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Antigua and Barbuda Military branches Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal Antigua and Barbuda Police Force (including the Coast Guard)
Antigua and Barbuda Military expenditures - dollar figure $NA
Antigua and Barbuda Military expenditures - percent of GDP NA%
Antigua and Barbuda Disputes - international none
Antigua and Barbuda Illicit drugs considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe; more significant as an offshore financial center
Antigua and Barbuda Background The Siboney were the first to inhabit the islands of Antigua and Barbuda in 2400 B.C., but Arawak and Carib Indians populated the islands when Columbus landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early settlements by the Spanish and French were succeeded by the English who formed a colony in 1667. Slavery, established to run the sugar plantations on Antigua, was abolished in 1834. The islands became an independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981.
Antigua and Barbuda Location Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico
Antigua and Barbuda Geographic coordinates 17 03 N, 61 48 W
Antigua and Barbuda Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Antigua and Barbuda Area total: 443 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km) water: 0 sq km note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km land: 443 sq km
Antigua and Barbuda Area - comparative 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Antigua and Barbuda Land boundaries 0 km
Antigua and Barbuda Coastline 153 km
Antigua and Barbuda Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
Antigua and Barbuda Climate tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation
Antigua and Barbuda Terrain mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher volcanic areas
Antigua and Barbuda Elevation extremes lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m
Antigua and Barbuda Natural resources NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism
Antigua and Barbuda Land use arable land: 18.18% permanent crops: 0% other: 81.82% (1998 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Irrigated land NA sq km
Antigua and Barbuda Natural hazards hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts
Antigua and Barbuda Environment - current issues water management - a major concern because of limited natural fresh water resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly
Antigua and Barbuda Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Antigua and Barbuda Geography - note Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors and beaches; Barbuda has a very large western harbor
Antigua and Barbuda Population 67,897 (July 2003 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Age structure 0-14 years: 28.1% (male 9,706; female 9,371) 15-64 years: 67.4% (male 22,929; female 22,845) 65 years and over: 4.5% (male 1,218; female 1,828) (2003 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Median age total: 29.1 years male: 28.6 years female: 29.6 years (2002)
Antigua and Barbuda Population growth rate 0.64% (2003 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Birth rate 18.23 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Death rate 5.64 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Net migration rate -6.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Infant mortality rate total: 20.9 deaths/1,000 live births female: 16.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 25.14 deaths/1,000 live births
Antigua and Barbuda Life expectancy at birth total population: 71.31 years male: 68.99 years female: 73.75 years (2003 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Total fertility rate 2.28 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate NA%
Antigua and Barbuda HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
Antigua and Barbuda HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Antigua and Barbuda Nationality noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s) adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan
Antigua and Barbuda Ethnic groups black, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian
Antigua and Barbuda Religions Christian, (predominantly Anglican with other Protestant, and some Roman Catholic)
Antigua and Barbuda Languages English (official), local dialects
Antigua and Barbuda Literacy definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling total population: 89% male: 90% female: 88% (1960 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda Government type constitutional monarchy with UK-style parliament
Antigua and Barbuda Capital Saint John's
Antigua and Barbuda Administrative divisions 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip
Antigua and Barbuda Independence 1 November 1981 (from UK)
Antigua and Barbuda National holiday Independence Day (National Day), 1 November (1981)
Antigua and Barbuda Constitution 1 November 1981
Antigua and Barbuda Legal system based on English common law
Antigua and Barbuda Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Antigua and Barbuda Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General James B. CARLISLE (since NA 1993) elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general chosen by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister head of government: Prime Minister Lester Bryant BIRD (since 8 March 1994); Deputy Prime Minister Robin YEARWOOD
Antigua and Barbuda Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17-member body appointed by the governor general) and the House of Representatives (17 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve five-year terms) election results: percent of vote by party - ALP 53.2%, UPP 45.5%, independent 1.3%; seats by party - ALP 12, UPP 4, independent 1 elections: House of Representatives - last held 9 March 1999 (next to be held prior to March 2004)
Antigua and Barbuda Judicial branch Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia; one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction)
Antigua and Barbuda Political parties and leaders Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester Bryant BIRD]; Barbuda People's Movement or BPM [Thomas H. FRANK]; United Progressive Party or UPP [Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three opposition parties - United National Democratic Party or UNDP, Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM, and Progressive Labor Movement or PLM)
Antigua and Barbuda Political pressure groups and leaders Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]
Antigua and Barbuda International organization participation ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Antigua and Barbuda Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant) chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016 telephone: [1] (202) 362-5211 FAX: [1] (202) 362-5225 consulate(s) general: Miami
Antigua and Barbuda Diplomatic representation from the US the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda (embassy closed 30 June 1994); the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda Flag description red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the black band
Antigua and Barbuda Economy - overview Tourism continues to dominate the economy, accounting for more than half of GDP. Weak tourist arrival numbers since early 2000 have slowed the economy, however, and pressed the government into a tight fiscal corner. The dual-island nation's agricultural production is focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on income growth in the industrialized world, especially in the US, which accounts for slightly more than one-third of tourist arrivals.
Antigua and Barbuda GDP purchasing power parity - $750 million (2002 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda GDP - real growth rate 3% (2002 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $11,000 (2002 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 3.9% industry: 19.2% services: 76.8% (2002)
Antigua and Barbuda Population below poverty line NA%
Antigua and Barbuda Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Antigua and Barbuda Inflation rate (consumer prices) 0.4% (2000 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Labor force 30,000
Antigua and Barbuda Labor force - by occupation commerce and services 82%, agriculture 11%, industry 7% (1983)
Antigua and Barbuda Unemployment rate 11% (2001 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Budget revenues: $123.7 million expenditures: $145.9 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Industries tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)
Antigua and Barbuda Industrial production growth rate 6% (1997 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Electricity - production 105.3 million kWh (2001)
Antigua and Barbuda Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Antigua and Barbuda Electricity - consumption 97.89 million kWh (2001)
Antigua and Barbuda Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Antigua and Barbuda Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Antigua and Barbuda Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Oil - consumption 3,600 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Oil - exports NA (2001)
Antigua and Barbuda Oil - imports NA (2001)
Antigua and Barbuda Agriculture - products cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock
Antigua and Barbuda Exports $40 million
Antigua and Barbuda Exports - commodities petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, machinery and transport equipment 17%, food and live animals 4%, other 8%
Antigua and Barbuda Exports - partners France 68.5%, Germany 26.4%, Italy 1.2% (2002)
Antigua and Barbuda Imports $357 million (2000 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Imports - commodities food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil
Antigua and Barbuda Imports - partners France 23.4%, Germany 14.2%, US 13.2%, Poland 9.8%, South Korea 8.3%, Singapore 5%, UK 4.4% (2002)
Antigua and Barbuda Debt - external $231 million (1999)
Antigua and Barbuda Economic aid - recipient $2.3 million (1995)
Antigua and Barbuda Currency East Caribbean dollar (XCD)
Antigua and Barbuda Currency code XCD
Antigua and Barbuda Exchange rates East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7 (2002), 2.7 (2001), 2.7 (2000), 2.7 (1999), 2.7 (1998) (fixed rate since 1976)
Antigua and Barbuda Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Antigua and Barbuda Telephones - main lines in use 28,000 (1996)
Antigua and Barbuda Telephones - mobile cellular 1,300 (1996)
Antigua and Barbuda Telephone system general assessment: NA domestic: good automatic telephone system international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands Antilles) and Guadeloupe
Antigua and Barbuda Radio broadcast stations AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)
Antigua and Barbuda Television broadcast stations 2 (1997)
Antigua and Barbuda Internet country code .ag
Antigua and Barbuda Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 16 (2000)
Antigua and Barbuda Internet users 5,000 (2001)
Antigua and Barbuda Railways total: 77 km narrow gauge: 64 km 0.760-m gauge; 13 km 0.610-m gauge (used almost exclusively for handling sugarcane) (2001 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Highways total: 250 km (1999 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda Waterways none
Antigua and Barbuda Ports and harbors Saint John's
Antigua and Barbuda Merchant marine total: 816 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 5,135,866 GRT/6,648,143 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Australia 1, Bangladesh 2, Belgium 3, Colombia 1, Cuba 1, Estonia 1, Germany 747, Greece 1, Iceland 8, Latvia 1, Lebanon 2, Lithuania 1, Netherlands 22, New Zealand 2, Portugal 1, Slovenia 6, South Africa 1, Sweden 2, United Kingdom 1, United States 7 (2002 est.) ships by type: bulk 16, cargo 474, chemical tanker 8, combination bulk 3, container 255, liquefied gas 10, multi-functional large-load carrier 6, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 8, roll on/roll off 35
Antigua and Barbuda Airports 3 (2002)
Antigua and Barbuda Airports - with paved runways total: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Antigua and Barbuda Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Antigua and Barbuda Military branches Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal Antigua and Barbuda Police Force (including the Coast Guard)
Antigua and Barbuda Military expenditures - dollar figure $NA
Antigua and Barbuda Military expenditures - percent of GDP NA%
Antigua and Barbuda Disputes - international none
Antigua and Barbuda Illicit drugs considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe; more significant as an offshore financial center
Arctic Ocean Background The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the world's five oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and the recently delimited Southern Ocean). The Northwest Passage (US and Canada) and Northern Sea Route (Norway and Russia) are two important seasonal waterways. A sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes circumscribes the Arctic Ocean.
Arctic Ocean Location body of water between Europe, Asia, and North America, mostly north of the Arctic Circle
Arctic Ocean Geographic coordinates 90 00 N, 0 00 E
Arctic Ocean Map references Arctic Region
Arctic Ocean Area total: 14.056 million sq km note: includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, Northwest Passage, and other tributary water bodies
Arctic Ocean Area - comparative slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US
Arctic Ocean Coastline 45,389 km
Arctic Ocean Climate polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively narrow annual temperature ranges; winters characterized by continuous darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear skies; summers characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow
Arctic Ocean Terrain central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar icepack that averages about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure ridges may be three times that size; clockwise drift pattern in the Beaufort Gyral Stream, but nearly straight-line movement from the New Siberian Islands (Russia) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland and Iceland); the icepack is surrounded by open seas during the summer, but more than doubles in size during the winter and extends to the encircling landmasses; the ocean floor is about 50% continental shelf (highest percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a central basin interrupted by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera, Nansen Cordillera, and Lomonosov Ridge)
Arctic Ocean Elevation extremes lowest point: Fram Basin -4,665 m highest point: sea level 0 m
Arctic Ocean Natural resources sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales)
Arctic Ocean Natural hazards ice islands occasionally break away from northern Ellesmere Island; icebergs calved from glaciers in western Greenland and extreme northeastern Canada; permafrost in islands; virtually ice locked from October to June; ships subject to superstructure icing from October to May
Arctic Ocean Environment - current issues endangered marine species include walruses and whales; fragile ecosystem slow to change and slow to recover from disruptions or damage; thinning polar icepack
Arctic Ocean Geography - note major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern access to the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait); strategic location between North America and Russia; shortest marine link between the extremes of eastern and western Russia; floating research stations operated by the US and Russia; maximum snow cover in March or April about 20 to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean; snow cover lasts about 10 months
Arctic Ocean Economy - overview Economic activity is limited to the exploitation of natural resources, including petroleum, natural gas, fish, and seals.
Arctic Ocean Ports and harbors Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (Russia), Prudhoe Bay (US)
Arctic Ocean Transportation - note sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes; the Northwest Passage (North America) and Northern Sea Route (Eurasia) are important seasonal waterways
Arctic Ocean Disputes - international some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
Arctic Ocean Background The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the world's five oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and the recently delimited Southern Ocean). The Northwest Passage (US and Canada) and Northern Sea Route (Norway and Russia) are two important seasonal waterways. A sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes circumscribes the Arctic Ocean.
Arctic Ocean Location body of water between Europe, Asia, and North America, mostly north of the Arctic Circle
Arctic Ocean Geographic coordinates 90 00 N, 0 00 E
Arctic Ocean Map references Arctic Region
Arctic Ocean Area total: 14.056 million sq km note: includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, Northwest Passage, and other tributary water bodies
Arctic Ocean Area - comparative slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US
Arctic Ocean Coastline 45,389 km
Arctic Ocean Climate polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively narrow annual temperature ranges; winters characterized by continuous darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear skies; summers characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow
Arctic Ocean Terrain central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar icepack that averages about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure ridges may be three times that size; clockwise drift pattern in the Beaufort Gyral Stream, but nearly straight-line movement from the New Siberian Islands (Russia) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland and Iceland); the icepack is surrounded by open seas during the summer, but more than doubles in size during the winter and extends to the encircling landmasses; the ocean floor is about 50% continental shelf (highest percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a central basin interrupted by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera, Nansen Cordillera, and Lomonosov Ridge)
Arctic Ocean Elevation extremes lowest point: Fram Basin -4,665 m highest point: sea level 0 m
Arctic Ocean Natural resources sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales)
Arctic Ocean Natural hazards ice islands occasionally break away from northern Ellesmere Island; icebergs calved from glaciers in western Greenland and extreme northeastern Canada; permafrost in islands; virtually ice locked from October to June; ships subject to superstructure icing from October to May
Arctic Ocean Environment - current issues endangered marine species include walruses and whales; fragile ecosystem slow to change and slow to recover from disruptions or damage; thinning polar icepack
Arctic Ocean Geography - note major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern access to the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait); strategic location between North America and Russia; shortest marine link between the extremes of eastern and western Russia; floating research stations operated by the US and Russia; maximum snow cover in March or April about 20 to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean; snow cover lasts about 10 months
Arctic Ocean Economy - overview Economic activity is limited to the exploitation of natural resources, including petroleum, natural gas, fish, and seals.
Arctic Ocean Ports and harbors Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (Russia), Prudhoe Bay (US)
Arctic Ocean Transportation - note sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes; the Northwest Passage (North America) and Northern Sea Route (Eurasia) are important seasonal waterways
Arctic Ocean Disputes - international some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
Argentina Background Following independence from Spain in 1816, Argentina experienced periods of internal political conflict between conservatives and liberals and between civilian and military factions. After World War II, a long period of Peronist authoritarian rule and interference in subsequent governments was followed by a military junta that took power in 1976. Democracy returned in 1983, and numerous elections since then have underscored Argentina's progress in democratic consolidation.
Argentina Location Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Chile and Uruguay
Argentina Geographic coordinates 34 00 S, 64 00 W
Argentina Map references South America
Argentina Area total: 2,766,890 sq km land: 2,736,690 sq km water: 30,200 sq km
Argentina Area - comparative slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US
Argentina Land boundaries total: 9,665 km border countries: Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km, Chile 5,150 km, Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km
Argentina Coastline 4,989 km
Argentina Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
Argentina Climate mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest
Argentina Terrain rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border
Argentina Elevation extremes lowest point: Salinas Chicas -40 m (located on Peninsula Valdes) highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,960 m
Argentina Natural resources fertile plains of the Pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium
Argentina Land use arable land: 9.14% permanent crops: 0.8% other: 90.06% (1998 est.)
Argentina Irrigated land 15,610 sq km (1998 est.)
Argentina Natural hazards San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the Pampas and northeast; heavy flooding
Argentina Environment - current issues environmental problems (urban and rural) typical of an industrializing economy such as deforestation, soil degradation, desertification, air pollution, and water pollution note: Argentina is a world leader in setting voluntary greenhouse gas targets
Argentina Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Argentina Geography - note second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic location relative to sea lanes between the South Atlantic and the South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); Cerro Aconcagua is South America's tallest mountain, while the Valdes Peninsula is the lowest point on the continent
Argentina Population 38,740,807 (July 2003 est.)
Argentina Age structure 0-14 years: 26.2% (male 5,185,548; female 4,955,551) 15-64 years: 63.4% (male 12,274,625; female 12,282,772) 65 years and over: 10.4% (male 1,659,641; female 2,382,670) (2003 est.)
Argentina Median age total: 29 years male: 28 years female: 29.9 years (2002)
Argentina Population growth rate 1.05% (2003 est.)
Argentina Birth rate 17.47 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Argentina Death rate 7.58 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Argentina Net migration rate 0.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Argentina Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Argentina Infant mortality rate total: 16.16 deaths/1,000 live births female: 14.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 18.14 deaths/1,000 live births
Argentina Life expectancy at birth total population: 75.48 years male: 71.72 years female: 79.44 years (2003 est.)
Argentina Total fertility rate 2.28 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Argentina HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.7% (2001 est.)
Argentina HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 130,000 (2001 est.)
Argentina HIV/AIDS - deaths 1,800 (2001 est.)
Argentina Nationality noun: Argentine(s) adjective: Argentine
Argentina Ethnic groups white (mostly Spanish and Italian) 97%, mestizo, Amerindian, or other nonwhite groups 3%
Argentina Religions nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%
Argentina Languages Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French
Argentina Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 97.1% male: 97.1% female: 97.1% (2003 est.)
Argentina Country name conventional long form: Argentine Republic conventional short form: Argentina local short form: Argentina local long form: Republica Argentina
Argentina Government type republic
Argentina Capital Buenos Aires
Argentina Administrative divisions 23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), and 1 autonomous city* (distrito federal); Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires Capital Federal*, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego - Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur, Tucuman note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica
Argentina Independence 9 July 1816 (from Spain)
Argentina National holiday Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)
Argentina Constitution 1 May 1853; revised August 1994
Argentina Legal system mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Argentina Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and mandatory
Argentina Executive branch chief of state: President Nestor KIRCHNER (since 25 May 2003); note - declared winner of a runoff election by default after Carlos Saul MENEM withdrew his candidacy on the eve of the election; Vice President Daniel SCIOLI (since 25 May 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Nestor KIRCHNER (since 25 May 2003); note - declared winner of a runoff election by default after Carlos Saul MENEM withdrew his candidacy on the eve of the election; Vice President Daniel SCIOLI (since 25 May 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president election results: results of the presidential primary of 27 April 2003: Carlos Saul MENEM 24.3%, Nestor KIRCHNER 22%, Ricardo Lopez MURPHY 16.4%, Adolfo Rodriguez SAA 14.4%, Elisa CARRIO 14.2%, other 8.7%; the subsequent runoff election slated for 25 May 2003 was awarded to KIRCHNER by default after MENEM withdrew his candidacy on the eve of the election elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; the last election held was the presidential primary election of 27 April 2003 (next election to be held NA 2007); a runoff election slated for 25 May 2003 between the two candidates receiving the highest votes in the primary was awarded to KIRCHNER by default after MENEM withdrew his candidacy on the eve of the election
Argentina Legislative branch bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate (72 seats; members are elected by direct vote; presently one-third of the members being elected every two years to a six-year term) and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats; members are elected by direct vote; one-half of the members elected every two years to a four-year term) election results: Senate - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA%; seats by bloc or party - PJ 40, UCR 24, provincial parties 6, Frepaso 1, ARI 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA%; seats by bloc or party - PJ 113, UCR 74, provincial parties 27, Frepaso 17, ARI 17, AR 9 elections: Senate - last held 14 October 2001 (next to be held intermittently by province before December 2003); Chamber of Deputies - last held 14 October 2001 (next to be held intermittently by province before December 2003)
Argentina Judicial branch Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (the nine Supreme Court judges are appointed by the president with approval by the Senate)
Argentina Political parties and leaders Action for the Republic or AR [Domingo CAVALLO]; Alternative for a Republic of Equals or ARI [Elisa CARRIO]; Front for a Country in Solidarity or Frepaso (a four-party coalition) [Dario Pedro ALESSANDRO]; Justicialist Party or PJ [Carlos Saul MENEM] (Peronist umbrella political organization); Radical Civic Union or UCR [Angel ROZAS]; Federal Recreate Movement [Ricardo LOPEZ MURPHY]; several provincial parties
Argentina Political pressure groups and leaders Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA); Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association); business organizations; General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization); Peronist-dominated labor movement; Roman Catholic Church; students
Argentina International organization participation AfDB, Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, ECLAC, FAO, G-6, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MINURSO, MIPONUH, MONUC, MTCR, NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOVIC, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Argentina Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Jose Octavio BORDON chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York FAX: [1] (202) 332-3171 telephone: [1] (202) 238-6400
Argentina Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador James D. WALSH; note - Lino GUTIERREZ is designated to replace Ambassador WALSH embassy: Avenida Colombia 4300, C1425GMN Buenos Aires mailing address: international mail: use street address; APO address: Unit 4334, APO AA 34034 telephone: [54] (11) 5777-4533 FAX: [54] (11) 5777-4240
Argentina Flag description three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and light blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a human face known as the Sun of May
Argentina Economy - overview Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base. Over the past decade, however, the country has suffered recurring economic problems of inflation, external debt, capital flight, and budget deficits. Growth in 2000 was a negative 0.8%, as both domestic and foreign investors remained skeptical of the government's ability to pay debts and maintain the peso's fixed exchange rate with the US dollar. The economic situation worsened in 2001 with the widening of spreads on Argentine bonds, massive withdrawals from the banks, and a further decline in consumer and investor confidence. Government efforts to achieve a "zero deficit," to stabilize the banking system, and to restore economic growth proved inadequate in the face of the mounting economic problems. The peso's peg to the dollar was abandoned in January 2002, and the peso was floated in February; the exchange rate plunged and inflation picked up rapidly, but by mid-2002 the economy had stabilized, albeit at a lower level. Strong demand for the peso compelled the Central Bank to intervene in foreign exchange markets to curb its appreciation in early 2003. Led by record exports, the economy began to recover with output up 5.5% in 2003, unemployment falling, and inflation sliced to 4.2% at year-end.
Argentina GDP purchasing power parity - $403.8 billion (2002 est.)
Argentina GDP - real growth rate -10.9% (2002 est.)
Argentina GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $10,500 (2002 est.)
Argentina GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 5% industry: 28% services: 66% (2000 est.)
Argentina Population below poverty line 37% (2001 est.)
Argentina Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Argentina Inflation rate (consumer prices) 41% (2002, yearend)
Argentina Labor force 15 million (1999)
Argentina Labor force - by occupation agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Argentina Unemployment rate 21.5% (37377)
Argentina Budget revenues: $44 billion expenditures: $48 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Argentina Industries food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel
Argentina Industrial production growth rate 1% (2000 est.)
Argentina Electricity - production 97.17 billion kWh (2001)
Argentina Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 52.2% hydro: 40.8% other: 0.2% (2001) nuclear: 6.7%
Argentina Electricity - consumption 92.12 billion kWh (2001)
Argentina Electricity - exports 5.662 billion kWh (2001)
Argentina Electricity - imports 7.417 billion kWh (2001)
Argentina Oil - production 828,600 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Argentina Oil - consumption 486,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Argentina Oil - exports NA (2001)
Argentina Oil - imports NA (2001)
Argentina Oil - proved reserves 2.927 billion bbl (37257)
Argentina Natural gas - production 37.15 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Argentina Natural gas - consumption 31.1 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Argentina Natural gas - exports 6.05 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Argentina Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Argentina Natural gas - proved reserves 768 billion cu m (37257)
Argentina Agriculture - products sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes, corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, wheat; livestock
Argentina Exports $25.3 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Argentina Exports - commodities edible oils, fuels and energy, cereals, feed, motor vehicles
Argentina Exports - partners Brazil 23.6%, US 10.9%, Chile 9.7%, Spain 4.3% (2002)
Argentina Imports $9 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Argentina Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal manufactures, plastics
Argentina Imports - partners Brazil 42%, US 12.8%, Germany 4.4% (2002)
Argentina Debt - external $155 billion (2001 est.)
Argentina Economic aid - recipient $10 billion (2001 est.)
Argentina Currency Argentine peso (ARS)
Argentina Currency code ARS
Argentina Exchange rates Argentine pesos per US dollar - 3.06 (2002), 1 (2001), 1 (2000), 1 (1999), 1 (1998)
Argentina Fiscal year calendar year
Argentina Telephones - main lines in use 7.5 million (1998)
Argentina Telephones - mobile cellular 3 million (December 1999)
Argentina Telephone system general assessment: by opening the telecommunications market to competition and foreign investment with the "Telecommunications Liberalization Plan of 1998," Argentina encouraged the growth of modern telecommunication technology; fiber-optic cable trunk lines are being installed between all major cities; the major networks are entirely digital and the availability of telephone service is being improved; however, telephone density is presently minimal, and making telephone service universally available will take time domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber-optic cable, and a domestic satellite system with 40 earth stations serve the trunk network; more than 110,000 pay telephones are installed and mobile telephone use is rapidly expanding international: satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); Atlantis II and Unisur submarine cables; two international gateways near Buenos Aires (1999)
Argentina Radio broadcast stations AM 260 (including 10 inactive stations), FM NA (probably more than 1,000, mostly unlicensed), shortwave 6 (1998)
Argentina Television broadcast stations 42 (plus 444 repeaters) (1997)
Argentina Internet country code .ar
Argentina Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 33 (2000)
Argentina Internet users 3.88 million (2001)
Argentina Railways total: 34,463 km (168 km electrified) broad gauge: 20,736 km 1.676-m gauge (142 km electrified) standard gauge: 3,115 km 1.435-m gauge (26 km electrified) narrow gauge: 10,375 km 1.000-m gauge; 237 km 0.750-m gauge (2002)
Argentina Highways total: 215,471 km paved: 63,348 km (including 734 km of expressways) unpaved: 152,123 km (1999)
Argentina Waterways 10,950 km
Argentina Pipelines gas 26,797 km; liquid petroleum gas 41 km; oil 3,668 km; refined products 2,945 km; unknown (oil/water) 13 km (2003)
Argentina Ports and harbors Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Comodoro Rivadavia, Concepcion del Uruguay, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Necochea, Rio Gallegos, Rosario, Santa Fe, Ushuaia
Argentina Merchant marine total: 23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 141,851 GRT/208,821 DWT ships by type: cargo 9, petroleum tanker 8, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 1, short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 1, includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: United Arab Emirates 1, Uruguay 1 (2002 est.)
Argentina Airports 1,342 (2002)
Argentina Airports - with paved runways total: 145 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 26 1,524 to 2,437 m: 62 914 to 1,523 m: 44 under 914 m: 9 (2002)
Argentina Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1,197 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 50 914 to 1,523 m: 572 under 914 m: 571 (2002)
Argentina Military branches Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic (includes naval aviation and Marines), Coast Guard, Argentine Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Aeronautical Police Force
Argentina Military manpower - military age 20 years of age (2003 est.)
Argentina Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 9,780,063 (2003 est.)
Argentina Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 7,942,837 (2003 est.)
Argentina Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 331,011 (2003 est.)
Argentina Military expenditures - dollar figure $4.3 billion (FY99)
Argentina Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.3% (FY00)
Argentina Disputes - international claims UK-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands in its constitution, but in 1995 ceded the right to settle the dispute by force; Beagle Channel islands dispute resolved through Papal mediation in 1984, but armed incidents persist since 1992 oil discovery; territorial claim in Antarctica partially overlaps UK and Chilean claims (see Antarctic disputes); unruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and drug trafficking, and harbors Islamist militants; uncontested dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question
Argentina Illicit drugs used as a transshipment country for cocaine headed for Europe and the US; some money-laundering activity, especially in the Tri-Border Area; domestic consumption of drugs in urban centers is increasing
Argentina Background Following independence from Spain in 1816, Argentina experienced periods of internal political conflict between conservatives and liberals and between civilian and military factions. After World War II, a long period of Peronist authoritarian rule and interference in subsequent governments was followed by a military junta that took power in 1976. Democracy returned in 1983, and numerous elections since then have underscored Argentina's progress in democratic consolidation.
Argentina Location Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Chile and Uruguay
Argentina Geographic coordinates 34 00 S, 64 00 W
Argentina Map references South America
Argentina Area total: 2,766,890 sq km land: 2,736,690 sq km water: 30,200 sq km
Argentina Area - comparative slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US
Argentina Land boundaries total: 9,665 km border countries: Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km, Chile 5,150 km, Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km
Argentina Coastline 4,989 km
Argentina Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
Argentina Climate mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest
Argentina Terrain rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border
Argentina Elevation extremes lowest point: Salinas Chicas -40 m (located on Peninsula Valdes) highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,960 m
Argentina Natural resources fertile plains of the Pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium
Argentina Land use arable land: 9.14% permanent crops: 0.8% other: 90.06% (1998 est.)
Argentina Irrigated land 15,610 sq km (1998 est.)
Argentina Natural hazards San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the Pampas and northeast; heavy flooding
Argentina Environment - current issues environmental problems (urban and rural) typical of an industrializing economy such as deforestation, soil degradation, desertification, air pollution, and water pollution note: Argentina is a world leader in setting voluntary greenhouse gas targets
Argentina Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Argentina Geography - note second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic location relative to sea lanes between the South Atlantic and the South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); Cerro Aconcagua is South America's tallest mountain, while the Valdes Peninsula is the lowest point on the continent
Argentina Population 38,740,807 (July 2003 est.)
Argentina Age structure 0-14 years: 26.2% (male 5,185,548; female 4,955,551) 15-64 years: 63.4% (male 12,274,625; female 12,282,772) 65 years and over: 10.4% (male 1,659,641; female 2,382,670) (2003 est.)
Argentina Median age total: 29 years male: 28 years female: 29.9 years (2002)
Argentina Population growth rate 1.05% (2003 est.)
Argentina Birth rate 17.47 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Argentina Death rate 7.58 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Argentina Net migration rate 0.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Argentina Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Argentina Infant mortality rate total: 16.16 deaths/1,000 live births female: 14.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 18.14 deaths/1,000 live births
Argentina Life expectancy at birth total population: 75.48 years male: 71.72 years female: 79.44 years (2003 est.)
Argentina Total fertility rate 2.28 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Argentina HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.7% (2001 est.)
Argentina HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 130,000 (2001 est.)
Argentina HIV/AIDS - deaths 1,800 (2001 est.)
Argentina Nationality noun: Argentine(s) adjective: Argentine
Argentina Ethnic groups white (mostly Spanish and Italian) 97%, mestizo, Amerindian, or other nonwhite groups 3%
Argentina Religions nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%
Argentina Languages Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French
Argentina Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 97.1% male: 97.1% female: 97.1% (2003 est.)
Argentina Country name conventional long form: Argentine Republic conventional short form: Argentina local short form: Argentina local long form: Republica Argentina
Argentina Government type republic
Argentina Capital Buenos Aires
Argentina Administrative divisions 23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), and 1 autonomous city* (distrito federal); Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires Capital Federal*, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego - Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur, Tucuman note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica
Argentina Independence 9 July 1816 (from Spain)
Argentina National holiday Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)
Argentina Constitution 1 May 1853; revised August 1994
Argentina Legal system mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Argentina Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and mandatory
Argentina Executive branch chief of state: President Nestor KIRCHNER (since 25 May 2003); note - declared winner of a runoff election by default after Carlos Saul MENEM withdrew his candidacy on the eve of the election; Vice President Daniel SCIOLI (since 25 May 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Nestor KIRCHNER (since 25 May 2003); note - declared winner of a runoff election by default after Carlos Saul MENEM withdrew his candidacy on the eve of the election; Vice President Daniel SCIOLI (since 25 May 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president election results: results of the presidential primary of 27 April 2003: Carlos Saul MENEM 24.3%, Nestor KIRCHNER 22%, Ricardo Lopez MURPHY 16.4%, Adolfo Rodriguez SAA 14.4%, Elisa CARRIO 14.2%, other 8.7%; the subsequent runoff election slated for 25 May 2003 was awarded to KIRCHNER by default after MENEM withdrew his candidacy on the eve of the election elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; the last election held was the presidential primary election of 27 April 2003 (next election to be held NA 2007); a runoff election slated for 25 May 2003 between the two candidates receiving the highest votes in the primary was awarded to KIRCHNER by default after MENEM withdrew his candidacy on the eve of the election
Argentina Legislative branch bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate (72 seats; members are elected by direct vote; presently one-third of the members being elected every two years to a six-year term) and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats; members are elected by direct vote; one-half of the members elected every two years to a four-year term) election results: Senate - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA%; seats by bloc or party - PJ 40, UCR 24, provincial parties 6, Frepaso 1, ARI 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA%; seats by bloc or party - PJ 113, UCR 74, provincial parties 27, Frepaso 17, ARI 17, AR 9 elections: Senate - last held 14 October 2001 (next to be held intermittently by province before December 2003); Chamber of Deputies - last held 14 October 2001 (next to be held intermittently by province before December 2003)
Argentina Judicial branch Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (the nine Supreme Court judges are appointed by the president with approval by the Senate)
Argentina Political parties and leaders Action for the Republic or AR [Domingo CAVALLO]; Alternative for a Republic of Equals or ARI [Elisa CARRIO]; Front for a Country in Solidarity or Frepaso (a four-party coalition) [Dario Pedro ALESSANDRO]; Justicialist Party or PJ [Carlos Saul MENEM] (Peronist umbrella political organization); Radical Civic Union or UCR [Angel ROZAS]; Federal Recreate Movement [Ricardo LOPEZ MURPHY]; several provincial parties
Argentina Political pressure groups and leaders Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA); Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association); business organizations; General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization); Peronist-dominated labor movement; Roman Catholic Church; students
Argentina International organization participation AfDB, Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, ECLAC, FAO, G-6, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MINURSO, MIPONUH, MONUC, MTCR, NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOVIC, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Argentina Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Jose Octavio BORDON chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York FAX: [1] (202) 332-3171 telephone: [1] (202) 238-6400
Argentina Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador James D. WALSH; note - Lino GUTIERREZ is designated to replace Ambassador WALSH embassy: Avenida Colombia 4300, C1425GMN Buenos Aires mailing address: international mail: use street address; APO address: Unit 4334, APO AA 34034 telephone: [54] (11) 5777-4533 FAX: [54] (11) 5777-4240
Argentina Flag description three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and light blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a human face known as the Sun of May
Argentina Economy - overview Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base. Over the past decade, however, the country has suffered recurring economic problems of inflation, external debt, capital flight, and budget deficits. Growth in 2000 was a negative 0.8%, as both domestic and foreign investors remained skeptical of the government's ability to pay debts and maintain the peso's fixed exchange rate with the US dollar. The economic situation worsened in 2001 with the widening of spreads on Argentine bonds, massive withdrawals from the banks, and a further decline in consumer and investor confidence. Government efforts to achieve a "zero deficit," to stabilize the banking system, and to restore economic growth proved inadequate in the face of the mounting economic problems. The peso's peg to the dollar was abandoned in January 2002, and the peso was floated in February; the exchange rate plunged and inflation picked up rapidly, but by mid-2002 the economy had stabilized, albeit at a lower level. Strong demand for the peso compelled the Central Bank to intervene in foreign exchange markets to curb its appreciation in early 2003. Led by record exports, the economy began to recover with output up 5.5% in 2003, unemployment falling, and inflation sliced to 4.2% at year-end.
Argentina GDP purchasing power parity - $403.8 billion (2002 est.)
Argentina GDP - real growth rate -10.9% (2002 est.)
Argentina GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $10,500 (2002 est.)
Argentina GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 5% industry: 28% services: 66% (2000 est.)
Argentina Population below poverty line 37% (2001 est.)
Argentina Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Argentina Inflation rate (consumer prices) 41% (2002, yearend)
Argentina Labor force 15 million (1999)
Argentina Labor force - by occupation agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Argentina Unemployment rate 21.5% (37377)
Argentina Budget revenues: $44 billion expenditures: $48 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Argentina Industries food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel
Argentina Industrial production growth rate 1% (2000 est.)
Argentina Electricity - production 97.17 billion kWh (2001)
Argentina Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 52.2% hydro: 40.8% other: 0.2% (2001) nuclear: 6.7%
Argentina Electricity - consumption 92.12 billion kWh (2001)
Argentina Electricity - exports 5.662 billion kWh (2001)
Argentina Electricity - imports 7.417 billion kWh (2001)
Argentina Oil - production 828,600 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Argentina Oil - consumption 486,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Argentina Oil - exports NA (2001)
Argentina Oil - imports NA (2001)
Argentina Oil - proved reserves 2.927 billion bbl (37257)
Argentina Natural gas - production 37.15 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Argentina Natural gas - consumption 31.1 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Argentina Natural gas - exports 6.05 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Argentina Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Argentina Natural gas - proved reserves 768 billion cu m (37257)
Argentina Agriculture - products sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes, corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, wheat; livestock
Argentina Exports $25.3 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Argentina Exports - commodities edible oils, fuels and energy, cereals, feed, motor vehicles
Argentina Exports - partners Brazil 23.6%, US 10.9%, Chile 9.7%, Spain 4.3% (2002)
Argentina Imports $9 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Argentina Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal manufactures, plastics
Argentina Imports - partners Brazil 42%, US 12.8%, Germany 4.4% (2002)
Argentina Debt - external $155 billion (2001 est.)
Argentina Economic aid - recipient $10 billion (2001 est.)
Argentina Currency Argentine peso (ARS)
Argentina Currency code ARS
Argentina Exchange rates Argentine pesos per US dollar - 3.06 (2002), 1 (2001), 1 (2000), 1 (1999), 1 (1998)
Argentina Fiscal year calendar year
Argentina Telephones - main lines in use 7.5 million (1998)
Argentina Telephones - mobile cellular 3 million (December 1999)
Argentina Telephone system general assessment: by opening the telecommunications market to competition and foreign investment with the "Telecommunications Liberalization Plan of 1998," Argentina encouraged the growth of modern telecommunication technology; fiber-optic cable trunk lines are being installed between all major cities; the major networks are entirely digital and the availability of telephone service is being improved; however, telephone density is presently minimal, and making telephone service universally available will take time domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber-optic cable, and a domestic satellite system with 40 earth stations serve the trunk network; more than 110,000 pay telephones are installed and mobile telephone use is rapidly expanding international: satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); Atlantis II and Unisur submarine cables; two international gateways near Buenos Aires (1999)
Argentina Radio broadcast stations AM 260 (including 10 inactive stations), FM NA (probably more than 1,000, mostly unlicensed), shortwave 6 (1998)
Argentina Television broadcast stations 42 (plus 444 repeaters) (1997)
Argentina Internet country code .ar
Argentina Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 33 (2000)
Argentina Internet users 3.88 million (2001)
Argentina Railways total: 34,463 km (168 km electrified) broad gauge: 20,736 km 1.676-m gauge (142 km electrified) standard gauge: 3,115 km 1.435-m gauge (26 km electrified) narrow gauge: 10,375 km 1.000-m gauge; 237 km 0.750-m gauge (2002)
Argentina Highways total: 215,471 km paved: 63,348 km (including 734 km of expressways) unpaved: 152,123 km (1999)
Argentina Waterways 10,950 km
Argentina Pipelines gas 26,797 km; liquid petroleum gas 41 km; oil 3,668 km; refined products 2,945 km; unknown (oil/water) 13 km (2003)
Argentina Ports and harbors Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Comodoro Rivadavia, Concepcion del Uruguay, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Necochea, Rio Gallegos, Rosario, Santa Fe, Ushuaia
Argentina Merchant marine total: 23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 141,851 GRT/208,821 DWT ships by type: cargo 9, petroleum tanker 8, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 1, short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 1, includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: United Arab Emirates 1, Uruguay 1 (2002 est.)
Argentina Airports 1,342 (2002)
Argentina Airports - with paved runways total: 145 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 26 1,524 to 2,437 m: 62 914 to 1,523 m: 44 under 914 m: 9 (2002)
Argentina Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1,197 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 50 914 to 1,523 m: 572 under 914 m: 571 (2002)
Argentina Military branches Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic (includes naval aviation and Marines), Coast Guard, Argentine Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Aeronautical Police Force
Argentina Military manpower - military age 20 years of age (2003 est.)
Argentina Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 9,780,063 (2003 est.)
Argentina Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 7,942,837 (2003 est.)
Argentina Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 331,011 (2003 est.)
Argentina Military expenditures - dollar figure $4.3 billion (FY99)
Argentina Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.3% (FY00)
Argentina Disputes - international claims UK-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands in its constitution, but in 1995 ceded the right to settle the dispute by force; Beagle Channel islands dispute resolved through Papal mediation in 1984, but armed incidents persist since 1992 oil discovery; territorial claim in Antarctica partially overlaps UK and Chilean claims (see Antarctic disputes); unruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and drug trafficking, and harbors Islamist militants; uncontested dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question
Argentina Illicit drugs used as a transshipment country for cocaine headed for Europe and the US; some money-laundering activity, especially in the Tri-Border Area; domestic consumption of drugs in urban centers is increasing
Armenia Background Armenia prides itself on being the first nation to formally adopt Christianity (early 4th century). Despite periods of autonomy, over the centuries Armenia came under the sway of various empires including the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman. It was incorporated into Russia in 1828 and the USSR in 1920. Armenian leaders remain preoccupied by the long conflict with Muslim Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated region, assigned to Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s by Moscow. Armenia and Azerbaijan began fighting over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also a significant portion of Azerbaijan proper. The economies of both sides have been hurt by their inability to make substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution.
Armenia Location Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey
Armenia Geographic coordinates 40 00 N, 45 00 E
Armenia Map references Asia
Armenia Area total: 29,800 sq km water: 1,400 sq km land: 28,400 sq km
Armenia Area - comparative slightly smaller than Maryland
Armenia Land boundaries total: 1,254 km border countries: Azerbaijan-proper 566 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km
Armenia Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Armenia Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Armenia Climate highland continental, hot summers, cold winters
Armenia Terrain Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley
Armenia Elevation extremes lowest point: Debed River 400 m highest point: Aragats Lerrnagagat' 4,090 m
Armenia Natural resources small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, alumina
Armenia Land use arable land: 17.52% permanent crops: 2.3% other: 80.18% (1998 est.)
Armenia Irrigated land 2,870 sq km (1998 est.)
Armenia Natural hazards occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts
Armenia Environment - current issues soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; the energy crisis of the 1990s led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant in spite of its location in a seismically active zone
Armenia Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Armenia Geography - note landlocked in the Lesser Caucasus Mountains; Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan) is the largest lake in this mountain range
Armenia Population 3,326,448 note: Armenia's first census since independence was conducted in October 2001; official results are not expected until late 2003 (July 2003 est.)
Armenia Age structure 0-14 years: 21.1% (male 356,587; female 346,648) 15-64 years: 68.3% (male 1,113,241; female 1,158,245) 65 years and over: 10.6% (male 147,156; female 204,571) (2003 est.)
Armenia Median age total: 32.3 years male: 30.6 years female: 34.1 years (2002)
Armenia Population growth rate -0.07% (2003 est.)
Armenia Birth rate 12.57 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Armenia Death rate 10.16 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Armenia Net migration rate -3.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Armenia Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Armenia Infant mortality rate total: 40.86 deaths/1,000 live births female: 36.24 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 45.27 deaths/1,000 live births
Armenia Life expectancy at birth total population: 66.68 years male: 62.41 years female: 71.17 years (2003 est.)
Armenia Total fertility rate 1.56 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Armenia HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.2% (2001 est.)
Armenia HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS less than 2,400 (2001 est.)
Armenia HIV/AIDS - deaths less than 100 (2001 est.)
Armenia Nationality noun: Armenian(s) adjective: Armenian
Armenia Ethnic groups Armenian 93%, Azeri 1%, Russian 2%, other (mostly Yezidi Kurds) 4% (2002) note: as of the end of 1993, virtually all Azeris had emigrated from Armenia
Armenia Religions Armenian Apostolic 94%, other Christian 4%, Yezidi (Zoroastrian/animist) 2%
Armenia Languages Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2%
Armenia Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 98.6% male: 99.4% female: 98% (2003 est.)
Armenia Country name conventional long form: Republic of Armenia conventional short form: Armenia local short form: Hayastan former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
Armenia Government type republic
Armenia Capital Yerevan
Armenia Administrative divisions 11 provinces (marzer, singular - marz); Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir, Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush, Vayots' Dzor, Yerevan
Armenia Independence 21 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Armenia National holiday Independence Day, 21 September (1991)
Armenia Constitution adopted by nationwide referendum 5 July 1995
Armenia Legal system based on civil law system
Armenia Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Armenia Executive branch chief of state: President Robert KOCHARIAN (since 30 March 1998) head of government: Prime Minister Andranik MARKARYAN (since 12 May 2000) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 19 February and 5 March 2003 (next to be held NA 2008); prime minister appointed by the president; the prime minister and Council of Ministers must resign if the National Assembly refuses to accept their program election results: Robert KOCHARIAN reelected president; percent of vote - Robert KOCHARIAN 67.5%, Stepan DEMIRCHYAN 32.5%
Armenia Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or Azgayin Zhoghov (131 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms; 75 members selected by direct vote, 56 by party list) elections: last held 25 May 2003 (next to be held in the spring of 2007) election results: percent of vote by party - Republican Party 23.5%, Justice Bloc 13.6%, Rule of Law 12.3%, ARF (Dashnak) 11.4%, National Unity Party 8.8%, United Labor Party 5.7%; seats by party - Republican Party 23, Justice Bloc 14, Rule of Law 12, ARF (Dashnak) 11, National Unity 9, United Labor 6; note - seats by party change frequently as deputies switch parties or announce themselves independent note: electoral law was changed in 2002 so ratio in next elections will be 75 deputies elected by party list, 56 by direct election
Armenia Judicial branch Constitutional Court; Court of Cassation (Appeals Court)
Armenia Political parties and leaders Agro-Industrial Party [Vladimir BADALIAN]; Armenia Party [Myasnik MALKHASYAN]; Armenian National Movement or ANM [Alex ARZUMANYAN, chairman]; Armenian Ramkavar Liberal Party or HRAK [Ruben MIRZAKHANYAN, chairman]; Armenian Revolutionary Federation ("Dashnak" Party) or ARF [Vahan HOVHANISSIAN]; Democratic Party [Aram SARKISYAN]; Justice Bloc (comprised of the Democratic Party, National Democratic Party, National Democratic Union, and the People's Party); National Democratic Party [Shavarsh KOCHARIAN]; National Democratic Union or NDU [Vazgen MANUKIAN]; National Unity Party [Artashes GEGAMIAN, chairman]; People's Party of Armenia [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN]; Republic Party [Albert BAZEYAN and Aram SARKISYAN, chairmen]; Republican Party or RPA [Andranik MARKARYAN]; Rule of Law Party [Artur BAGDASARIAN, chairman]; Union of Constitutional Rights [Hrant KHACHATURYAN]; United Labor Party [Gurgen ARSENIAN]
Armenia Political pressure groups and leaders Yerkrapah Union [Manvel GRIGORIAN]
Armenia International organization participation BSEC, CE, CIS, COE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Armenia Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Arman KIRAKOSSIAN chancery: 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 consulate(s) general: Los Angeles FAX: [1] (202) 319-2982 telephone: [1] (202) 319-1976
Armenia Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador John M. ORDWAY embassy: 18 Baghramyan Ave., Yerevan 375019 mailing address: American Embassy Yerevan, Department of State, 7020 Yerevan Place, Washington, DC 20521-7020 telephone: [374](1) 521-611, 520-791, 542-177, 542-132, 524-661, 527-001, 524-840 FAX: [374](1) 520-800
Armenia Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and orange
Armenia Economy - overview Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia had developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange for raw materials and energy. Since the implosion of the USSR in December 1991, Armenia has switched to small-scale agriculture away from the large agroindustrial complexes of the Soviet era. The agricultural sector has long-term needs for more investment and updated technology. The privatization of industry has been at a slower pace, but has been given renewed emphasis by the current administration. Armenia is a food importer, and its mineral deposits (copper, gold, bauxite) are small. The ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over the ethnic Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh and the breakup of the centrally directed economic system of the former Soviet Union contributed to a severe economic decline in the early 1990s. By 1994, however, the Armenian Government had launched an ambitious IMF-sponsored economic program that has resulted in positive growth rates in 1995-2003. Armenia also has managed to slash inflation, stabilize the local currency (the dram), and privatize most small- and medium-sized enterprises. The chronic energy shortages Armenia suffered in the early and mid-1990s have been offset by the energy supplied by one of its nuclear power plants at Metsamor. Armenia is now a net energy exporter, although it does not have sufficient generating capacity to replace Metsamor, which is under international pressure to close. The electricity distribution system was privatized in 2002. Armenia's severe trade imbalance has been offset somewhat by international aid, domestic restructuring of the economy, and foreign direct investment. Economic ties with Russia remain close, especially in the energy sector.
Armenia GDP purchasing power parity - $12.13 billion (2002 est.)
Armenia GDP - real growth rate 12.9% (2002 est.)
Armenia GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $3,600 (2002 est.)
Armenia GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 30% industry: 26% services: 44% (2001 est.)
Armenia Population below poverty line 50% (2002 est.)
Armenia Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.3% highest 10%: 46.2% (1999)
Armenia Distribution of family income - Gini index 44.4 (1996)
Armenia Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.1% (2002 est.)
Armenia Labor force 1.4 million (2001)
Armenia Labor force - by occupation agriculture 45%, services 30%, industry 25% (2002 est.)
Armenia Unemployment rate 20% (2001 est.)
Armenia Budget revenues: $402 million expenditures: $482 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Armenia Industries metal-cutting machine tools, forging-pressing machines, electric motors, tires, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, gem cutting, jewelry manufacturing, software development, food processing, brandy
Armenia Industrial production growth rate 15% (2002 est.)
Armenia Electricity - production 6.479 billion kWh (2001)
Armenia Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 42.3% hydro: 27% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 30.7%
Armenia Electricity - consumption 5.784 billion kWh (2001)
Armenia Electricity - exports 704 million kWh; note - exports an unknown quantity to Georgia; includes exports to Nagorno-Karabakh region in Azerbaijan (2001)
Armenia Electricity - imports 463 million kWh; note - imports an unknown quantity from Iran (2001)
Armenia Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Armenia Oil - consumption 5,700 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Armenia Oil - exports NA (2001)
Armenia Oil - imports NA (2001)
Armenia Natural gas - production 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Armenia Natural gas - consumption 1.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Armenia Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Armenia Natural gas - imports 1.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Armenia Agriculture - products fruit (especially grapes), vegetables; livestock
Armenia Exports $525 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Armenia Exports - commodities diamonds, mineral products, foodstuffs, energy
Armenia Exports - partners Belgium 21.5%, Russia 14.6%, Israel 10.3%, Iran 9.4%, US 8.2%, Switzerland 6.8%, Germany 6.2% (2002)
Armenia Imports $991 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Armenia Imports - commodities natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products, foodstuffs, diamonds
Armenia Imports - partners US 15.3%, Russia 12.9%, Belgium 12.3%, Iran 10.3%, UAE 6.3%, Germany 5.5%, Italy 4.9% (2002)
Armenia Debt - external $905 million (June 2001)
Armenia Economic aid - recipient ODA $170 million (2000)
Armenia Currency dram (AMD)
Armenia Currency code AMD
Armenia Exchange rates drams per US dollar - NA (2002), 555.08 (2001), 539.53 (2000), 535.06 (1999), 504.92 (1998)
Armenia Fiscal year calendar year
Armenia Telephones - main lines in use 600,000 (2002)
Armenia Telephones - mobile cellular 50,000 (2002)
Armenia Telephone system general assessment: system inadequate; now 90% privately owned and undergoing modernization and expansion domestic: the majority of subscribers and the most modern equipment are in Yerevan (this includes paging and mobile cellular service) international: Yerevan is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional international service is available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States and through the Moscow international switch and by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (2000)
Armenia Radio broadcast stations AM 9, FM 6, shortwave 1 (1998)
Armenia Television broadcast stations 3 (plus an unknown number of repeaters); (1998)
Armenia Internet country code .am
Armenia Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 9 (2001)
Armenia Internet users 30,000 (2001)
Armenia Railways total: 852 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines broad gauge: 852 km 1.520-m gauge (779 km electrified) (2002)
Armenia Highways total: 15,918 km paved: 15,329 km (includes 7,527 km of expressways) unpaved: 589 km (2000)
Armenia Waterways NA km
Armenia Pipelines gas 2,031 km (2003)
Armenia Ports and harbors none
Armenia Airports 15 (2002)
Armenia Airports - with paved runways total: 8 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)
Armenia Airports - with unpaved runways total: 7 over 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Armenia Military branches Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border Guards
Armenia Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Armenia Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 919,582 (2003 est.)
Armenia Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 727,770 (2003 est.)
Armenia Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 37,209 (2003 est.)
Armenia Military expenditures - dollar figure $135 million (FY01)
Armenia Military expenditures - percent of GDP 6.5% (FY01)
Armenia Disputes - international Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh and militarily occupies 16% of Azerbaijan - Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate dispute; border with Turkey remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh dispute; traditional demands regarding former Armenian lands in Turkey have subsided; ethnic Armenian groups in Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy, closer ties with Armenia
Armenia Illicit drugs illicit cultivation of small amount of cannabis for domestic consumption; used as a transit point for illicit drugs - mostly opium and hashish - moving from Southwest Asia to Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe
Armenia Background Armenia prides itself on being the first nation to formally adopt Christianity (early 4th century). Despite periods of autonomy, over the centuries Armenia came under the sway of various empires including the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman. It was incorporated into Russia in 1828 and the USSR in 1920. Armenian leaders remain preoccupied by the long conflict with Muslim Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated region, assigned to Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s by Moscow. Armenia and Azerbaijan began fighting over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also a significant portion of Azerbaijan proper. The economies of both sides have been hurt by their inability to make substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution.
Armenia Location Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey
Armenia Geographic coordinates 40 00 N, 45 00 E
Armenia Map references Asia
Armenia Area total: 29,800 sq km water: 1,400 sq km land: 28,400 sq km
Armenia Area - comparative slightly smaller than Maryland
Armenia Land boundaries total: 1,254 km border countries: Azerbaijan-proper 566 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km
Armenia Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Armenia Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Armenia Climate highland continental, hot summers, cold winters
Armenia Terrain Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley
Armenia Elevation extremes lowest point: Debed River 400 m highest point: Aragats Lerrnagagat' 4,090 m
Armenia Natural resources small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, alumina
Armenia Land use arable land: 17.52% permanent crops: 2.3% other: 80.18% (1998 est.)
Armenia Irrigated land 2,870 sq km (1998 est.)
Armenia Natural hazards occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts
Armenia Environment - current issues soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; the energy crisis of the 1990s led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant in spite of its location in a seismically active zone
Armenia Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Armenia Geography - note landlocked in the Lesser Caucasus Mountains; Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan) is the largest lake in this mountain range
Armenia Population 3,326,448 note: Armenia's first census since independence was conducted in October 2001; official results are not expected until late 2003 (July 2003 est.)
Armenia Age structure 0-14 years: 21.1% (male 356,587; female 346,648) 15-64 years: 68.3% (male 1,113,241; female 1,158,245) 65 years and over: 10.6% (male 147,156; female 204,571) (2003 est.)
Armenia Median age total: 32.3 years male: 30.6 years female: 34.1 years (2002)
Armenia Population growth rate -0.07% (2003 est.)
Armenia Birth rate 12.57 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Armenia Death rate 10.16 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Armenia Net migration rate -3.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Armenia Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Armenia Infant mortality rate total: 40.86 deaths/1,000 live births female: 36.24 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 45.27 deaths/1,000 live births
Armenia Life expectancy at birth total population: 66.68 years male: 62.41 years female: 71.17 years (2003 est.)
Armenia Total fertility rate 1.56 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Armenia HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.2% (2001 est.)
Armenia HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS less than 2,400 (2001 est.)
Armenia HIV/AIDS - deaths less than 100 (2001 est.)
Armenia Nationality noun: Armenian(s) adjective: Armenian
Armenia Ethnic groups Armenian 93%, Azeri 1%, Russian 2%, other (mostly Yezidi Kurds) 4% (2002) note: as of the end of 1993, virtually all Azeris had emigrated from Armenia
Armenia Religions Armenian Apostolic 94%, other Christian 4%, Yezidi (Zoroastrian/animist) 2%
Armenia Languages Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2%
Armenia Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 98.6% male: 99.4% female: 98% (2003 est.)
Armenia Country name conventional long form: Republic of Armenia conventional short form: Armenia local short form: Hayastan former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
Armenia Government type republic
Armenia Capital Yerevan
Armenia Administrative divisions 11 provinces (marzer, singular - marz); Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir, Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush, Vayots' Dzor, Yerevan
Armenia Independence 21 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Armenia National holiday Independence Day, 21 September (1991)
Armenia Constitution adopted by nationwide referendum 5 July 1995
Armenia Legal system based on civil law system
Armenia Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Armenia Executive branch chief of state: President Robert KOCHARIAN (since 30 March 1998) head of government: Prime Minister Andranik MARKARYAN (since 12 May 2000) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 19 February and 5 March 2003 (next to be held NA 2008); prime minister appointed by the president; the prime minister and Council of Ministers must resign if the National Assembly refuses to accept their program election results: Robert KOCHARIAN reelected president; percent of vote - Robert KOCHARIAN 67.5%, Stepan DEMIRCHYAN 32.5%
Armenia Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or Azgayin Zhoghov (131 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms; 75 members selected by direct vote, 56 by party list) elections: last held 25 May 2003 (next to be held in the spring of 2007) election results: percent of vote by party - Republican Party 23.5%, Justice Bloc 13.6%, Rule of Law 12.3%, ARF (Dashnak) 11.4%, National Unity Party 8.8%, United Labor Party 5.7%; seats by party - Republican Party 23, Justice Bloc 14, Rule of Law 12, ARF (Dashnak) 11, National Unity 9, United Labor 6; note - seats by party change frequently as deputies switch parties or announce themselves independent note: electoral law was changed in 2002 so ratio in next elections will be 75 deputies elected by party list, 56 by direct election
Armenia Judicial branch Constitutional Court; Court of Cassation (Appeals Court)
Armenia Political parties and leaders Agro-Industrial Party [Vladimir BADALIAN]; Armenia Party [Myasnik MALKHASYAN]; Armenian National Movement or ANM [Alex ARZUMANYAN, chairman]; Armenian Ramkavar Liberal Party or HRAK [Ruben MIRZAKHANYAN, chairman]; Armenian Revolutionary Federation ("Dashnak" Party) or ARF [Vahan HOVHANISSIAN]; Democratic Party [Aram SARKISYAN]; Justice Bloc (comprised of the Democratic Party, National Democratic Party, National Democratic Union, and the People's Party); National Democratic Party [Shavarsh KOCHARIAN]; National Democratic Union or NDU [Vazgen MANUKIAN]; National Unity Party [Artashes GEGAMIAN, chairman]; People's Party of Armenia [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN]; Republic Party [Albert BAZEYAN and Aram SARKISYAN, chairmen]; Republican Party or RPA [Andranik MARKARYAN]; Rule of Law Party [Artur BAGDASARIAN, chairman]; Union of Constitutional Rights [Hrant KHACHATURYAN]; United Labor Party [Gurgen ARSENIAN]
Armenia Political pressure groups and leaders Yerkrapah Union [Manvel GRIGORIAN]
Armenia International organization participation BSEC, CE, CIS, COE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Armenia Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Arman KIRAKOSSIAN chancery: 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 consulate(s) general: Los Angeles FAX: [1] (202) 319-2982 telephone: [1] (202) 319-1976
Armenia Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador John M. ORDWAY embassy: 18 Baghramyan Ave., Yerevan 375019 mailing address: American Embassy Yerevan, Department of State, 7020 Yerevan Place, Washington, DC 20521-7020 telephone: [374](1) 521-611, 520-791, 542-177, 542-132, 524-661, 527-001, 524-840 FAX: [374](1) 520-800
Armenia Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and orange
Armenia Economy - overview Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia had developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange for raw materials and energy. Since the implosion of the USSR in December 1991, Armenia has switched to small-scale agriculture away from the large agroindustrial complexes of the Soviet era. The agricultural sector has long-term needs for more investment and updated technology. The privatization of industry has been at a slower pace, but has been given renewed emphasis by the current administration. Armenia is a food importer, and its mineral deposits (copper, gold, bauxite) are small. The ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over the ethnic Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh and the breakup of the centrally directed economic system of the former Soviet Union contributed to a severe economic decline in the early 1990s. By 1994, however, the Armenian Government had launched an ambitious IMF-sponsored economic program that has resulted in positive growth rates in 1995-2003. Armenia also has managed to slash inflation, stabilize the local currency (the dram), and privatize most small- and medium-sized enterprises. The chronic energy shortages Armenia suffered in the early and mid-1990s have been offset by the energy supplied by one of its nuclear power plants at Metsamor. Armenia is now a net energy exporter, although it does not have sufficient generating capacity to replace Metsamor, which is under international pressure to close. The electricity distribution system was privatized in 2002. Armenia's severe trade imbalance has been offset somewhat by international aid, domestic restructuring of the economy, and foreign direct investment. Economic ties with Russia remain close, especially in the energy sector.
Armenia GDP purchasing power parity - $12.13 billion (2002 est.)
Armenia GDP - real growth rate 12.9% (2002 est.)
Armenia GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $3,600 (2002 est.)
Armenia GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 30% industry: 26% services: 44% (2001 est.)
Armenia Population below poverty line 50% (2002 est.)
Armenia Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.3% highest 10%: 46.2% (1999)
Armenia Distribution of family income - Gini index 44.4 (1996)
Armenia Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.1% (2002 est.)
Armenia Labor force 1.4 million (2001)
Armenia Labor force - by occupation agriculture 45%, services 30%, industry 25% (2002 est.)
Armenia Unemployment rate 20% (2001 est.)
Armenia Budget revenues: $402 million expenditures: $482 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Armenia Industries metal-cutting machine tools, forging-pressing machines, electric motors, tires, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, gem cutting, jewelry manufacturing, software development, food processing, brandy
Armenia Industrial production growth rate 15% (2002 est.)
Armenia Electricity - production 6.479 billion kWh (2001)
Armenia Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 42.3% hydro: 27% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 30.7%
Armenia Electricity - consumption 5.784 billion kWh (2001)
Armenia Electricity - exports 704 million kWh; note - exports an unknown quantity to Georgia; includes exports to Nagorno-Karabakh region in Azerbaijan (2001)
Armenia Electricity - imports 463 million kWh; note - imports an unknown quantity from Iran (2001)
Armenia Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Armenia Oil - consumption 5,700 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Armenia Oil - exports NA (2001)
Armenia Oil - imports NA (2001)
Armenia Natural gas - production 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Armenia Natural gas - consumption 1.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Armenia Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Armenia Natural gas - imports 1.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Armenia Agriculture - products fruit (especially grapes), vegetables; livestock
Armenia Exports $525 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Armenia Exports - commodities diamonds, mineral products, foodstuffs, energy
Armenia Exports - partners Belgium 21.5%, Russia 14.6%, Israel 10.3%, Iran 9.4%, US 8.2%, Switzerland 6.8%, Germany 6.2% (2002)
Armenia Imports $991 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Armenia Imports - commodities natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products, foodstuffs, diamonds
Armenia Imports - partners US 15.3%, Russia 12.9%, Belgium 12.3%, Iran 10.3%, UAE 6.3%, Germany 5.5%, Italy 4.9% (2002)
Armenia Debt - external $905 million (June 2001)
Armenia Economic aid - recipient ODA $170 million (2000)
Armenia Currency dram (AMD)
Armenia Currency code AMD
Armenia Exchange rates drams per US dollar - NA (2002), 555.08 (2001), 539.53 (2000), 535.06 (1999), 504.92 (1998)
Armenia Fiscal year calendar year
Armenia Telephones - main lines in use 600,000 (2002)
Armenia Telephones - mobile cellular 50,000 (2002)
Armenia Telephone system general assessment: system inadequate; now 90% privately owned and undergoing modernization and expansion domestic: the majority of subscribers and the most modern equipment are in Yerevan (this includes paging and mobile cellular service) international: Yerevan is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional international service is available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States and through the Moscow international switch and by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (2000)
Armenia Radio broadcast stations AM 9, FM 6, shortwave 1 (1998)
Armenia Television broadcast stations 3 (plus an unknown number of repeaters); (1998)
Armenia Internet country code .am
Armenia Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 9 (2001)
Armenia Internet users 30,000 (2001)
Armenia Railways total: 852 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines broad gauge: 852 km 1.520-m gauge (779 km electrified) (2002)
Armenia Highways total: 15,918 km paved: 15,329 km (includes 7,527 km of expressways) unpaved: 589 km (2000)
Armenia Waterways NA km
Armenia Pipelines gas 2,031 km (2003)
Armenia Ports and harbors none
Armenia Airports 15 (2002)
Armenia Airports - with paved runways total: 8 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)
Armenia Airports - with unpaved runways total: 7 over 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Armenia Military branches Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border Guards
Armenia Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Armenia Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 919,582 (2003 est.)
Armenia Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 727,770 (2003 est.)
Armenia Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 37,209 (2003 est.)
Armenia Military expenditures - dollar figure $135 million (FY01)
Armenia Military expenditures - percent of GDP 6.5% (FY01)
Armenia Disputes - international Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh and militarily occupies 16% of Azerbaijan - Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate dispute; border with Turkey remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh dispute; traditional demands regarding former Armenian lands in Turkey have subsided; ethnic Armenian groups in Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy, closer ties with Armenia
Armenia Illicit drugs illicit cultivation of small amount of cannabis for domestic consumption; used as a transit point for illicit drugs - mostly opium and hashish - moving from Southwest Asia to Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe
Aruba Background Discovered and claimed for Spain in 1499, Aruba was acquired by the Dutch in 1636. The island's economy has been dominated by three main industries. A 19th century gold rush was followed by prosperity brought on by the opening in 1924 of an oil refinery. The last decades of the 20th century saw a boom in the tourism industry. Aruba seceded from the Netherlands Antilles in 1986 and became a separate, autonomous member of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Movement toward full independence was halted at Aruba's request in 1990.
Aruba Location Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Venezuela
Aruba Geographic coordinates 12 30 N, 69 58 W
Aruba Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Aruba Area total: 193 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 193 sq km
Aruba Area - comparative slightly larger than Washington, DC
Aruba Land boundaries 0 km
Aruba Coastline 68.5 km
Aruba Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 NM
Aruba Climate tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation
Aruba Terrain flat with a few hills; scant vegetation
Aruba Elevation extremes lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Mount Jamanota 188 m
Aruba Natural resources NEGL; white sandy beaches
Aruba Land use arable land: 10.53% (including aloe 0.01%) permanent crops: 0% other: 89.47% (1998 est.)
Aruba Irrigated land 0.01 sq km (1998 est.)
Aruba Natural hazards lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt
Aruba Environment - current issues NA
Aruba Geography - note a flat, riverless island renowned for its white sand beaches; its tropical climate is moderated by constant trade winds from the Atlantic Ocean; the temperature is almost constant at about 27 degrees Celsius (81 degrees Fahrenheit)
Aruba Population 70,844 (July 2003 est.)
Aruba Age structure 0-14 years: 20.7% (male 7,540; female 7,121) 15-64 years: 68.3% (male 23,427; female 24,955) 65 years and over: 11% (male 3,215; female 4,586) (2003 est.)
Aruba Median age total: 37.1 years male: 35.3 years female: 38.5 years (2002)
Aruba Population growth rate 0.55% (2003 est.)
Aruba Birth rate 11.86 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Aruba Death rate 6.38 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Aruba Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Aruba Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Aruba Infant mortality rate total: 6.14 deaths/1,000 live births female: 5.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 6.99 deaths/1,000 live births
Aruba Life expectancy at birth total population: 78.83 years male: 75.48 years female: 82.34 years (2003 est.)
Aruba Total fertility rate 1.79 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Aruba HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate NA%
Aruba HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
Aruba HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Aruba Nationality noun: Aruban(s) adjective: Aruban; Dutch
Aruba Ethnic groups mixed white/Caribbean Amerindian 80%
Aruba Religions Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, Hindu, Muslim, Confucian, Jewish
Aruba Languages Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, English dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish
Aruba Literacy definition: total population: 97% male: NA% female: NA%
Aruba Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Aruba
Aruba Dependency status part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; full autonomy in internal affairs obtained in 1986 upon separation from the Netherlands Antilles; Dutch Government responsible for defense and foreign affairs
Aruba Government type parliamentary democracy
Aruba Capital Oranjestad
Aruba Administrative divisions none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Aruba Independence none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Aruba National holiday Flag Day, 18 March
Aruba Constitution 1 January 1986
Aruba Legal system based on Dutch civil law system, with some English common law influence
Aruba Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Aruba Executive branch chief of state: Queen BEATRIX of the Netherlands (since 30 April 1980), represented by Governor General Olindo KOOLMAN (since 1 January 1992) election results: Nelson O. ODUBER elected prime minister; percent of legislative vote - NA% elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed for a six-year term by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime minister elected by the Staten for four-year terms; election last held 28 September 2001 (next to be held by December 2005) head of government: Prime Minister Nelson O. ODUBER (since 30 October 2001); Deputy Prime Minister Fredis REFUNJOL cabinet: Council of Ministers (elected by the Staten)
Aruba Legislative branch unicameral Legislature or Staten (21 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 28 September 2001 (next to be held by NA 2005) election results: percent of vote by party - MEP 52.4%, AVP 26.7%, PPA 9.6%, OLA 5.7%, Aliansa 3.5%, other 2.1%; seats by party - MEP 12, AVP 6, PPA 2, OLA 1
Aruba Judicial branch Joint High Court of Justice (judges are appointed by the monarch)
Aruba Political parties and leaders Aruba Solidarity Movement or MAS [leader NA]; Aruban Democratic Alliance or Aliansa [leader NA]; Aruban Democratic Party or PDA [Leo BERLINSKI]; Aruban Liberal Party or OLA [Glenbert CROES]; Aruban Patriotic Party or PPA [Benny NISBET]; Aruban People's Party or AVP [Jan (Henny) H. EMAN]; Concentration for the Liberation of Aruba or CLA [leader NA]; People's Electoral Movement Party or MEP [Nelson O. ODUBER]; For a Restructured Aruba Now or PARA [Urbana LOPEZ]; National Democratic Action or ADN [Pedro Charro KELLY]
Aruba Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Aruba International organization participation Caricom (observer), ECLAC (associate), Interpol, IOC, UNESCO (associate), WCL, WToO (associate)
Aruba Diplomatic representation in the US none (represented by the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Aruba Diplomatic representation from the US the US does not have an embassy in Aruba; the Consul General to Netherlands Antilles is accredited to Aruba
Aruba Flag description blue, with two narrow, horizontal, yellow stripes across the lower portion and a red, four-pointed star outlined in white in the upper hoist-side corner
Aruba Economy - overview Tourism is the mainstay of the small, open Aruban economy, with offshore banking and oil refining and storage also important. The rapid growth of the tourism sector over the last decade has resulted in a substantial expansion of other activities. Construction has boomed, with hotel capacity five times the 1985 level. In addition, the reopening of the country's oil refinery in 1993, a major source of employment and foreign exchange earnings, has further spurred growth. Aruba's small labor force and low unemployment rate have led to a large number of unfilled job vacancies, despite sharp rises in wage rates in recent years. Tourist arrivals have declined in the aftermath of the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks on the US. The government now must deal with a budget deficit and a negative trade balance.
Aruba GDP purchasing power parity - $1.94 billion (2002 est.)
Aruba GDP - real growth rate -1.5% (2002 est.)
Aruba GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $28,000 (2002 est.)
Aruba GDP - composition by sector agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%
Aruba Population below poverty line NA%
Aruba Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Aruba Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.2% (2002 est.)
Aruba Labor force 41,501 (1997 est.)
Aruba Labor force - by occupation most employment is in wholesale and retail trade and repair, followed by hotels and restaurants; oil refining
Aruba Unemployment rate 0.6%
Aruba Budget revenues: $135.81 million expenditures: $147 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000)
Aruba Industries tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining
Aruba Industrial production growth rate NA
Aruba Electricity - production 531.9 million kWh (2001)
Aruba Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Aruba Electricity - consumption 494.7 million kWh (2001)
Aruba Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Aruba Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Aruba Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Aruba Oil - consumption 6,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Aruba Oil - exports NA (2001)
Aruba Oil - imports NA (2001)
Aruba Agriculture - products aloes; livestock; fish
Aruba Exports $1.88 billion f.o.b. (including oil reexports) (2002 est.)
Aruba Exports - commodities live animals and animal products, art and collectibles, machinery and electrical equipment, transport equipment
Aruba Exports - partners Netherlands 28.6%, Colombia 21.7%, Panama 16.8%, US 12.1%, Netherlands Antilles 8.3%, Venezuela 7.6% (2002)
Aruba Imports $2.21 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Aruba Imports - commodities machinery and electrical equipment, crude oil for refining and reexport, chemicals; foodstuffs
Aruba Imports - partners US 54.7%, Netherlands 12.7%, UK 5.7% (2002)
Aruba Debt - external $285 million (1996)
Aruba Economic aid - recipient $26 million (1995); note - the Netherlands provided a $127 million aid package to Aruba and Suriname in 1996
Aruba Currency Aruban guilder/florin (AWG)
Aruba Currency code AWG
Aruba Exchange rates Aruban guilders/florins per US dollar - 1.79 (2002), 1.79 (2001), 1.79 (2000), 1.79 (1999), 1.79 (1998)
Aruba Fiscal year calendar year
Aruba Telephones - main lines in use 33,000 (1997)
Aruba Telephones - mobile cellular 3,402 (1997)
Aruba Telephone system general assessment: NA domestic: more than adequate international: 1 submarine cable to Sint Maarten (Netherlands Antilles); extensive interisland microwave radio relay links
Aruba Radio broadcast stations AM 4, FM 6, shortwave 0 (1998)
Aruba Television broadcast stations 1 (1997)
Aruba Internet country code .aw
Aruba Internet Service Providers (ISPs) NA
Aruba Internet users 24,000 (2002)
Aruba Railways 0 km
Aruba Highways total: 800 km paved: 513 km note: most coastal roads are paved, while unpaved roads serve large tracts of the interior (1995) unpaved: 287 km
Aruba Waterways none
Aruba Ports and harbors Barcadera, Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas
Aruba Merchant marine total: 3 note: there is one foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Monaco 1 (2002 est.) ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 1, petroleum tanker 1
Aruba Airports 1 (2002)
Aruba Airports - with paved runways total: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2002)
Aruba Military branches no regular indigenous military forces; Royal Dutch Navy and Marines, Coast Guard
Aruba Military - note defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Aruba Disputes - international none
Aruba Illicit drugs transit point for US- and Europe-bound narcotics with some accompanying money-laundering activity
Aruba Background Discovered and claimed for Spain in 1499, Aruba was acquired by the Dutch in 1636. The island's economy has been dominated by three main industries. A 19th century gold rush was followed by prosperity brought on by the opening in 1924 of an oil refinery. The last decades of the 20th century saw a boom in the tourism industry. Aruba seceded from the Netherlands Antilles in 1986 and became a separate, autonomous member of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Movement toward full independence was halted at Aruba's request in 1990.
Aruba Location Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Venezuela
Aruba Geographic coordinates 12 30 N, 69 58 W
Aruba Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Aruba Area total: 193 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 193 sq km
Aruba Area - comparative slightly larger than Washington, DC
Aruba Land boundaries 0 km
Aruba Coastline 68.5 km
Aruba Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 NM
Aruba Climate tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation
Aruba Terrain flat with a few hills; scant vegetation
Aruba Elevation extremes lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Mount Jamanota 188 m
Aruba Natural resources NEGL; white sandy beaches
Aruba Land use arable land: 10.53% (including aloe 0.01%) permanent crops: 0% other: 89.47% (1998 est.)
Aruba Irrigated land 0.01 sq km (1998 est.)
Aruba Natural hazards lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt
Aruba Environment - current issues NA
Aruba Geography - note a flat, riverless island renowned for its white sand beaches; its tropical climate is moderated by constant trade winds from the Atlantic Ocean; the temperature is almost constant at about 27 degrees Celsius (81 degrees Fahrenheit)
Aruba Population 70,844 (July 2003 est.)
Aruba Age structure 0-14 years: 20.7% (male 7,540; female 7,121) 15-64 years: 68.3% (male 23,427; female 24,955) 65 years and over: 11% (male 3,215; female 4,586) (2003 est.)
Aruba Median age total: 37.1 years male: 35.3 years female: 38.5 years (2002)
Aruba Population growth rate 0.55% (2003 est.)
Aruba Birth rate 11.86 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Aruba Death rate 6.38 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Aruba Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Aruba Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Aruba Infant mortality rate total: 6.14 deaths/1,000 live births female: 5.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 6.99 deaths/1,000 live births
Aruba Life expectancy at birth total population: 78.83 years male: 75.48 years female: 82.34 years (2003 est.)
Aruba Total fertility rate 1.79 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Aruba HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate NA%
Aruba HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
Aruba HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Aruba Nationality noun: Aruban(s) adjective: Aruban; Dutch
Aruba Ethnic groups mixed white/Caribbean Amerindian 80%
Aruba Religions Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, Hindu, Muslim, Confucian, Jewish
Aruba Languages Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, English dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish
Aruba Literacy definition: total population: 97% male: NA% female: NA%
Aruba Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Aruba
Aruba Dependency status part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; full autonomy in internal affairs obtained in 1986 upon separation from the Netherlands Antilles; Dutch Government responsible for defense and foreign affairs
Aruba Government type parliamentary democracy
Aruba Capital Oranjestad
Aruba Administrative divisions none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Aruba Independence none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Aruba National holiday Flag Day, 18 March
Aruba Constitution 1 January 1986
Aruba Legal system based on Dutch civil law system, with some English common law influence
Aruba Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Aruba Executive branch chief of state: Queen BEATRIX of the Netherlands (since 30 April 1980), represented by Governor General Olindo KOOLMAN (since 1 January 1992) election results: Nelson O. ODUBER elected prime minister; percent of legislative vote - NA% elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed for a six-year term by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime minister elected by the Staten for four-year terms; election last held 28 September 2001 (next to be held by December 2005) head of government: Prime Minister Nelson O. ODUBER (since 30 October 2001); Deputy Prime Minister Fredis REFUNJOL cabinet: Council of Ministers (elected by the Staten)
Aruba Legislative branch unicameral Legislature or Staten (21 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 28 September 2001 (next to be held by NA 2005) election results: percent of vote by party - MEP 52.4%, AVP 26.7%, PPA 9.6%, OLA 5.7%, Aliansa 3.5%, other 2.1%; seats by party - MEP 12, AVP 6, PPA 2, OLA 1
Aruba Judicial branch Joint High Court of Justice (judges are appointed by the monarch)
Aruba Political parties and leaders Aruba Solidarity Movement or MAS [leader NA]; Aruban Democratic Alliance or Aliansa [leader NA]; Aruban Democratic Party or PDA [Leo BERLINSKI]; Aruban Liberal Party or OLA [Glenbert CROES]; Aruban Patriotic Party or PPA [Benny NISBET]; Aruban People's Party or AVP [Jan (Henny) H. EMAN]; Concentration for the Liberation of Aruba or CLA [leader NA]; People's Electoral Movement Party or MEP [Nelson O. ODUBER]; For a Restructured Aruba Now or PARA [Urbana LOPEZ]; National Democratic Action or ADN [Pedro Charro KELLY]
Aruba Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Aruba International organization participation Caricom (observer), ECLAC (associate), Interpol, IOC, UNESCO (associate), WCL, WToO (associate)
Aruba Diplomatic representation in the US none (represented by the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Aruba Diplomatic representation from the US the US does not have an embassy in Aruba; the Consul General to Netherlands Antilles is accredited to Aruba
Aruba Flag description blue, with two narrow, horizontal, yellow stripes across the lower portion and a red, four-pointed star outlined in white in the upper hoist-side corner
Aruba Economy - overview Tourism is the mainstay of the small, open Aruban economy, with offshore banking and oil refining and storage also important. The rapid growth of the tourism sector over the last decade has resulted in a substantial expansion of other activities. Construction has boomed, with hotel capacity five times the 1985 level. In addition, the reopening of the country's oil refinery in 1993, a major source of employment and foreign exchange earnings, has further spurred growth. Aruba's small labor force and low unemployment rate have led to a large number of unfilled job vacancies, despite sharp rises in wage rates in recent years. Tourist arrivals have declined in the aftermath of the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks on the US. The government now must deal with a budget deficit and a negative trade balance.
Aruba GDP purchasing power parity - $1.94 billion (2002 est.)
Aruba GDP - real growth rate -1.5% (2002 est.)
Aruba GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $28,000 (2002 est.)
Aruba GDP - composition by sector agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%
Aruba Population below poverty line NA%
Aruba Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Aruba Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.2% (2002 est.)
Aruba Labor force 41,501 (1997 est.)
Aruba Labor force - by occupation most employment is in wholesale and retail trade and repair, followed by hotels and restaurants; oil refining
Aruba Unemployment rate 0.6%
Aruba Budget revenues: $135.81 million expenditures: $147 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000)
Aruba Industries tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining
Aruba Industrial production growth rate NA
Aruba Electricity - production 531.9 million kWh (2001)
Aruba Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Aruba Electricity - consumption 494.7 million kWh (2001)
Aruba Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Aruba Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Aruba Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Aruba Oil - consumption 6,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Aruba Oil - exports NA (2001)
Aruba Oil - imports NA (2001)
Aruba Agriculture - products aloes; livestock; fish
Aruba Exports $1.88 billion f.o.b. (including oil reexports) (2002 est.)
Aruba Exports - commodities live animals and animal products, art and collectibles, machinery and electrical equipment, transport equipment
Aruba Exports - partners Netherlands 28.6%, Colombia 21.7%, Panama 16.8%, US 12.1%, Netherlands Antilles 8.3%, Venezuela 7.6% (2002)
Aruba Imports $2.21 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Aruba Imports - commodities machinery and electrical equipment, crude oil for refining and reexport, chemicals; foodstuffs
Aruba Imports - partners US 54.7%, Netherlands 12.7%, UK 5.7% (2002)
Aruba Debt - external $285 million (1996)
Aruba Economic aid - recipient $26 million (1995); note - the Netherlands provided a $127 million aid package to Aruba and Suriname in 1996
Aruba Currency Aruban guilder/florin (AWG)
Aruba Currency code AWG
Aruba Exchange rates Aruban guilders/florins per US dollar - 1.79 (2002), 1.79 (2001), 1.79 (2000), 1.79 (1999), 1.79 (1998)
Aruba Fiscal year calendar year
Aruba Telephones - main lines in use 33,000 (1997)
Aruba Telephones - mobile cellular 3,402 (1997)
Aruba Telephone system general assessment: NA domestic: more than adequate international: 1 submarine cable to Sint Maarten (Netherlands Antilles); extensive interisland microwave radio relay links
Aruba Radio broadcast stations AM 4, FM 6, shortwave 0 (1998)
Aruba Television broadcast stations 1 (1997)
Aruba Internet country code .aw
Aruba Internet Service Providers (ISPs) NA
Aruba Internet users 24,000 (2002)
Aruba Railways 0 km
Aruba Highways total: 800 km paved: 513 km note: most coastal roads are paved, while unpaved roads serve large tracts of the interior (1995) unpaved: 287 km
Aruba Waterways none
Aruba Ports and harbors Barcadera, Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas
Aruba Merchant marine total: 3 note: there is one foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Monaco 1 (2002 est.) ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 1, petroleum tanker 1
Aruba Airports 1 (2002)
Aruba Airports - with paved runways total: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2002)
Aruba Military branches no regular indigenous military forces; Royal Dutch Navy and Marines, Coast Guard
Aruba Military - note defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Aruba Disputes - international none
Aruba Illicit drugs transit point for US- and Europe-bound narcotics with some accompanying money-laundering activity
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Background These uninhabited islands came under Australian authority in 1931; formal administration began two years later. Ashmore Reef supports a rich and diverse avian and marine habitat; in 1983, it became a National Nature Reserve. Cartier Island, a former bombing range, is now a marine reserve.
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Location Southeastern Asia, islands in the Indian Ocean, northwest of Australia, south of the Indonesian half of Timor island
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Geographic coordinates 12 14 S, 123 05 E
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Map references Southeast Asia
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Area total: 5 sq km note: includes Ashmore Reef (West, Middle, and East Islets) and Cartier Island water: 0 sq km land: 5 sq km
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Area - comparative about eight times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Land boundaries 0 km
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Coastline 74.1 km
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Maritime claims contiguous zone: 12 NM continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Climate tropical
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Terrain low with sand and coral
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Elevation extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 3 m
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Natural resources fish
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Land use arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (all grass and sand) (1998 est.)
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Irrigated land 0 sq km (1998 est.)
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Natural hazards surrounded by shoals and reefs that can pose maritime hazards
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Environment - current issues NA
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Geography - note Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established in August 1983
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Population no indigenous inhabitants note: Indonesian fishermen are allowed access to the lagoon and fresh water at Ashmore Reef's West Island (July 2003 est.)
Ashmore and Cartier Islands People - note the landing of illegal immigrants from Indonesia's Rote Island has become an ongoing problem
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Country name conventional long form: Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands conventional short form: Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Dependency status territory of Australia; administered by the Australian Department of Transport and Regional Services
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Legal system the laws of the Commonwealth of Australia and the laws of the Northern Territory of Australia, where applicable, apply
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Diplomatic representation in the US none (territory of Australia)
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Diplomatic representation from the US none (territory of Australia)
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Flag description the flag of Australia is used
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Economy - overview no economic activity
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Waterways none
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Ports and harbors none; offshore anchorage only
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Military - note defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic visits by the Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Disputes - international nationalist group in Indonesia reportedly seeks to populate reefs to assert claims; Australia has moved to close reefs to Indonesian traditional fishing and to create a national park while prospecting for hydrocarbons in the vicinity
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Background These uninhabited islands came under Australian authority in 1931; formal administration began two years later. Ashmore Reef supports a rich and diverse avian and marine habitat; in 1983, it became a National Nature Reserve. Cartier Island, a former bombing range, is now a marine reserve.
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Location Southeastern Asia, islands in the Indian Ocean, northwest of Australia, south of the Indonesian half of Timor island
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Geographic coordinates 12 14 S, 123 05 E
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Map references Southeast Asia
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Area total: 5 sq km note: includes Ashmore Reef (West, Middle, and East Islets) and Cartier Island water: 0 sq km land: 5 sq km
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Area - comparative about eight times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Land boundaries 0 km
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Coastline 74.1 km
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Maritime claims contiguous zone: 12 NM continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Climate tropical
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Terrain low with sand and coral
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Elevation extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 3 m
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Natural resources fish
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Land use arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (all grass and sand) (1998 est.)
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Irrigated land 0 sq km (1998 est.)
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Natural hazards surrounded by shoals and reefs that can pose maritime hazards
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Environment - current issues NA
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Geography - note Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established in August 1983
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Population no indigenous inhabitants note: Indonesian fishermen are allowed access to the lagoon and fresh water at Ashmore Reef's West Island (July 2003 est.)
Ashmore and Cartier Islands People - note the landing of illegal immigrants from Indonesia's Rote Island has become an ongoing problem
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Country name conventional long form: Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands conventional short form: Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Dependency status territory of Australia; administered by the Australian Department of Transport and Regional Services
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Legal system the laws of the Commonwealth of Australia and the laws of the Northern Territory of Australia, where applicable, apply
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Diplomatic representation in the US none (territory of Australia)
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Diplomatic representation from the US none (territory of Australia)
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Flag description the flag of Australia is used
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Economy - overview no economic activity
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Waterways none
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Ports and harbors none; offshore anchorage only
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Military - note defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic visits by the Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Disputes - international nationalist group in Indonesia reportedly seeks to populate reefs to assert claims; Australia has moved to close reefs to Indonesian traditional fishing and to create a national park while prospecting for hydrocarbons in the vicinity
Atlantic Ocean Background The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's five oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, but larger than the Indian Ocean, Southern Ocean, and Arctic Ocean). The Kiel Canal (Germany), Oresund (Denmark-Sweden), Bosporus (Turkey), Strait of Gibraltar (Morocco-Spain), and the Saint Lawrence Seaway (Canada-US) are important strategic access waterways.
Atlantic Ocean Location body of water between Africa, Europe, the Southern Ocean, and the Western Hemisphere
Atlantic Ocean Geographic coordinates 0 00 N, 25 00 W
Atlantic Ocean Map references Political Map of the World
Atlantic Ocean Area total: 76.762 million sq km note: includes Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea, almost all of the Scotia Sea, and other tributary water bodies
Atlantic Ocean Area - comparative slightly less than 6.5 times the size of the US
Atlantic Ocean Coastline 111,866 km
Atlantic Ocean Climate tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of Africa near Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea; hurricanes can occur from May to December, but are most frequent from August to November
Atlantic Ocean Terrain surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea, Denmark Strait, and coastal portions of the Baltic Sea from October to June; clockwise warm-water gyre (broad, circular system of currents) in the northern Atlantic, counterclockwise warm-water gyre in the southern Atlantic; the ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a rugged north-south centerline for the entire Atlantic basin
Atlantic Ocean Elevation extremes lowest point: Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench -8,605 m highest point: sea level 0 m
Atlantic Ocean Natural resources oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales), sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, precious stones
Atlantic Ocean Natural hazards icebergs common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, and the northwestern Atlantic Ocean from February to August and have been spotted as far south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands; ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme northern Atlantic from October to May; persistent fog can be a maritime hazard from May to September; hurricanes (May to December)
Atlantic Ocean Environment - current issues endangered marine species include the manatee, seals, sea lions, turtles, and whales; drift net fishing is hastening the decline of fish stocks and contributing to international disputes; municipal sludge pollution off eastern US, southern Brazil, and eastern Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Lake Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea; industrial waste and municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea, North Sea, and Mediterranean Sea
Atlantic Ocean Geography - note major chokepoints include the Dardanelles, Strait of Gibraltar, access to the Panama and Suez Canals; strategic straits include the Strait of Dover, Straits of Florida, Mona Passage, The Sound (Oresund), and Windward Passage; the Equator divides the Atlantic Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean Economy - overview The Atlantic Ocean provides some of the world's most heavily trafficked sea routes, between and within the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. Other economic activity includes the exploitation of natural resources, e.g., fishing, the dredging of aragonite sands (The Bahamas), and production of crude oil and natural gas (Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and North Sea).
Atlantic Ocean Ports and harbors Alexandria (Egypt), Algiers (Algeria), Antwerp (Belgium), Barcelona (Spain), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Casablanca (Morocco), Colon (Panama), Copenhagen (Denmark), Dakar (Senegal), Gdansk (Poland), Hamburg (Germany), Helsinki (Finland), Las Palmas (Canary Islands, Spain), Le Havre (France), Lisbon (Portugal), London (UK), Marseille (France), Montevideo (Uruguay), Montreal (Canada), Naples (Italy), New Orleans (US), New York (US), Oran (Algeria), Oslo (Norway), Peiraiefs or Piraeus (Greece), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Rotterdam (Netherlands), Saint Petersburg (Russia), Stockholm (Sweden)
Atlantic Ocean Transportation - note Kiel Canal and Saint Lawrence Seaway are two important waterways; significant domestic commercial and recreational use of Intracoastal Waterway on central and south Atlantic seaboard and Gulf of Mexico coast of US
Atlantic Ocean Disputes - international some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
Atlantic Ocean Background The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's five oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, but larger than the Indian Ocean, Southern Ocean, and Arctic Ocean). The Kiel Canal (Germany), Oresund (Denmark-Sweden), Bosporus (Turkey), Strait of Gibraltar (Morocco-Spain), and the Saint Lawrence Seaway (Canada-US) are important strategic access waterways.
Atlantic Ocean Location body of water between Africa, Europe, the Southern Ocean, and the Western Hemisphere
Atlantic Ocean Geographic coordinates 0 00 N, 25 00 W
Atlantic Ocean Map references Political Map of the World
Atlantic Ocean Area total: 76.762 million sq km note: includes Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea, almost all of the Scotia Sea, and other tributary water bodies
Atlantic Ocean Area - comparative slightly less than 6.5 times the size of the US
Atlantic Ocean Coastline 111,866 km
Atlantic Ocean Climate tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of Africa near Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea; hurricanes can occur from May to December, but are most frequent from August to November
Atlantic Ocean Terrain surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea, Denmark Strait, and coastal portions of the Baltic Sea from October to June; clockwise warm-water gyre (broad, circular system of currents) in the northern Atlantic, counterclockwise warm-water gyre in the southern Atlantic; the ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a rugged north-south centerline for the entire Atlantic basin
Atlantic Ocean Elevation extremes lowest point: Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench -8,605 m highest point: sea level 0 m
Atlantic Ocean Natural resources oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales), sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, precious stones
Atlantic Ocean Natural hazards icebergs common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, and the northwestern Atlantic Ocean from February to August and have been spotted as far south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands; ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme northern Atlantic from October to May; persistent fog can be a maritime hazard from May to September; hurricanes (May to December)
Atlantic Ocean Environment - current issues endangered marine species include the manatee, seals, sea lions, turtles, and whales; drift net fishing is hastening the decline of fish stocks and contributing to international disputes; municipal sludge pollution off eastern US, southern Brazil, and eastern Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Lake Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea; industrial waste and municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea, North Sea, and Mediterranean Sea
Atlantic Ocean Geography - note major chokepoints include the Dardanelles, Strait of Gibraltar, access to the Panama and Suez Canals; strategic straits include the Strait of Dover, Straits of Florida, Mona Passage, The Sound (Oresund), and Windward Passage; the Equator divides the Atlantic Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean Economy - overview The Atlantic Ocean provides some of the world's most heavily trafficked sea routes, between and within the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. Other economic activity includes the exploitation of natural resources, e.g., fishing, the dredging of aragonite sands (The Bahamas), and production of crude oil and natural gas (Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and North Sea).
Atlantic Ocean Ports and harbors Alexandria (Egypt), Algiers (Algeria), Antwerp (Belgium), Barcelona (Spain), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Casablanca (Morocco), Colon (Panama), Copenhagen (Denmark), Dakar (Senegal), Gdansk (Poland), Hamburg (Germany), Helsinki (Finland), Las Palmas (Canary Islands, Spain), Le Havre (France), Lisbon (Portugal), London (UK), Marseille (France), Montevideo (Uruguay), Montreal (Canada), Naples (Italy), New Orleans (US), New York (US), Oran (Algeria), Oslo (Norway), Peiraiefs or Piraeus (Greece), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Rotterdam (Netherlands), Saint Petersburg (Russia), Stockholm (Sweden)
Atlantic Ocean Transportation - note Kiel Canal and Saint Lawrence Seaway are two important waterways; significant domestic commercial and recreational use of Intracoastal Waterway on central and south Atlantic seaboard and Gulf of Mexico coast of US
Atlantic Ocean Disputes - international some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
Australia Background Australia became a commonwealth of the British Empire in 1901. It was able to take advantage of its natural resources to rapidly develop its agricultural and manufacturing industries and to make a major contribution to the British effort in World Wars I and II. Long-term concerns include pollution, particularly depletion of the ozone layer, and management and conservation of coastal areas, especially the Great Barrier Reef. A referendum to change Australia's status, from a commonwealth headed by the British monarch to a republic, was defeated in 1999.
Australia Location Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean
Australia Geographic coordinates 27 00 S, 133 00 E
Australia Map references Oceania
Australia Area total: 7,686,850 sq km water: 68,920 sq km note: includes Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island land: 7,617,930 sq km
Australia Area - comparative slightly smaller than the US contiguous 48 states
Australia Land boundaries 0 km
Australia Coastline 25,760 km
Australia Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
Australia Climate generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north
Australia Terrain mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast
Australia Elevation extremes lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m highest point: Mount Kosciuszko 2,229 m
Australia Natural resources bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, gold, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, petroleum
Australia Land use arable land: 6.88% permanent crops: 0.03% other: 93.09% (1998 est.)
Australia Irrigated land 24,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Australia Natural hazards cyclones along the coast; severe droughts; forest fires
Australia Environment - current issues soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited natural fresh water resources
Australia Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Australia Geography - note world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; regular, tropical, invigorating, sea breeze known as "the Doctor" occurs along the west coast in the summer
Australia Population 19,731,984 (July 2003 est.)
Australia Age structure 0-14 years: 20.2% (male 2,045,783; female 1,949,864) 15-64 years: 67.1% (male 6,680,531; female 6,553,141) 65 years and over: 12.7% (male 1,099,275; female 1,403,390) (2003 est.)
Australia Median age total: 36 years male: 35.2 years female: 36.8 years (2002)
Australia Population growth rate 0.93% (2003 est.)
Australia Birth rate 12.55 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Australia Death rate 7.31 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Australia Net migration rate 4.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Australia Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Australia Infant mortality rate total: 4.83 deaths/1,000 live births female: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 5.23 deaths/1,000 live births
Australia Life expectancy at birth total population: 80.13 years male: 77.27 years female: 83.13 years (2003 est.)
Australia Total fertility rate 1.76 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Australia HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.1% (2001 est.)
Australia HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 12,000 (2001 est.)
Australia HIV/AIDS - deaths less than 100 (2001 est.)
Australia Nationality noun: Australian(s) adjective: Australian
Australia Ethnic groups Caucasian 92%, Asian 7%, aboriginal and other 1%
Australia Religions Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian 24.3%, non-Christian 11%, other 12.6%
Australia Languages English, native languages
Australia Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 100% male: 100% female: 100% (1980 est.)
Australia Country name conventional long form: Commonwealth of Australia conventional short form: Australia
Australia Government type democratic, federal-state system recognizing the British monarch as sovereign
Australia Capital Canberra
Australia Administrative divisions 6 states and 2 territories*; Australian Capital Territory*, New South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia
Australia Dependent areas Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island
Australia Independence 1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)
Australia National holiday Australia Day, 26 January (1788)
Australia Constitution 9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901
Australia Legal system based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Australia Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Australia Executive branch chief of state: Queen of Australia ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Maj. Gen. (Ret.) Michael JEFFREY (since 11 August 2003) head of government: Prime Minister John Winston HOWARD (since 11 March 1996); Deputy Prime Minister John ANDERSON Deputy Prime Minister John ANDERSON (since 20 July 1999) cabinet: Parliament nominates and selects, from among its members, a list of candidates to serve as government ministers; from this list, the governor general swears in the final selections for the Cabinet elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is sworn in as prime minister by the governor general note: government coalition - Liberal Party and National Party
Australia Legislative branch bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the Senate (76 seats - 12 from each of the six states and two from each of the two mainland territories; one-half of the members elected every three years by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives (150 seats - this is up from 148 seats in 2001 election; members elected by popular vote on the basis of preferential representation to serve three-year terms; no state can have fewer than five representatives) elections: Senate - last held 10 November 2001 (next to be held by February 2005); House of Representatives - last held 10 November 2001 (next to be held by February 2005) election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Liberal Party-National Party coalition 35, Australian Labor Party 28, Australian Democrats 8, Green Party 2, One Nation Party 1, Country Labor Party 1, independent 1; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Liberal Party-National Party coalition 82, Australian Labor Party 65, independent and other 3
Australia Judicial branch High Court (the chief justice and six other justices are appointed by the governor general)
Australia Political parties and leaders Australian Democrats [Andrew BARTLETT]; Australian Labor Party [Mark LATHAM]; Australian Progressive Alliance [Meg LEES]; Country Labor Party [leader NA]; Australian Greens [Bob BROWN]; Liberal Party [John Winston HOWARD]; The Nationals [John ANDERSON]; One Nation Party [Len HARRIS]
Australia Political pressure groups and leaders Australian Monarchist League [leader NA]; Australian Republican Movement [leader NA]
Australia International organization participation ANZUS, APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OECD, OPCW, PCA, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNMEE, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC
Australia Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Michael J. THAWLEY consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco FAX: [1] (202) 797-3168 telephone: [1] (202) 797-3000 chancery: 1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
Australia Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador J. Thomas SCHIEFFER embassy: Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2600 mailing address: APO AP 96549 telephone: [61] (02) 6214-5600 FAX: [61] (02) 6214-5970 consulate(s) general: Melbourne, Perth, Sydney
Australia Flag description blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant known as the Commonwealth Star, representing the federation of the colonies of Australia in 1901; the star depicts one point for each of the six original states and one representing all of Australia's internal and external territories; the remaining half is a representation of the Southern Cross constellation in white with one small five-pointed star and four larger, seven-pointed stars
Australia Economy - overview Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist economy, with a per capita GDP on par with the four dominant West European economies. Rising output in the domestic economy has been offsetting the global slump, and business and consumer confidence remains robust. Australia's emphasis on reforms is another key factor behind the economy's strength. The stagnant economic conditions in major export partners and the impact of the worst drought in 100 years cast a shadow over prospects for 2003.
Australia GDP purchasing power parity - $525.5 billion (2002 est.)
Australia GDP - real growth rate 3.6% (2002 est.)
Australia GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $26,900 (2002 est.)
Australia GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 3% industry: 26% services: 71% (2001 est.)
Australia Population below poverty line NA%
Australia Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2% highest 10%: 25.4% (1994)
Australia Distribution of family income - Gini index 35.2 (1994)
Australia Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.8% (2002 est.)
Australia Labor force 9.2 million (37256)
Australia Labor force - by occupation services 73%, industry 22%, agriculture 5% (1997 est.)
Australia Unemployment rate 6.3% (2002)
Australia Budget revenues: $86.8 billion expenditures: $84.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY 00/01 est.)
Australia Industries mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, steel
Australia Industrial production growth rate 4.3% (2002 est.)
Australia Electricity - production 198.2 billion kWh (2001)
Australia Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 90.8% hydro: 8.3% other: 0.9% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Australia Electricity - consumption 184.4 billion kWh (2001)
Australia Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Australia Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Australia Oil - production 731,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Australia Oil - consumption 796,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Australia Oil - exports 523,400 bbl/day (2001)
Australia Oil - imports 530,800 bbl/day (2001)
Australia Oil - proved reserves 3.664 billion bbl (37257)
Australia Natural gas - production 33.08 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Australia Natural gas - consumption 23.33 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Australia Natural gas - exports 9.744 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Australia Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Australia Natural gas - proved reserves 2.407 trillion cu m (37257)
Australia Agriculture - products wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle, sheep, poultry
Australia Exports $66.3 billion (2002 est.)
Australia Exports - commodities coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, iron ore, wheat, machinery and transport equipment
Australia Exports - partners Japan 18.5%, US 9.6%, South Korea 8.3%, China 6.9%, New Zealand 6.5%, UK 4.7%, Singapore 4.1%, Taiwan 4% (2002)
Australia Imports $68 billion (2002 est.)
Australia Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines, telecommunication equipment and parts; crude oil and petroleum products
Australia Imports - partners US 18.3%, Japan 12.3%, China 10.1%, Germany 5.7%, UK 4.6% (2002)
Australia Debt - external $176.8 billion (yearend 2002 est.)
Australia Economic aid - donor ODA, $894 million (FY 99/00)
Australia Currency Australian dollar (AUD)
Australia Currency code AUD
Australia Exchange rates Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.84 (2002), 1.93 (2001), 1.72 (2000), 1.55 (1999), 1.59 (1998)
Australia Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Australia Telephones - main lines in use 10.05 million (2000)
Australia Telephones - mobile cellular 8.6 million (2000)
Australia Telephone system general assessment: excellent domestic and international service domestic: domestic satellite system; much use of radiotelephone in areas of low population density; rapid growth of mobile cellular telephones international: submarine cables to New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (4 Indian Ocean and 6 Pacific Ocean), 2 Inmarsat (Indian and Pacific Ocean regions) (1998)
Australia Radio broadcast stations AM 262, FM 345, shortwave 1 (1998)
Australia Television broadcast stations 104 (1997)
Australia Internet country code .au
Australia Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 571 (2002)
Australia Internet users 10.63 million (2002)
Australia Railways total: 41,588 km (4,612 km electrified) broad gauge: 2,193 km 1.600-m gauge narrow gauge: 15,456 km 1.067-m gauge dual gauge: 291 km dual gauge (2002) standard gauge: 23,648 km 1.435-m gauge
Australia Highways total: 811,603 km paved: 314,090 km (including 18,619 km of expressways) unpaved: 497,513 km (1999 est.)
Australia Waterways 8,368 km (mainly used by small, shallow-draft craft)
Australia Pipelines condensate 36 km; condensate/gas 243 km; gas 27,321 km; liquid petroleum gas 240 km; oil 4,779 km; oil/gas/water 104 km; water 40 km (2003)
Australia Ports and harbors Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Devonport (Tasmania), Fremantle, Geelong, Hobart (Tasmania), Launceston (Tasmania), Mackay, Melbourne, Sydney, Townsville
Australia Merchant marine total: 51 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,415,810 GRT/1,806,554 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: France 2, UK 2, US 14 (2002 est.) ships by type: bulk 20, cargo 6, chemical tanker 3, combination bulk 1, container 2, liquefied gas 4, passenger 2, petroleum tanker 7, roll on/roll off 6
Australia Airports 444 (2002)
Australia Airports - with paved runways total: 294 over 3,047 m: 10 2,438 to 3,047 m: 11 1,524 to 2,437 m: 126 914 to 1,523 m: 134 under 914 m: 13 (2002)
Australia Airports - with unpaved runways total: 150 1,524 to 2,437 m: 20 914 to 1,523 m: 116 under 914 m: 14 (2002)
Australia Military branches Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal Australian Air Force
Australia Military manpower - military age 17 years of age (2003 est.)
Australia Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 5,037,538 (2003 est.)
Australia Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 4,339,011 (2003 est.)
Australia Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 142,377 (2003 est.)
Australia Military expenditures - dollar figure $11.39 billion (FY02)
Australia Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.9% (FY02)
Australia Disputes - international maritime delimitation and resource sharing agreements signed with East Timor resolve dispute over "Timor Gap" hydrocarbon reserves; no agreement reached on dividing Timor Sea with Indonesia (see Ashmore and Cartier Islands disputes); Australia asserts a territorial claim to Antarctica and to its continental shelf (see Antarctica)
Australia Illicit drugs Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate
Australia Background Australia became a commonwealth of the British Empire in 1901. It was able to take advantage of its natural resources to rapidly develop its agricultural and manufacturing industries and to make a major contribution to the British effort in World Wars I and II. Long-term concerns include pollution, particularly depletion of the ozone layer, and management and conservation of coastal areas, especially the Great Barrier Reef. A referendum to change Australia's status, from a commonwealth headed by the British monarch to a republic, was defeated in 1999.
Australia Location Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean
Australia Geographic coordinates 27 00 S, 133 00 E
Australia Map references Oceania
Australia Area total: 7,686,850 sq km water: 68,920 sq km note: includes Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island land: 7,617,930 sq km
Australia Area - comparative slightly smaller than the US contiguous 48 states
Australia Land boundaries 0 km
Australia Coastline 25,760 km
Australia Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
Australia Climate generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north
Australia Terrain mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast
Australia Elevation extremes lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m highest point: Mount Kosciuszko 2,229 m
Australia Natural resources bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, gold, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, petroleum
Australia Land use arable land: 6.88% permanent crops: 0.03% other: 93.09% (1998 est.)
Australia Irrigated land 24,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Australia Natural hazards cyclones along the coast; severe droughts; forest fires
Australia Environment - current issues soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited natural fresh water resources
Australia Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Australia Geography - note world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; regular, tropical, invigorating, sea breeze known as "the Doctor" occurs along the west coast in the summer
Australia Population 19,731,984 (July 2003 est.)
Australia Age structure 0-14 years: 20.2% (male 2,045,783; female 1,949,864) 15-64 years: 67.1% (male 6,680,531; female 6,553,141) 65 years and over: 12.7% (male 1,099,275; female 1,403,390) (2003 est.)
Australia Median age total: 36 years male: 35.2 years female: 36.8 years (2002)
Australia Population growth rate 0.93% (2003 est.)
Australia Birth rate 12.55 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Australia Death rate 7.31 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Australia Net migration rate 4.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Australia Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Australia Infant mortality rate total: 4.83 deaths/1,000 live births female: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 5.23 deaths/1,000 live births
Australia Life expectancy at birth total population: 80.13 years male: 77.27 years female: 83.13 years (2003 est.)
Australia Total fertility rate 1.76 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Australia HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.1% (2001 est.)
Australia HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 12,000 (2001 est.)
Australia HIV/AIDS - deaths less than 100 (2001 est.)
Australia Nationality noun: Australian(s) adjective: Australian
Australia Ethnic groups Caucasian 92%, Asian 7%, aboriginal and other 1%
Australia Religions Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian 24.3%, non-Christian 11%, other 12.6%
Australia Languages English, native languages
Australia Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 100% male: 100% female: 100% (1980 est.)
Australia Country name conventional long form: Commonwealth of Australia conventional short form: Australia
Australia Government type democratic, federal-state system recognizing the British monarch as sovereign
Australia Capital Canberra
Australia Administrative divisions 6 states and 2 territories*; Australian Capital Territory*, New South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia
Australia Dependent areas Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island
Australia Independence 1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)
Australia National holiday Australia Day, 26 January (1788)
Australia Constitution 9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901
Australia Legal system based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Australia Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Australia Executive branch chief of state: Queen of Australia ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Maj. Gen. (Ret.) Michael JEFFREY (since 11 August 2003) head of government: Prime Minister John Winston HOWARD (since 11 March 1996); Deputy Prime Minister John ANDERSON Deputy Prime Minister John ANDERSON (since 20 July 1999) cabinet: Parliament nominates and selects, from among its members, a list of candidates to serve as government ministers; from this list, the governor general swears in the final selections for the Cabinet elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is sworn in as prime minister by the governor general note: government coalition - Liberal Party and National Party
Australia Legislative branch bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the Senate (76 seats - 12 from each of the six states and two from each of the two mainland territories; one-half of the members elected every three years by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives (150 seats - this is up from 148 seats in 2001 election; members elected by popular vote on the basis of preferential representation to serve three-year terms; no state can have fewer than five representatives) elections: Senate - last held 10 November 2001 (next to be held by February 2005); House of Representatives - last held 10 November 2001 (next to be held by February 2005) election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Liberal Party-National Party coalition 35, Australian Labor Party 28, Australian Democrats 8, Green Party 2, One Nation Party 1, Country Labor Party 1, independent 1; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Liberal Party-National Party coalition 82, Australian Labor Party 65, independent and other 3
Australia Judicial branch High Court (the chief justice and six other justices are appointed by the governor general)
Australia Political parties and leaders Australian Democrats [Andrew BARTLETT]; Australian Labor Party [Mark LATHAM]; Australian Progressive Alliance [Meg LEES]; Country Labor Party [leader NA]; Australian Greens [Bob BROWN]; Liberal Party [John Winston HOWARD]; The Nationals [John ANDERSON]; One Nation Party [Len HARRIS]
Australia Political pressure groups and leaders Australian Monarchist League [leader NA]; Australian Republican Movement [leader NA]
Australia International organization participation ANZUS, APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OECD, OPCW, PCA, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNMEE, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC
Australia Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Michael J. THAWLEY consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco FAX: [1] (202) 797-3168 telephone: [1] (202) 797-3000 chancery: 1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
Australia Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador J. Thomas SCHIEFFER embassy: Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2600 mailing address: APO AP 96549 telephone: [61] (02) 6214-5600 FAX: [61] (02) 6214-5970 consulate(s) general: Melbourne, Perth, Sydney
Australia Flag description blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant known as the Commonwealth Star, representing the federation of the colonies of Australia in 1901; the star depicts one point for each of the six original states and one representing all of Australia's internal and external territories; the remaining half is a representation of the Southern Cross constellation in white with one small five-pointed star and four larger, seven-pointed stars
Australia Economy - overview Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist economy, with a per capita GDP on par with the four dominant West European economies. Rising output in the domestic economy has been offsetting the global slump, and business and consumer confidence remains robust. Australia's emphasis on reforms is another key factor behind the economy's strength. The stagnant economic conditions in major export partners and the impact of the worst drought in 100 years cast a shadow over prospects for 2003.
Australia GDP purchasing power parity - $525.5 billion (2002 est.)
Australia GDP - real growth rate 3.6% (2002 est.)
Australia GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $26,900 (2002 est.)
Australia GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 3% industry: 26% services: 71% (2001 est.)
Australia Population below poverty line NA%
Australia Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2% highest 10%: 25.4% (1994)
Australia Distribution of family income - Gini index 35.2 (1994)
Australia Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.8% (2002 est.)
Australia Labor force 9.2 million (37256)
Australia Labor force - by occupation services 73%, industry 22%, agriculture 5% (1997 est.)
Australia Unemployment rate 6.3% (2002)
Australia Budget revenues: $86.8 billion expenditures: $84.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY 00/01 est.)
Australia Industries mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, steel
Australia Industrial production growth rate 4.3% (2002 est.)
Australia Electricity - production 198.2 billion kWh (2001)
Australia Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 90.8% hydro: 8.3% other: 0.9% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Australia Electricity - consumption 184.4 billion kWh (2001)
Australia Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Australia Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Australia Oil - production 731,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Australia Oil - consumption 796,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Australia Oil - exports 523,400 bbl/day (2001)
Australia Oil - imports 530,800 bbl/day (2001)
Australia Oil - proved reserves 3.664 billion bbl (37257)
Australia Natural gas - production 33.08 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Australia Natural gas - consumption 23.33 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Australia Natural gas - exports 9.744 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Australia Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Australia Natural gas - proved reserves 2.407 trillion cu m (37257)
Australia Agriculture - products wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle, sheep, poultry
Australia Exports $66.3 billion (2002 est.)
Australia Exports - commodities coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, iron ore, wheat, machinery and transport equipment
Australia Exports - partners Japan 18.5%, US 9.6%, South Korea 8.3%, China 6.9%, New Zealand 6.5%, UK 4.7%, Singapore 4.1%, Taiwan 4% (2002)
Australia Imports $68 billion (2002 est.)
Australia Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines, telecommunication equipment and parts; crude oil and petroleum products
Australia Imports - partners US 18.3%, Japan 12.3%, China 10.1%, Germany 5.7%, UK 4.6% (2002)
Australia Debt - external $176.8 billion (yearend 2002 est.)
Australia Economic aid - donor ODA, $894 million (FY 99/00)
Australia Currency Australian dollar (AUD)
Australia Currency code AUD
Australia Exchange rates Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.84 (2002), 1.93 (2001), 1.72 (2000), 1.55 (1999), 1.59 (1998)
Australia Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Australia Telephones - main lines in use 10.05 million (2000)
Australia Telephones - mobile cellular 8.6 million (2000)
Australia Telephone system general assessment: excellent domestic and international service domestic: domestic satellite system; much use of radiotelephone in areas of low population density; rapid growth of mobile cellular telephones international: submarine cables to New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (4 Indian Ocean and 6 Pacific Ocean), 2 Inmarsat (Indian and Pacific Ocean regions) (1998)
Australia Radio broadcast stations AM 262, FM 345, shortwave 1 (1998)
Australia Television broadcast stations 104 (1997)
Australia Internet country code .au
Australia Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 571 (2002)
Australia Internet users 10.63 million (2002)
Australia Railways total: 41,588 km (4,612 km electrified) broad gauge: 2,193 km 1.600-m gauge narrow gauge: 15,456 km 1.067-m gauge dual gauge: 291 km dual gauge (2002) standard gauge: 23,648 km 1.435-m gauge
Australia Highways total: 811,603 km paved: 314,090 km (including 18,619 km of expressways) unpaved: 497,513 km (1999 est.)
Australia Waterways 8,368 km (mainly used by small, shallow-draft craft)
Australia Pipelines condensate 36 km; condensate/gas 243 km; gas 27,321 km; liquid petroleum gas 240 km; oil 4,779 km; oil/gas/water 104 km; water 40 km (2003)
Australia Ports and harbors Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Devonport (Tasmania), Fremantle, Geelong, Hobart (Tasmania), Launceston (Tasmania), Mackay, Melbourne, Sydney, Townsville
Australia Merchant marine total: 51 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,415,810 GRT/1,806,554 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: France 2, UK 2, US 14 (2002 est.) ships by type: bulk 20, cargo 6, chemical tanker 3, combination bulk 1, container 2, liquefied gas 4, passenger 2, petroleum tanker 7, roll on/roll off 6
Australia Airports 444 (2002)
Australia Airports - with paved runways total: 294 over 3,047 m: 10 2,438 to 3,047 m: 11 1,524 to 2,437 m: 126 914 to 1,523 m: 134 under 914 m: 13 (2002)
Australia Airports - with unpaved runways total: 150 1,524 to 2,437 m: 20 914 to 1,523 m: 116 under 914 m: 14 (2002)
Australia Military branches Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal Australian Air Force
Australia Military manpower - military age 17 years of age (2003 est.)
Australia Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 5,037,538 (2003 est.)
Australia Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 4,339,011 (2003 est.)
Australia Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 142,377 (2003 est.)
Australia Military expenditures - dollar figure $11.39 billion (FY02)
Australia Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.9% (FY02)
Australia Disputes - international maritime delimitation and resource sharing agreements signed with East Timor resolve dispute over "Timor Gap" hydrocarbon reserves; no agreement reached on dividing Timor Sea with Indonesia (see Ashmore and Cartier Islands disputes); Australia asserts a territorial claim to Antarctica and to its continental shelf (see Antarctica)
Australia Illicit drugs Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate
Austria Background Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year declared the country's "perpetual neutrality" as a condition for Soviet military withdrawal. This neutrality, once ingrained as part of the Austrian cultural identity, has been called into question since the Soviet collapse of 1991 and Austria's entry into the European Union in 1995. A prosperous country, Austria entered the European Monetary Union in 1999.
Austria Location Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia
Austria Geographic coordinates 47 20 N, 13 20 E
Austria Map references Europe
Austria Area total: 83,858 sq km water: 1,120 sq km land: 82,738 sq km
Austria Area - comparative slightly smaller than Maine
Austria Land boundaries total: 2,562 km border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330 km, Switzerland 164 km
Austria Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Austria Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Austria Climate temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain in lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional showers
Austria Terrain in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping
Austria Elevation extremes lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m
Austria Natural resources iron ore, oil, timber, magnesite, lead, coal, lignite, copper, hydropower
Austria Land use arable land: 16.89% permanent crops: 0.99% other: 82.12% (1998 est.)
Austria Irrigated land 457 sq km (2000 est.)
Austria Natural hazards landslides; avalanches; earthquakes
Austria Environment - current issues some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe
Austria Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Austria Geography - note landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere
Austria Population 8,188,207 (July 2003 est.)
Austria Age structure 0-14 years: 16.2% (male 678,944; female 646,390) 15-64 years: 68.3% (male 2,827,736; female 2,768,480) 65 years and over: 15.5% (male 490,979; female 775,678) (2003 est.)
Austria Median age total: 39.4 years male: 38.2 years female: 40.7 years (2002)
Austria Population growth rate 0.22% (2003 est.)
Austria Birth rate 9.43 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Austria Death rate 9.69 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Austria Net migration rate 2.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Austria Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Austria Infant mortality rate total: 4.33 deaths/1,000 live births female: 4.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 4.38 deaths/1,000 live births
Austria Life expectancy at birth total population: 78.17 years male: 75.02 years female: 81.48 years (2003 est.)
Austria Total fertility rate 1.41 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Austria HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.2% (2001 est.)
Austria HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 9,900 (2001 est.)
Austria HIV/AIDS - deaths less than 100 (2001 est.)
Austria Nationality noun: Austrian(s) adjective: Austrian
Austria Ethnic groups German 88%, non-nationals 9.3% (includes Croatians, Slovenes, Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Roma), naturalized 2% (includes those who have lived in Austria at least three generations)
Austria Religions Roman Catholic 78%, Protestant 5%, Muslim and other 17%
Austria Languages German
Austria Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 98% male: NA% female: NA%
Austria Country name conventional long form: Republic of Austria conventional short form: Austria local short form: Oesterreich local long form: Republik Oesterreich
Austria Government type federal republic
Austria Capital Vienna
Austria Administrative divisions 9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten, Niederoesterreich, Oberoesterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien
Austria Independence 1156 (from Bavaria)
Austria National holiday National Day, 26 October (1955); note - commemorates the State Treaty restoring national sovereignty and the end of occupation and the passage of the law on permanent neutrality
Austria Constitution 1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)
Austria Legal system civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Austria Suffrage 18 years of age; universal; compulsory for presidential elections
Austria Executive branch chief of state: President Thomas KLESTIL (since 8 July 1992) head of government: Chancellor Wolfgang SCHUESSEL (OeVP)(since 4 February 2000); Vice Chancellor Hubert GORBACH (since 21 October 2003) cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor elections: president elected by direct popular vote for a six-year term; presidential election last held 19 April 1998 (next to be held in the spring of 2004); chancellor traditionally chosen by the president from the plurality party in the National Council; vice chancellor chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor note: government coalition - OeVP and FPOe election results: Thomas KLESTIL reelected president; percent of vote - Thomas KLESTIL 63%, Gertraud KNOLL 14%, Heide SCHMIDT 11%, Richard LUGNER 10%, Karl NOWAK 2%
Austria Legislative branch bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of Federal Council or Bundesrat (64 members; members represent each of the states on the basis of population, but with each state having at least three representatives; members serve a four- or six-year term) and the National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms) election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - OeVP 42.3%, SPOe 36.9%, FPOe 10.2%, Greens 9%; seats by party - OeVP 79, SPOe 69, FPOe 19, Greens 16 elections: National Council - last held 24 November 2002 (next to be held in the fall of 2006)
Austria Judicial branch Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof
Austria Political parties and leaders Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Wolfgang SCHUESSEL]; Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Herbert HAUPT]; Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Alfred GUSENBAUER]; The Greens Alternative or GA [Alexander VAN DER BELLEN]
Austria Political pressure groups and leaders Austrian Trade Union Federation (primarily Socialist) or OeGB; Federal Economic Chamber; OeVP-oriented League of Austrian Industrialists or VOeI; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action; three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, and farmers
Austria International organization participation AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMISET, UNMOGIP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Austria Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Eva NOWOTNY chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750 telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700
Austria Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador William Lee LYONS BROWN, Jr. embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1090, Vienna mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: [43] (1) 31339, 31375, 31335 FAX: [43] (1) 5125835
Austria Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red
Austria Economy - overview Austria, with its well-developed market economy and high standard of living, is closely tied to other EU economies, especially Germany's. Membership in the EU has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European market and proximity to EU aspirant economies. Slowing growth in Germany and elsewhere in the world held the economy to only 1.2% growth in 2001, 0.6% in 2002, and 0.8% in 2003.. To meet increased competition from both EU and Central European countries, Austria will need to emphasize knowledge-based sectors of the economy, continue to deregulate the service sector, and lower its tax burden. A key issue is the encouragement of much greater participation in the labor market by its ageing population.
Austria GDP purchasing power parity - $227.7 billion (2002 est.)
Austria GDP - real growth rate 1.1% (2002 est.)
Austria GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $27,900 (2002 est.)
Austria GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 2% industry: 33% services: 65% (2002 est.)
Austria Population below poverty line NA%
Austria Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.5% highest 10%: 22.5% (1995)
Austria Distribution of family income - Gini index 31 (1995)
Austria Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.8% (2002 est.)
Austria Labor force 4.3 million (2001)
Austria Labor force - by occupation services 67%, industry and crafts 29%, agriculture and forestry 4% (2001 est.)
Austria Unemployment rate 4.8% (2002 est.)
Austria Budget revenues: $53 billion expenditures: $54 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Austria Industries construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, chemicals, lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard, communications equipment, tourism
Austria Industrial production growth rate 3.8% (2001 est.)
Austria Electricity - production 58.75 billion kWh (2001)
Austria Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 29.3% hydro: 67.2% other: 3.5% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Austria Electricity - consumption 54.85 billion kWh (2001)
Austria Electricity - exports 14.25 billion kWh (2001)
Austria Electricity - imports 14.47 billion kWh (2001)
Austria Oil - production 20,670 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Austria Oil - consumption 262,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Austria Oil - exports 35,470 bbl/day (2001)
Austria Oil - imports 262,000 bbl/day (2001)
Austria Oil - proved reserves 85.69 million bbl (37257)
Austria Natural gas - production 1.731 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Austria Natural gas - consumption 7.81 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Austria Natural gas - exports 403 million cu m (2001 est.)
Austria Natural gas - imports 6.033 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Austria Natural gas - proved reserves 24.9 billion cu m (37257)
Austria Agriculture - products grains, potatoes, sugar beets, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumber
Austria Exports $70 billion f.o.b. (2001)
Austria Exports - commodities machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, paper and paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel; textiles, foodstuffs
Austria Exports - partners Germany 31.5%, Italy 9.3%, Switzerland 5.4%, US 4.9%, UK 4.9%, France 4.7%, Hungary 4.3% (2002)
Austria Imports $74 billion c.i.f. (2001)
Austria Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods, oil and oil products; foodstuffs
Austria Imports - partners Germany 42.6%, Italy 6.6%, Hungary 5.1%, Switzerland 4.8%, Netherlands 4.4% (2002)
Austria Debt - external $12.1 billion (2001 est.)
Austria Economic aid - donor ODA, $410 million (2000)
Austria Currency euro (EUR) note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by the financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Austria Currency code EUR
Austria Exchange rates euros per US dollar - 1.06 (2002), 1.12 (2001), 1.09 (2000), 0.94 (1999), 12.38 (1998)
Austria Fiscal year calendar year
Austria Telephones - main lines in use 4 million (consisting of 3,600,000 analog main lines plus 400,000 Integrated Services Digital Network connections); in addition, there are 100,000 Asymmetric Digital Services lines (2001)
Austria Telephones - mobile cellular 6 million (2001)
Austria Telephone system general assessment: highly developed and efficient domestic: there are 48 main lines for every 100 persons; the fiber optic net is very extensive; all telephone applications and Internet services are available international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat; in addition, there are about 600 VSAT (very small aperture terminals) (2002)
Austria Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 160 (plus several hundred repeaters), shortwave 1 (2001)
Austria Television broadcast stations 45 (plus more than 1,000 repeaters) (2001)
Austria Internet country code .at
Austria Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 37 (2000)
Austria Internet users 3.7 million (2002)
Austria Railways total: 6,024 km (3,641 km electrified) standard gauge: 5,566 km 1.435-m gauge (3,524 km electrified) narrow gauge: 34 km 1.000-m gauge (28 km electrified); 424 km 0.760-m gauge (89 km electrified) (2002)
Austria Highways total: 200,000 km paved: 200,000 km (including 1,633 km of expressways) unpaved: 0 km (2000)
Austria Waterways 358 km (1999)
Austria Pipelines gas 2,722 km; oil 687 km; refined products 149 km (2003)
Austria Ports and harbors Enns, Krems, Linz, Vienna
Austria Merchant marine total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 27,551 GRT/34,225 DWT ships by type: cargo 4, container 1 (2002 est.)
Austria Airports 55 (2002)
Austria Airports - with paved runways total: 24 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 14 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
Austria Airports - with unpaved runways total: 31 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 27 (2002)
Austria Heliports 1 (2002)
Austria Military branches Land Forces (KdoLdSK), Air Forces (KdoLuSK)
Austria Military manpower - military age 19 years of age (2003 est.)
Austria Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,093,821 (2003 est.)
Austria Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,725,123 (2003 est.)
Austria Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 49,090 (2003 est.)
Austria Military expenditures - dollar figure $1.497 billion (FY01/02)
Austria Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.8% (FY01/02)
Austria Disputes - international minor disputes with Czech Republic and Slovenia continue over nuclear power plants and post-World War II treatment of German-speaking minorities
Austria Illicit drugs transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for Western Europe
Austria Background Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year declared the country's "perpetual neutrality" as a condition for Soviet military withdrawal. This neutrality, once ingrained as part of the Austrian cultural identity, has been called into question since the Soviet collapse of 1991 and Austria's entry into the European Union in 1995. A prosperous country, Austria entered the European Monetary Union in 1999.
Austria Location Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia
Austria Geographic coordinates 47 20 N, 13 20 E
Austria Map references Europe
Austria Area total: 83,858 sq km water: 1,120 sq km land: 82,738 sq km
Austria Area - comparative slightly smaller than Maine
Austria Land boundaries total: 2,562 km border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330 km, Switzerland 164 km
Austria Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Austria Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Austria Climate temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain in lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional showers
Austria Terrain in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping
Austria Elevation extremes lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m
Austria Natural resources iron ore, oil, timber, magnesite, lead, coal, lignite, copper, hydropower
Austria Land use arable land: 16.89% permanent crops: 0.99% other: 82.12% (1998 est.)
Austria Irrigated land 457 sq km (2000 est.)
Austria Natural hazards landslides; avalanches; earthquakes
Austria Environment - current issues some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe
Austria Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Austria Geography - note landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere
Austria Population 8,188,207 (July 2003 est.)
Austria Age structure 0-14 years: 16.2% (male 678,944; female 646,390) 15-64 years: 68.3% (male 2,827,736; female 2,768,480) 65 years and over: 15.5% (male 490,979; female 775,678) (2003 est.)
Austria Median age total: 39.4 years male: 38.2 years female: 40.7 years (2002)
Austria Population growth rate 0.22% (2003 est.)
Austria Birth rate 9.43 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Austria Death rate 9.69 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Austria Net migration rate 2.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Austria Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Austria Infant mortality rate total: 4.33 deaths/1,000 live births female: 4.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 4.38 deaths/1,000 live births
Austria Life expectancy at birth total population: 78.17 years male: 75.02 years female: 81.48 years (2003 est.)
Austria Total fertility rate 1.41 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Austria HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.2% (2001 est.)
Austria HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 9,900 (2001 est.)
Austria HIV/AIDS - deaths less than 100 (2001 est.)
Austria Nationality noun: Austrian(s) adjective: Austrian
Austria Ethnic groups German 88%, non-nationals 9.3% (includes Croatians, Slovenes, Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Roma), naturalized 2% (includes those who have lived in Austria at least three generations)
Austria Religions Roman Catholic 78%, Protestant 5%, Muslim and other 17%
Austria Languages German
Austria Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 98% male: NA% female: NA%
Austria Country name conventional long form: Republic of Austria conventional short form: Austria local short form: Oesterreich local long form: Republik Oesterreich
Austria Government type federal republic
Austria Capital Vienna
Austria Administrative divisions 9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten, Niederoesterreich, Oberoesterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien
Austria Independence 1156 (from Bavaria)
Austria National holiday National Day, 26 October (1955); note - commemorates the State Treaty restoring national sovereignty and the end of occupation and the passage of the law on permanent neutrality
Austria Constitution 1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)
Austria Legal system civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Austria Suffrage 18 years of age; universal; compulsory for presidential elections
Austria Executive branch chief of state: President Thomas KLESTIL (since 8 July 1992) head of government: Chancellor Wolfgang SCHUESSEL (OeVP)(since 4 February 2000); Vice Chancellor Hubert GORBACH (since 21 October 2003) cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor elections: president elected by direct popular vote for a six-year term; presidential election last held 19 April 1998 (next to be held in the spring of 2004); chancellor traditionally chosen by the president from the plurality party in the National Council; vice chancellor chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor note: government coalition - OeVP and FPOe election results: Thomas KLESTIL reelected president; percent of vote - Thomas KLESTIL 63%, Gertraud KNOLL 14%, Heide SCHMIDT 11%, Richard LUGNER 10%, Karl NOWAK 2%
Austria Legislative branch bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of Federal Council or Bundesrat (64 members; members represent each of the states on the basis of population, but with each state having at least three representatives; members serve a four- or six-year term) and the National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms) election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - OeVP 42.3%, SPOe 36.9%, FPOe 10.2%, Greens 9%; seats by party - OeVP 79, SPOe 69, FPOe 19, Greens 16 elections: National Council - last held 24 November 2002 (next to be held in the fall of 2006)
Austria Judicial branch Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof
Austria Political parties and leaders Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Wolfgang SCHUESSEL]; Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Herbert HAUPT]; Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Alfred GUSENBAUER]; The Greens Alternative or GA [Alexander VAN DER BELLEN]
Austria Political pressure groups and leaders Austrian Trade Union Federation (primarily Socialist) or OeGB; Federal Economic Chamber; OeVP-oriented League of Austrian Industrialists or VOeI; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action; three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, and farmers
Austria International organization participation AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMISET, UNMOGIP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Austria Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Eva NOWOTNY chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750 telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700
Austria Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador William Lee LYONS BROWN, Jr. embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1090, Vienna mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: [43] (1) 31339, 31375, 31335 FAX: [43] (1) 5125835
Austria Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red
Austria Economy - overview Austria, with its well-developed market economy and high standard of living, is closely tied to other EU economies, especially Germany's. Membership in the EU has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European market and proximity to EU aspirant economies. Slowing growth in Germany and elsewhere in the world held the economy to only 1.2% growth in 2001, 0.6% in 2002, and 0.8% in 2003.. To meet increased competition from both EU and Central European countries, Austria will need to emphasize knowledge-based sectors of the economy, continue to deregulate the service sector, and lower its tax burden. A key issue is the encouragement of much greater participation in the labor market by its ageing population.
Austria GDP purchasing power parity - $227.7 billion (2002 est.)
Austria GDP - real growth rate 1.1% (2002 est.)
Austria GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $27,900 (2002 est.)
Austria GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 2% industry: 33% services: 65% (2002 est.)
Austria Population below poverty line NA%
Austria Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.5% highest 10%: 22.5% (1995)
Austria Distribution of family income - Gini index 31 (1995)
Austria Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.8% (2002 est.)
Austria Labor force 4.3 million (2001)
Austria Labor force - by occupation services 67%, industry and crafts 29%, agriculture and forestry 4% (2001 est.)
Austria Unemployment rate 4.8% (2002 est.)
Austria Budget revenues: $53 billion expenditures: $54 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Austria Industries construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, chemicals, lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard, communications equipment, tourism
Austria Industrial production growth rate 3.8% (2001 est.)
Austria Electricity - production 58.75 billion kWh (2001)
Austria Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 29.3% hydro: 67.2% other: 3.5% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Austria Electricity - consumption 54.85 billion kWh (2001)
Austria Electricity - exports 14.25 billion kWh (2001)
Austria Electricity - imports 14.47 billion kWh (2001)
Austria Oil - production 20,670 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Austria Oil - consumption 262,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Austria Oil - exports 35,470 bbl/day (2001)
Austria Oil - imports 262,000 bbl/day (2001)
Austria Oil - proved reserves 85.69 million bbl (37257)
Austria Natural gas - production 1.731 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Austria Natural gas - consumption 7.81 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Austria Natural gas - exports 403 million cu m (2001 est.)
Austria Natural gas - imports 6.033 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Austria Natural gas - proved reserves 24.9 billion cu m (37257)
Austria Agriculture - products grains, potatoes, sugar beets, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumber
Austria Exports $70 billion f.o.b. (2001)
Austria Exports - commodities machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, paper and paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel; textiles, foodstuffs
Austria Exports - partners Germany 31.5%, Italy 9.3%, Switzerland 5.4%, US 4.9%, UK 4.9%, France 4.7%, Hungary 4.3% (2002)
Austria Imports $74 billion c.i.f. (2001)
Austria Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods, oil and oil products; foodstuffs
Austria Imports - partners Germany 42.6%, Italy 6.6%, Hungary 5.1%, Switzerland 4.8%, Netherlands 4.4% (2002)
Austria Debt - external $12.1 billion (2001 est.)
Austria Economic aid - donor ODA, $410 million (2000)
Austria Currency euro (EUR) note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by the financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Austria Currency code EUR
Austria Exchange rates euros per US dollar - 1.06 (2002), 1.12 (2001), 1.09 (2000), 0.94 (1999), 12.38 (1998)
Austria Fiscal year calendar year
Austria Telephones - main lines in use 4 million (consisting of 3,600,000 analog main lines plus 400,000 Integrated Services Digital Network connections); in addition, there are 100,000 Asymmetric Digital Services lines (2001)
Austria Telephones - mobile cellular 6 million (2001)
Austria Telephone system general assessment: highly developed and efficient domestic: there are 48 main lines for every 100 persons; the fiber optic net is very extensive; all telephone applications and Internet services are available international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat; in addition, there are about 600 VSAT (very small aperture terminals) (2002)
Austria Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 160 (plus several hundred repeaters), shortwave 1 (2001)
Austria Television broadcast stations 45 (plus more than 1,000 repeaters) (2001)
Austria Internet country code .at
Austria Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 37 (2000)
Austria Internet users 3.7 million (2002)
Austria Railways total: 6,024 km (3,641 km electrified) standard gauge: 5,566 km 1.435-m gauge (3,524 km electrified) narrow gauge: 34 km 1.000-m gauge (28 km electrified); 424 km 0.760-m gauge (89 km electrified) (2002)
Austria Highways total: 200,000 km paved: 200,000 km (including 1,633 km of expressways) unpaved: 0 km (2000)
Austria Waterways 358 km (1999)
Austria Pipelines gas 2,722 km; oil 687 km; refined products 149 km (2003)
Austria Ports and harbors Enns, Krems, Linz, Vienna
Austria Merchant marine total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 27,551 GRT/34,225 DWT ships by type: cargo 4, container 1 (2002 est.)
Austria Airports 55 (2002)
Austria Airports - with paved runways total: 24 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 14 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
Austria Airports - with unpaved runways total: 31 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 27 (2002)
Austria Heliports 1 (2002)
Austria Military branches Land Forces (KdoLdSK), Air Forces (KdoLuSK)
Austria Military manpower - military age 19 years of age (2003 est.)
Austria Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,093,821 (2003 est.)
Austria Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,725,123 (2003 est.)
Austria Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 49,090 (2003 est.)
Austria Military expenditures - dollar figure $1.497 billion (FY01/02)
Austria Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.8% (FY01/02)
Austria Disputes - international minor disputes with Czech Republic and Slovenia continue over nuclear power plants and post-World War II treatment of German-speaking minorities
Austria Illicit drugs transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for Western Europe
Azerbaijan Background Azerbaijan - a nation with a Turkic and majority-Muslim population - regained its independence after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Despite a 1994 cease-fire, Azerbaijan has yet to resolve its conflict with Armenia over the Azerbaijani Nagorno-Karabakh enclave (largely Armenian populated). Azerbaijan has lost 16% of its territory and must support some 800,000 refugees and internally displaced persons as a result of the conflict. Corruption is ubiquitous and the promise of widespread wealth from Azerbaijan's undeveloped petroleum resources remains largely unfulfilled.
Azerbaijan Location Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range
Azerbaijan Geographic coordinates 40 30 N, 47 30 E
Azerbaijan Map references Asia
Azerbaijan Area total: 86,600 sq km note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991 water: 500 sq km land: 86,100 sq km
Azerbaijan Area - comparative slightly smaller than Maine
Azerbaijan Land boundaries total: 2,013 km border countries: Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km
Azerbaijan Coastline 0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (800 km, est.)
Azerbaijan Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Azerbaijan Climate dry, semiarid steppe
Azerbaijan Terrain large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland) (much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) in west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea
Azerbaijan Elevation extremes lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m
Azerbaijan Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, alumina
Azerbaijan Land use arable land: 19.31% permanent crops: 3.04% other: 77.65% (1998 est.)
Azerbaijan Irrigated land 14,550 sq km (1998 est.)
Azerbaijan Natural hazards droughts
Azerbaijan Environment - current issues local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil spills, from the use of DDT as a pesticide, and from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton
Azerbaijan Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Azerbaijan Geography - note both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are landlocked
Azerbaijan Population 7,830,764 (July 2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Age structure 0-14 years: 27.7% (male 1,101,320; female 1,064,214) 15-64 years: 64.7% (male 2,468,772; female 2,601,312) 65 years and over: 7.6% (male 236,683; female 358,463) (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Median age total: 27.1 years male: 25.7 years female: 28.6 years (2002)
Azerbaijan Population growth rate 0.44% (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Birth rate 19.28 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Death rate 9.68 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Net migration rate -5.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Infant mortality rate total: 82.41 deaths/1,000 live births female: 80.32 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 84.4 deaths/1,000 live births
Azerbaijan Life expectancy at birth total population: 63.16 years male: 58.95 years female: 67.58 years (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Total fertility rate 2.34 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS less than 1,400 (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan HIV/AIDS - deaths less than 100 (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan Nationality noun: Azerbaijani(s) adjective: Azerbaijani
Azerbaijan Ethnic groups Azeri 90%, Dagestani 3.2%, Russian 2.5%, Armenian 2%, other 2.3% (1998 est.) note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region
Azerbaijan Religions Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox 2.3%, other 1.8% (1995 est.) note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan; percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower
Azerbaijan Languages Azerbaijani (Azeri) 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995 est.)
Azerbaijan Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 97% male: 99% female: 96% (1989 est.)
Azerbaijan Country name conventional long form: Republic of Azerbaijan conventional short form: Azerbaijan local short form: none former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi
Azerbaijan Government type republic
Azerbaijan Capital Baku (Baki)
Azerbaijan Administrative divisions 59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities* (saharlar; sahar - singular), 1 autonomous republic** (muxtar respublika); Abseron Rayonu, Agcabadi Rayonu, Agdam Rayonu, Agdas Rayonu, Agstafa Rayonu, Agsu Rayonu, Ali Bayramli Sahari*, Astara Rayonu, Baki Sahari*, Balakan Rayonu, Barda Rayonu, Beylaqan Rayonu, Bilasuvar Rayonu, Cabrayil Rayonu, Calilabad Rayonu, Daskasan Rayonu, Davaci Rayonu, Fuzuli Rayonu, Gadabay Rayonu, Ganca Sahari*, Goranboy Rayonu, Goycay Rayonu, Haciqabul Rayonu, Imisli Rayonu, Ismayilli Rayonu, Kalbacar Rayonu, Kurdamir Rayonu, Lacin Rayonu, Lankaran Rayonu, Lankaran Sahari*, Lerik Rayonu, Masalli Rayonu, Mingacevir Sahari*, Naftalan Sahari*, Naxcivan Muxtar Respublikasi**, Neftcala Rayonu, Oguz Rayonu, Qabala Rayonu, Qax Rayonu, Qazax Rayonu, Qobustan Rayonu, Quba Rayonu, Qubadli Rayonu, Qusar Rayonu, Saatli Rayonu, Sabirabad Rayonu, Saki Rayonu, Saki Sahari*, Salyan Rayonu, Samaxi Rayonu, Samkir Rayonu, Samux Rayonu, Siyazan Rayonu, Sumqayit Sahari*, Susa Rayonu, Susa Sahari*, Tartar Rayonu, Tovuz Rayonu, Ucar Rayonu, Xacmaz Rayonu, Xankandi Sahari*, Xanlar Rayonu, Xizi Rayonu, Xocali Rayonu, Xocavand Rayonu, Yardimli Rayonu, Yevlax Rayonu, Yevlax Sahari*, Zangilan Rayonu, Zaqatala Rayonu, Zardab Rayonu
Azerbaijan Independence 30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Azerbaijan National holiday Founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaidzhan, 28 May (1918)
Azerbaijan Constitution adopted 12 November 1995
Azerbaijan Legal system based on civil law system
Azerbaijan Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Azerbaijan Executive branch chief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 October 2003) head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 4 November 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Abbas ABBASOV (since 10 November 2003) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly elections: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term; election last held 15 October 2003 (next to be held NA October 2008); prime minister and first deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly election results: Ilham ALIYEV elected president; percent of vote - Ilham ALIYEV 76.8%, Isa GAMBAROV 14%
Azerbaijan Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 4 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2005) election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NAP and allies 108, APF "Reform" 6, CSP 3, PNIA 2, Musavat Party 2, CPA 2, APF "Classic" 1, Compatriot Party 1 note: PNIA, Musavat, and APF "Classic" parties refused to take their seats note: 100 members of the current parliament were elected on the basis of single mandate constituencies, while 25 were elected based on proportional balloting; as a result of a 24 August 2002 national referendum on changes to the constitution, all 125 members of the next parliament will be elected from single mandate constituencies
Azerbaijan Judicial branch Supreme Court
Azerbaijan Political parties and leaders Azerbaijan Popular Front or APF [Ali KARIMLI, leader of "Reform" faction; Mirmahmud MIRALI-OGLU, leader of "Classic" faction]; Civic Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLY]; Civic Union Party [Ayaz MUTALIBOV]; Communist Party of Azerbaijan or CPA [Ramiz AHMADOV]; Compatriot Party [Mais SAFARLI]; Democratic Party for Azerbaijan or DPA [Rasul QULIYEV, chairman]; Justice Party [Ilyas ISMAILOV]; Liberal Party of Azerbaijan [Lala Shvkat HACIYEVA]; Musavat [Isa GAMBAR, chairman]; New Azerbaijan Party or NAP [Heydar ALIYEV, chairman]; Party for National Independence of Azerbaijan or PNIA [Etibar MAMMADLI, chairman]; Social Democratic Party of Azerbaijan or SDP [Zardust ALIZADE] note: opposition parties regularly factionalize and form new parties
Azerbaijan Political pressure groups and leaders Sadval, Lezgin movement; self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh independence movement; Union of Pro-Azerbaijani Forces (UPAF)
Azerbaijan International organization participation AsDB, BSEC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, GUUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Azerbaijan Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Hafiz PASHAYEV FAX: [1] (202) 337-5911 telephone: [1] (202) 337-3500 chancery: 2741 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Azerbaijan Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Ross L. WILSON embassy: 83 Azadliq Prospekt, Baku 370007 mailing address: American Embassy Baku, Department of State, 7050 Baku Place, Washington, DC 20521-7050 telephone: [9] (9412) 98-03-35, 36, 37 FAX: [9] (9412) 90-66-71
Azerbaijan Flag description three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band
Azerbaijan Economy - overview Azerbaijan's number one export is oil. Azerbaijan's oil production declined through 1997 but has registered an increase every year since. Negotiation of production-sharing arrangements (PSAs) with foreign firms, which have thus far committed $60 billion to long-term oilfield development, should generate the funds needed to spur future industrial development. Oil production under the first of these PSAs, with the Azerbaijan International Operating Company, began in November 1997. Azerbaijan shares all the formidable problems of the former Soviet republics in making the transition from a command to a market economy, but its considerable energy resources brighten its long-term prospects. Baku has only recently begun making progress on economic reform, and old economic ties and structures are slowly being replaced. One obstacle to economic progress is the need for stepped up foreign investment in the non-energy sector. A second obstacle is the continuing conflict with Armenia over the Nagorno-Karabakh region. Trade with Russia and the other former Soviet republics is declining in importance while trade is building with Turkey and the nations of Europe. Long-term prospects will depend on world oil prices, the location of new pipelines in the region, and Azerbaijan's ability to manage its oil wealth.
Azerbaijan GDP purchasing power parity - $28.61 billion (2002 est.)
Azerbaijan GDP - real growth rate 10.6% (2002 est.)
Azerbaijan GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $3,700 (2002 est.)
Azerbaijan GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 20% industry: 33% services: 47% (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan Population below poverty line 49% (2002 est.)
Azerbaijan Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.8% highest 10%: 27.8% (1995)
Azerbaijan Distribution of family income - Gini index 36 (1995)
Azerbaijan Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.6% (2002 est.)
Azerbaijan Labor force 3.7 million (2001)
Azerbaijan Labor force - by occupation agriculture and forestry 41%, industry 7%, services 52% (2001)
Azerbaijan Unemployment rate 16% (official rate is 1.2%) (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Budget revenues: $786 million expenditures: $807 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan Industries petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles
Azerbaijan Industrial production growth rate 6% (2002 est.)
Azerbaijan Electricity - production 18.23 billion kWh (2001)
Azerbaijan Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 89.7% hydro: 10.3% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Azerbaijan Electricity - consumption 16.65 billion kWh (2001)
Azerbaijan Electricity - exports 700 million kWh (2001)
Azerbaijan Electricity - imports 400 million kWh (2001)
Azerbaijan Oil - production 307,200 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan Oil - consumption 140,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan Oil - exports NA (2001)
Azerbaijan Oil - imports NA (2001)
Azerbaijan Oil - proved reserves 589 million bbl (37257)
Azerbaijan Natural gas - production 5.72 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan Natural gas - consumption 6.72 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan Natural gas - imports 1 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan Natural gas - proved reserves 62.3 billion cu m (37257)
Azerbaijan Agriculture - products cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats
Azerbaijan Exports $2 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Azerbaijan Exports - commodities oil and gas 90%, machinery, cotton, foodstuffs
Azerbaijan Exports - partners Italy 28.7%, Germany 17.7%, Israel 10.6%, France 8.4%, Georgia 6.7%, Russia 4.7% (2002)
Azerbaijan Imports $1.8 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Azerbaijan Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, oil products, foodstuffs, metals, chemicals
Azerbaijan Imports - partners Russia 17.8%, Turkey 11.9%, Germany 10.7%, France 7%, Kazakhstan 6.3%, China 6%, UK 5.5%, US 4.5% (2002)
Azerbaijan Debt - external $1.4 billion (2002)
Azerbaijan Economic aid - recipient ODA, $140 million (2000 est.)
Azerbaijan Currency Azerbaijani manat (AZM)
Azerbaijan Currency code AZM
Azerbaijan Exchange rates Azerbaijani manats per US dollar - 4,860.82 (2002), 4,656.58 (2001), 4,474.15 (2000), 4,120.17 (1999), 3,869 (1998)
Azerbaijan Fiscal year calendar year
Azerbaijan Telephones - main lines in use 865,000 (2002)
Azerbaijan Telephones - mobile cellular 800,000 (2002)
Azerbaijan Telephone system general assessment: inadequate; requires considerable expansion and modernization; teledensity of 10 main lines per 100 persons is low (2002) domestic: the majority of telephones are in Baku and other industrial centers - about 700 villages still without public telephone service; satellite service connects Baku to a modern switch in its exclave of Naxcivan international: the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still serviceable; a satellite connection to Turkey enables Baku to reach about 200 additional countries, some of which are directly connected to Baku by satellite providers other than Turkey (1997)
Azerbaijan Radio broadcast stations AM 10, FM 17, shortwave 1 (1998)
Azerbaijan Television broadcast stations 2 (1997)
Azerbaijan Internet country code .az
Azerbaijan Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 2 (2000)
Azerbaijan Internet users 25,000 (2002)
Azerbaijan Railways total: 2,122 km broad gauge: 2,122 km 1.520-m gauge (1,278 km electrified) (2002)
Azerbaijan Highways total: 24,981 km paved: 23,057 km unpaved: 1,924 km (2000)
Azerbaijan Waterways none
Azerbaijan Pipelines gas 5,001 km; oil 1,631 km (2003)
Azerbaijan Ports and harbors Baku (Baki)
Azerbaijan Merchant marine total: 55 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 251,004 GRT/313,193 DWT ships by type: cargo 13, petroleum tanker 40, roll on/roll off 2 (2002 est.)
Azerbaijan Airports 71 (2002)
Azerbaijan Airports - with paved runways total: 27 over 3.047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 6 1,524 to 2,437 m: 14 914 to 1,523 m: 4 under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Azerbaijan Airports - with unpaved runways total: 44 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 914 to 1,523 m: 9 under 914 m: 27 (2002)
Azerbaijan Military branches Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces
Azerbaijan Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,159,450 (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,727,340 (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 82,925 (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Military expenditures - dollar figure $121 million (FY99)
Azerbaijan Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.6% (FY99)
Azerbaijan Disputes - international Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh and militarily occupies about one-sixth of Azerbaijan - Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate dispute; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratify Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on an even one-fifth allocation and challenges Azerbaijan's hydrocarbon exploration in disputed waters; ICJ decision expected to resolve dispute with Turkmenistan over sovereignty of certain Caspian oilfields
Azerbaijan Illicit drugs limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; small government eradication program; transit point for Southwest Asian opiates bound for Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe
Azerbaijan Background Azerbaijan - a nation with a Turkic and majority-Muslim population - regained its independence after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Despite a 1994 cease-fire, Azerbaijan has yet to resolve its conflict with Armenia over the Azerbaijani Nagorno-Karabakh enclave (largely Armenian populated). Azerbaijan has lost 16% of its territory and must support some 800,000 refugees and internally displaced persons as a result of the conflict. Corruption is ubiquitous and the promise of widespread wealth from Azerbaijan's undeveloped petroleum resources remains largely unfulfilled.
Azerbaijan Location Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range
Azerbaijan Geographic coordinates 40 30 N, 47 30 E
Azerbaijan Map references Asia
Azerbaijan Area total: 86,600 sq km note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991 water: 500 sq km land: 86,100 sq km
Azerbaijan Area - comparative slightly smaller than Maine
Azerbaijan Land boundaries total: 2,013 km border countries: Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km
Azerbaijan Coastline 0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (800 km, est.)
Azerbaijan Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Azerbaijan Climate dry, semiarid steppe
Azerbaijan Terrain large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland) (much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) in west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea
Azerbaijan Elevation extremes lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m
Azerbaijan Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, alumina
Azerbaijan Land use arable land: 19.31% permanent crops: 3.04% other: 77.65% (1998 est.)
Azerbaijan Irrigated land 14,550 sq km (1998 est.)
Azerbaijan Natural hazards droughts
Azerbaijan Environment - current issues local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil spills, from the use of DDT as a pesticide, and from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton
Azerbaijan Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Azerbaijan Geography - note both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are landlocked
Azerbaijan Population 7,830,764 (July 2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Age structure 0-14 years: 27.7% (male 1,101,320; female 1,064,214) 15-64 years: 64.7% (male 2,468,772; female 2,601,312) 65 years and over: 7.6% (male 236,683; female 358,463) (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Median age total: 27.1 years male: 25.7 years female: 28.6 years (2002)
Azerbaijan Population growth rate 0.44% (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Birth rate 19.28 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Death rate 9.68 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Net migration rate -5.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Infant mortality rate total: 82.41 deaths/1,000 live births female: 80.32 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 84.4 deaths/1,000 live births
Azerbaijan Life expectancy at birth total population: 63.16 years male: 58.95 years female: 67.58 years (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Total fertility rate 2.34 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS less than 1,400 (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan HIV/AIDS - deaths less than 100 (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan Nationality noun: Azerbaijani(s) adjective: Azerbaijani
Azerbaijan Ethnic groups Azeri 90%, Dagestani 3.2%, Russian 2.5%, Armenian 2%, other 2.3% (1998 est.) note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region
Azerbaijan Religions Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox 2.3%, other 1.8% (1995 est.) note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan; percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower
Azerbaijan Languages Azerbaijani (Azeri) 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995 est.)
Azerbaijan Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 97% male: 99% female: 96% (1989 est.)
Azerbaijan Country name conventional long form: Republic of Azerbaijan conventional short form: Azerbaijan local short form: none former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi
Azerbaijan Government type republic
Azerbaijan Capital Baku (Baki)
Azerbaijan Administrative divisions 59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities* (saharlar; sahar - singular), 1 autonomous republic** (muxtar respublika); Abseron Rayonu, Agcabadi Rayonu, Agdam Rayonu, Agdas Rayonu, Agstafa Rayonu, Agsu Rayonu, Ali Bayramli Sahari*, Astara Rayonu, Baki Sahari*, Balakan Rayonu, Barda Rayonu, Beylaqan Rayonu, Bilasuvar Rayonu, Cabrayil Rayonu, Calilabad Rayonu, Daskasan Rayonu, Davaci Rayonu, Fuzuli Rayonu, Gadabay Rayonu, Ganca Sahari*, Goranboy Rayonu, Goycay Rayonu, Haciqabul Rayonu, Imisli Rayonu, Ismayilli Rayonu, Kalbacar Rayonu, Kurdamir Rayonu, Lacin Rayonu, Lankaran Rayonu, Lankaran Sahari*, Lerik Rayonu, Masalli Rayonu, Mingacevir Sahari*, Naftalan Sahari*, Naxcivan Muxtar Respublikasi**, Neftcala Rayonu, Oguz Rayonu, Qabala Rayonu, Qax Rayonu, Qazax Rayonu, Qobustan Rayonu, Quba Rayonu, Qubadli Rayonu, Qusar Rayonu, Saatli Rayonu, Sabirabad Rayonu, Saki Rayonu, Saki Sahari*, Salyan Rayonu, Samaxi Rayonu, Samkir Rayonu, Samux Rayonu, Siyazan Rayonu, Sumqayit Sahari*, Susa Rayonu, Susa Sahari*, Tartar Rayonu, Tovuz Rayonu, Ucar Rayonu, Xacmaz Rayonu, Xankandi Sahari*, Xanlar Rayonu, Xizi Rayonu, Xocali Rayonu, Xocavand Rayonu, Yardimli Rayonu, Yevlax Rayonu, Yevlax Sahari*, Zangilan Rayonu, Zaqatala Rayonu, Zardab Rayonu
Azerbaijan Independence 30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Azerbaijan National holiday Founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaidzhan, 28 May (1918)
Azerbaijan Constitution adopted 12 November 1995
Azerbaijan Legal system based on civil law system
Azerbaijan Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Azerbaijan Executive branch chief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 October 2003) head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 4 November 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Abbas ABBASOV (since 10 November 2003) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly elections: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term; election last held 15 October 2003 (next to be held NA October 2008); prime minister and first deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly election results: Ilham ALIYEV elected president; percent of vote - Ilham ALIYEV 76.8%, Isa GAMBAROV 14%
Azerbaijan Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 4 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2005) election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NAP and allies 108, APF "Reform" 6, CSP 3, PNIA 2, Musavat Party 2, CPA 2, APF "Classic" 1, Compatriot Party 1 note: PNIA, Musavat, and APF "Classic" parties refused to take their seats note: 100 members of the current parliament were elected on the basis of single mandate constituencies, while 25 were elected based on proportional balloting; as a result of a 24 August 2002 national referendum on changes to the constitution, all 125 members of the next parliament will be elected from single mandate constituencies
Azerbaijan Judicial branch Supreme Court
Azerbaijan Political parties and leaders Azerbaijan Popular Front or APF [Ali KARIMLI, leader of "Reform" faction; Mirmahmud MIRALI-OGLU, leader of "Classic" faction]; Civic Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLY]; Civic Union Party [Ayaz MUTALIBOV]; Communist Party of Azerbaijan or CPA [Ramiz AHMADOV]; Compatriot Party [Mais SAFARLI]; Democratic Party for Azerbaijan or DPA [Rasul QULIYEV, chairman]; Justice Party [Ilyas ISMAILOV]; Liberal Party of Azerbaijan [Lala Shvkat HACIYEVA]; Musavat [Isa GAMBAR, chairman]; New Azerbaijan Party or NAP [Heydar ALIYEV, chairman]; Party for National Independence of Azerbaijan or PNIA [Etibar MAMMADLI, chairman]; Social Democratic Party of Azerbaijan or SDP [Zardust ALIZADE] note: opposition parties regularly factionalize and form new parties
Azerbaijan Political pressure groups and leaders Sadval, Lezgin movement; self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh independence movement; Union of Pro-Azerbaijani Forces (UPAF)
Azerbaijan International organization participation AsDB, BSEC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, GUUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Azerbaijan Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Hafiz PASHAYEV FAX: [1] (202) 337-5911 telephone: [1] (202) 337-3500 chancery: 2741 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Azerbaijan Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Ross L. WILSON embassy: 83 Azadliq Prospekt, Baku 370007 mailing address: American Embassy Baku, Department of State, 7050 Baku Place, Washington, DC 20521-7050 telephone: [9] (9412) 98-03-35, 36, 37 FAX: [9] (9412) 90-66-71
Azerbaijan Flag description three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band
Azerbaijan Economy - overview Azerbaijan's number one export is oil. Azerbaijan's oil production declined through 1997 but has registered an increase every year since. Negotiation of production-sharing arrangements (PSAs) with foreign firms, which have thus far committed $60 billion to long-term oilfield development, should generate the funds needed to spur future industrial development. Oil production under the first of these PSAs, with the Azerbaijan International Operating Company, began in November 1997. Azerbaijan shares all the formidable problems of the former Soviet republics in making the transition from a command to a market economy, but its considerable energy resources brighten its long-term prospects. Baku has only recently begun making progress on economic reform, and old economic ties and structures are slowly being replaced. One obstacle to economic progress is the need for stepped up foreign investment in the non-energy sector. A second obstacle is the continuing conflict with Armenia over the Nagorno-Karabakh region. Trade with Russia and the other former Soviet republics is declining in importance while trade is building with Turkey and the nations of Europe. Long-term prospects will depend on world oil prices, the location of new pipelines in the region, and Azerbaijan's ability to manage its oil wealth.
Azerbaijan GDP purchasing power parity - $28.61 billion (2002 est.)
Azerbaijan GDP - real growth rate 10.6% (2002 est.)
Azerbaijan GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $3,700 (2002 est.)
Azerbaijan GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 20% industry: 33% services: 47% (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan Population below poverty line 49% (2002 est.)
Azerbaijan Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.8% highest 10%: 27.8% (1995)
Azerbaijan Distribution of family income - Gini index 36 (1995)
Azerbaijan Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.6% (2002 est.)
Azerbaijan Labor force 3.7 million (2001)
Azerbaijan Labor force - by occupation agriculture and forestry 41%, industry 7%, services 52% (2001)
Azerbaijan Unemployment rate 16% (official rate is 1.2%) (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Budget revenues: $786 million expenditures: $807 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan Industries petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles
Azerbaijan Industrial production growth rate 6% (2002 est.)
Azerbaijan Electricity - production 18.23 billion kWh (2001)
Azerbaijan Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 89.7% hydro: 10.3% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Azerbaijan Electricity - consumption 16.65 billion kWh (2001)
Azerbaijan Electricity - exports 700 million kWh (2001)
Azerbaijan Electricity - imports 400 million kWh (2001)
Azerbaijan Oil - production 307,200 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan Oil - consumption 140,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan Oil - exports NA (2001)
Azerbaijan Oil - imports NA (2001)
Azerbaijan Oil - proved reserves 589 million bbl (37257)
Azerbaijan Natural gas - production 5.72 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan Natural gas - consumption 6.72 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan Natural gas - imports 1 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Azerbaijan Natural gas - proved reserves 62.3 billion cu m (37257)
Azerbaijan Agriculture - products cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats
Azerbaijan Exports $2 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Azerbaijan Exports - commodities oil and gas 90%, machinery, cotton, foodstuffs
Azerbaijan Exports - partners Italy 28.7%, Germany 17.7%, Israel 10.6%, France 8.4%, Georgia 6.7%, Russia 4.7% (2002)
Azerbaijan Imports $1.8 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Azerbaijan Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, oil products, foodstuffs, metals, chemicals
Azerbaijan Imports - partners Russia 17.8%, Turkey 11.9%, Germany 10.7%, France 7%, Kazakhstan 6.3%, China 6%, UK 5.5%, US 4.5% (2002)
Azerbaijan Debt - external $1.4 billion (2002)
Azerbaijan Economic aid - recipient ODA, $140 million (2000 est.)
Azerbaijan Currency Azerbaijani manat (AZM)
Azerbaijan Currency code AZM
Azerbaijan Exchange rates Azerbaijani manats per US dollar - 4,860.82 (2002), 4,656.58 (2001), 4,474.15 (2000), 4,120.17 (1999), 3,869 (1998)
Azerbaijan Fiscal year calendar year
Azerbaijan Telephones - main lines in use 865,000 (2002)
Azerbaijan Telephones - mobile cellular 800,000 (2002)
Azerbaijan Telephone system general assessment: inadequate; requires considerable expansion and modernization; teledensity of 10 main lines per 100 persons is low (2002) domestic: the majority of telephones are in Baku and other industrial centers - about 700 villages still without public telephone service; satellite service connects Baku to a modern switch in its exclave of Naxcivan international: the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still serviceable; a satellite connection to Turkey enables Baku to reach about 200 additional countries, some of which are directly connected to Baku by satellite providers other than Turkey (1997)
Azerbaijan Radio broadcast stations AM 10, FM 17, shortwave 1 (1998)
Azerbaijan Television broadcast stations 2 (1997)
Azerbaijan Internet country code .az
Azerbaijan Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 2 (2000)
Azerbaijan Internet users 25,000 (2002)
Azerbaijan Railways total: 2,122 km broad gauge: 2,122 km 1.520-m gauge (1,278 km electrified) (2002)
Azerbaijan Highways total: 24,981 km paved: 23,057 km unpaved: 1,924 km (2000)
Azerbaijan Waterways none
Azerbaijan Pipelines gas 5,001 km; oil 1,631 km (2003)
Azerbaijan Ports and harbors Baku (Baki)
Azerbaijan Merchant marine total: 55 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 251,004 GRT/313,193 DWT ships by type: cargo 13, petroleum tanker 40, roll on/roll off 2 (2002 est.)
Azerbaijan Airports 71 (2002)
Azerbaijan Airports - with paved runways total: 27 over 3.047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 6 1,524 to 2,437 m: 14 914 to 1,523 m: 4 under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Azerbaijan Airports - with unpaved runways total: 44 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 914 to 1,523 m: 9 under 914 m: 27 (2002)
Azerbaijan Military branches Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces
Azerbaijan Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,159,450 (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,727,340 (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 82,925 (2003 est.)
Azerbaijan Military expenditures - dollar figure $121 million (FY99)
Azerbaijan Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.6% (FY99)
Azerbaijan Disputes - international Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh and militarily occupies about one-sixth of Azerbaijan - Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate dispute; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratify Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on an even one-fifth allocation and challenges Azerbaijan's hydrocarbon exploration in disputed waters; ICJ decision expected to resolve dispute with Turkmenistan over sovereignty of certain Caspian oilfields
Azerbaijan Illicit drugs limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; small government eradication program; transit point for Southwest Asian opiates bound for Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe
Bahamas, The Background Arawak Indians inhabited the islands when Christopher Columbus first set foot in the New World on San Salvador in 1492. British settlement of the islands began in 1647; the islands became a colony in 1783. Since attaining independence from the UK in 1973, The Bahamas have prospered through tourism and international banking and investment management. Because of its geography, the country is a major transshipment point for illegal drugs, particularly shipments to the US, and its territory is used for smuggling illegal migrants into the US.
Bahamas, The Location Caribbean, chain of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, southeast of Florida, northeast of Cuba
Bahamas, The Geographic coordinates 24 15 N, 76 00 W
Bahamas, The Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Bahamas, The Area total: 13,940 sq km water: 3,870 sq km land: 10,070 sq km
Bahamas, The Area - comparative slightly smaller than Connecticut
Bahamas, The Land boundaries 0 km
Bahamas, The Coastline 3,542 km
Bahamas, The Maritime claims exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
Bahamas, The Climate tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream
Bahamas, The Terrain long, flat coral formations with some low rounded hills
Bahamas, The Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Alvernia, on Cat Island 63 m
Bahamas, The Natural resources salt, aragonite, timber, arable land
Bahamas, The Land use arable land: 0.6% permanent crops: 0.4% other: 99% (1998 est.)
Bahamas, The Irrigated land NA sq km
Bahamas, The Natural hazards hurricanes and other tropical storms cause extensive flood and wind damage
Bahamas, The Environment - current issues coral reef decay; solid waste disposal
Bahamas, The Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Bahamas, The Geography - note strategic location adjacent to US and Cuba; extensive island chain of which 30 are inhabited
Bahamas, The Population 297,477 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2003 est.)
Bahamas, The Age structure 0-14 years: 28.8% (male 42,799; female 42,730) 15-64 years: 65.4% (male 95,718; female 98,875) 65 years and over: 5.8% (male 7,092; female 10,263) (2003 est.)
Bahamas, The Median age total: 27 years male: 26.2 years female: 27.7 years (2002)
Bahamas, The Population growth rate 0.77% (2003 est.)
Bahamas, The Birth rate 18.57 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bahamas, The Death rate 8.68 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bahamas, The Net migration rate -2.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bahamas, The Sex ratio at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Bahamas, The Infant mortality rate total: 26.21 deaths/1,000 live births female: 19.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 32.45 deaths/1,000 live births
Bahamas, The Life expectancy at birth total population: 65.71 years male: 62.3 years female: 69.18 years (2003 est.)
Bahamas, The Total fertility rate 2.25 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Bahamas, The HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 3.5% (2001 est.)
Bahamas, The HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 6,200 (2001 est.)
Bahamas, The HIV/AIDS - deaths 610 (2001 est.)
Bahamas, The Nationality noun: Bahamian(s) adjective: Bahamian
Bahamas, The Ethnic groups black 85%, white 12%, Asian and Hispanic 3%
Bahamas, The Religions Baptist 32%, Anglican 20%, Roman Catholic 19%, Methodist 6%, Church of God 6%, other Protestant 12%, none or unknown 3%, other 2%
Bahamas, The Languages English (official), Creole (among Haitian immigrants)
Bahamas, The Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 95.6% male: 94.7% female: 96.5% (2003 est.)
Bahamas, The Country name conventional long form: Commonwealth of The Bahamas conventional short form: The Bahamas
Bahamas, The Government type constitutional parliamentary democracy
Bahamas, The Capital Nassau
Bahamas, The Administrative divisions 21 districts; Acklins and Crooked Islands, Bimini, Cat Island, Exuma, Freeport, Fresh Creek, Governor's Harbour, Green Turtle Cay, Harbour Island, High Rock, Inagua, Kemps Bay, Long Island, Marsh Harbour, Mayaguana, New Providence, Nichollstown and Berry Islands, Ragged Island, Rock Sound, Sandy Point, San Salvador and Rum Cay
Bahamas, The Independence 10 July 1973 (from UK)
Bahamas, The National holiday Independence Day, 10 July (1973)
Bahamas, The Constitution 10 July 1973
Bahamas, The Legal system based on English common law
Bahamas, The Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Bahamas, The Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Ivy DUMONT (since NA May 2002) head of government: Prime Minister Perry CHRISTIE (since 3 May 2002) and Deputy Prime Minister Cynthia PRATT (since 7 May 2002) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the prime minister's recommendation elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; the prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister
Bahamas, The Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (16-member body appointed by the governor general upon the advice of the prime minister and the opposition leader for five-year terms) and the House of Assembly (40 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 1 May 2002 (next to be held by May 2007) election results: percent of vote by party - PLP 50.8%, FNM 41.1%, independents 5.2%; seats by party - PLP 29, FNM 7, independents 4
Bahamas, The Judicial branch Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; magistrates courts
Bahamas, The Political parties and leaders Free National Movement or FNM [Tommy TURNQUEST]; Progressive Liberal Party or PLP [Perry CHRISTIE]
Bahamas, The Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Bahamas, The International organization participation ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)
Bahamas, The Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Joshua SEARS consulate(s) general: Miami and New York FAX: [1] (202) 319-2668 telephone: [1] (202) 319-2660 chancery: 2220 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Bahamas, The Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affairs Robert M. WITAJEWSKI embassy: 42 Queen Street, Nassau mailing address: local or express mail address: P. O. Box N-8197, Nassau; Department of State, 3370 Nassau Place, Washington, DC 20521-3370 telephone: [1] (242) 322-1181, 328-2206 (after hours) FAX: [1] (242) 356-0222
Bahamas, The Flag description three equal horizontal bands of aquamarine (top), gold, and aquamarine, with a black equilateral triangle based on the hoist side
Bahamas, The Economy - overview The Bahamas is a stable, developing nation with an economy heavily dependent on tourism and offshore banking. Tourism alone accounts for more than 60% of GDP and directly or indirectly employs half of the archipelago's labor force. Steady growth in tourism receipts and a boom in construction of new hotels, resorts, and residences had led to solid GDP growth in recent years, but the slowdown in the US economy and the attacks of 11 September 2001 held back growth in these sectors in 2002. Manufacturing and agriculture together contribute approximately a tenth of GDP and show little growth, despite government incentives aimed at those sectors. Overall growth prospects in the short run rest heavily on the fortunes of the tourism sector, which depends on growth in the US, the source of most of the visitors.
Bahamas, The GDP purchasing power parity - $4.59 billion (2002 est.)
Bahamas, The GDP - real growth rate 0.1% (2002 est.)
Bahamas, The GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $15,300 (2002 est.)
Bahamas, The GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 3% industry: 7% services: 90% (1999 est.)
Bahamas, The Population below poverty line NA%
Bahamas, The Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Bahamas, The Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.8% (2001 est.)
Bahamas, The Labor force 156,000 (1999)
Bahamas, The Labor force - by occupation tourism 50%, other services 40%, industry 5%, agriculture 5% (1999 est.)
Bahamas, The Unemployment rate 6.9% (2001 est.)
Bahamas, The Budget revenues: $918.5 million expenditures: $956.5 million, including capital expenditures of $106.7 million (FY 99/00)
Bahamas, The Industries tourism, banking, e-commerce, cement, oil refining and transshipment, salt, rum, aragonite, pharmaceuticals, spiral-welded steel pipe
Bahamas, The Industrial production growth rate NA%
Bahamas, The Electricity - production 1.56 billion kWh (2001)
Bahamas, The Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Bahamas, The Electricity - consumption 1.451 billion kWh (2001)
Bahamas, The Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Bahamas, The Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Bahamas, The Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bahamas, The Oil - consumption 23,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bahamas, The Oil - exports NA (2001)
Bahamas, The Oil - imports NA (2001)
Bahamas, The Agriculture - products citrus, vegetables; poultry
Bahamas, The Exports $560.7 million (2002 est.)
Bahamas, The Exports - commodities fish and crawfish; rum, salt, chemicals; fruit and vegetables
Bahamas, The Exports - partners US 39.1%, Germany 15.4%, Spain 10.8%, France 7.4%, Poland 4.6%, Switzerland 4.3% (2002)
Bahamas, The Imports $1.86 billion (2002 est.)
Bahamas, The Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, mineral fuels; food and live animals
Bahamas, The Imports - partners US 20.3%, South Korea 20.1%, Germany 11.5%, Norway 11.5%, Japan 10%, Italy 7.2% (2002)
Bahamas, The Debt - external $371.6 million (2001)
Bahamas, The Economic aid - recipient $9.8 million (1995)
Bahamas, The Currency Bahamian dollar (BSD)
Bahamas, The Currency code BSD
Bahamas, The Exchange rates Bahamian dollars per US dollar - 1 (2002), 1 (2001), 1 (2000), 1 (1999), 1 (1998)
Bahamas, The Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Bahamas, The Telephones - main lines in use 96,000 (1997)
Bahamas, The Telephones - mobile cellular 6,152 (1997)
Bahamas, The Telephone system general assessment: modern facilities domestic: totally automatic system; highly developed international: tropospheric scatter and submarine cable to Florida; 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (1997)
Bahamas, The Radio broadcast stations AM 3, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)
Bahamas, The Television broadcast stations 1 (1997)
Bahamas, The Internet country code .bs
Bahamas, The Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 19 (2000)
Bahamas, The Internet users 16,900 (2002)
Bahamas, The Railways 0 km
Bahamas, The Highways total: 2,693 km paved: 1,546 km unpaved: 1,147 km (1999 est.)
Bahamas, The Waterways none
Bahamas, The Ports and harbors Freeport, Matthew Town, Nassau
Bahamas, The Merchant marine total: 1,090 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 33,065,778 GRT/46,202,085 DWT ships by type: bulk 150, cargo 223, chemical tanker 45, combination bulk 12, combination ore/oil 18, container 108, liquefied gas 26, livestock carrier 2, multi-functional large-load carrier 8, passenger 102, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 178, refrigerated cargo 135, roll on/roll off 40, short-sea passenger 17, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 23 note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Angola 1, Argentina 1, Australia 4, Belgium 18, Bermuda 1, Canada 5, Chile 1, China 3, Croatia 2, Cuba 3, Cyprus 2, Denmark 27, Ecuador 1, Estonia 2, Finland 9, France 15, Germany 26, Greece 173, Hong Kong 6, India 2, Indonesia 2, Ireland 1, Israel 3, Italy 9, Jamaica 1, Japan 32, Kenya 3, Malaysia 10, Malta 2, Monaco 67, Netherlands 32, New Zealand 2, Norway 237, Panama 2, Philippines 3, Poland 13, Reunion 1, Russia 6, Saudi Arabia 9, Singapore 13, Slovenia 1, South Korea 2, Spain 7, Sweden 12, Switzerland 8, Thailand 1, Trinidad and Tobago 2, Turkey 2, Ukraine 2, United Arab Emirates 10, United Kingdom 107, United States 159, Uruguay 1 (2002 est.)
Bahamas, The Airports 64 (2002)
Bahamas, The Airports - with paved runways total: 30 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 11 under 914 m: 2 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
Bahamas, The Airports - with unpaved runways total: 34 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 9 under 914 m: 22 (2002)
Bahamas, The Heliports 1 (2002)
Bahamas, The Military branches Royal Bahamas Defense Force (Coast Guard only), Royal Bahamas Police Force
Bahamas, The Military expenditures - dollar figure $20 million (FY95/96)
Bahamas, The Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.7% (FY99)
Bahamas, The Disputes - international have not been able to agree on a maritime boundary with the US
Bahamas, The Illicit drugs transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for US and Europe; offshore financial center
Bahamas, The Background Arawak Indians inhabited the islands when Christopher Columbus first set foot in the New World on San Salvador in 1492. British settlement of the islands began in 1647; the islands became a colony in 1783. Since attaining independence from the UK in 1973, The Bahamas have prospered through tourism and international banking and investment management. Because of its geography, the country is a major transshipment point for illegal drugs, particularly shipments to the US, and its territory is used for smuggling illegal migrants into the US.
Bahamas, The Location Caribbean, chain of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, southeast of Florida, northeast of Cuba
Bahamas, The Geographic coordinates 24 15 N, 76 00 W
Bahamas, The Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Bahamas, The Area total: 13,940 sq km water: 3,870 sq km land: 10,070 sq km
Bahamas, The Area - comparative slightly smaller than Connecticut
Bahamas, The Land boundaries 0 km
Bahamas, The Coastline 3,542 km
Bahamas, The Maritime claims exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
Bahamas, The Climate tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream
Bahamas, The Terrain long, flat coral formations with some low rounded hills
Bahamas, The Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Alvernia, on Cat Island 63 m
Bahamas, The Natural resources salt, aragonite, timber, arable land
Bahamas, The Land use arable land: 0.6% permanent crops: 0.4% other: 99% (1998 est.)
Bahamas, The Irrigated land NA sq km
Bahamas, The Natural hazards hurricanes and other tropical storms cause extensive flood and wind damage
Bahamas, The Environment - current issues coral reef decay; solid waste disposal
Bahamas, The Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Bahamas, The Geography - note strategic location adjacent to US and Cuba; extensive island chain of which 30 are inhabited
Bahamas, The Population 297,477 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2003 est.)
Bahamas, The Age structure 0-14 years: 28.8% (male 42,799; female 42,730) 15-64 years: 65.4% (male 95,718; female 98,875) 65 years and over: 5.8% (male 7,092; female 10,263) (2003 est.)
Bahamas, The Median age total: 27 years male: 26.2 years female: 27.7 years (2002)
Bahamas, The Population growth rate 0.77% (2003 est.)
Bahamas, The Birth rate 18.57 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bahamas, The Death rate 8.68 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bahamas, The Net migration rate -2.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bahamas, The Sex ratio at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Bahamas, The Infant mortality rate total: 26.21 deaths/1,000 live births female: 19.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 32.45 deaths/1,000 live births
Bahamas, The Life expectancy at birth total population: 65.71 years male: 62.3 years female: 69.18 years (2003 est.)
Bahamas, The Total fertility rate 2.25 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Bahamas, The HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 3.5% (2001 est.)
Bahamas, The HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 6,200 (2001 est.)
Bahamas, The HIV/AIDS - deaths 610 (2001 est.)
Bahamas, The Nationality noun: Bahamian(s) adjective: Bahamian
Bahamas, The Ethnic groups black 85%, white 12%, Asian and Hispanic 3%
Bahamas, The Religions Baptist 32%, Anglican 20%, Roman Catholic 19%, Methodist 6%, Church of God 6%, other Protestant 12%, none or unknown 3%, other 2%
Bahamas, The Languages English (official), Creole (among Haitian immigrants)
Bahamas, The Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 95.6% male: 94.7% female: 96.5% (2003 est.)
Bahamas, The Country name conventional long form: Commonwealth of The Bahamas conventional short form: The Bahamas
Bahamas, The Government type constitutional parliamentary democracy
Bahamas, The Capital Nassau
Bahamas, The Administrative divisions 21 districts; Acklins and Crooked Islands, Bimini, Cat Island, Exuma, Freeport, Fresh Creek, Governor's Harbour, Green Turtle Cay, Harbour Island, High Rock, Inagua, Kemps Bay, Long Island, Marsh Harbour, Mayaguana, New Providence, Nichollstown and Berry Islands, Ragged Island, Rock Sound, Sandy Point, San Salvador and Rum Cay
Bahamas, The Independence 10 July 1973 (from UK)
Bahamas, The National holiday Independence Day, 10 July (1973)
Bahamas, The Constitution 10 July 1973
Bahamas, The Legal system based on English common law
Bahamas, The Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Bahamas, The Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Ivy DUMONT (since NA May 2002) head of government: Prime Minister Perry CHRISTIE (since 3 May 2002) and Deputy Prime Minister Cynthia PRATT (since 7 May 2002) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the prime minister's recommendation elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; the prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister
Bahamas, The Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (16-member body appointed by the governor general upon the advice of the prime minister and the opposition leader for five-year terms) and the House of Assembly (40 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 1 May 2002 (next to be held by May 2007) election results: percent of vote by party - PLP 50.8%, FNM 41.1%, independents 5.2%; seats by party - PLP 29, FNM 7, independents 4
Bahamas, The Judicial branch Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; magistrates courts
Bahamas, The Political parties and leaders Free National Movement or FNM [Tommy TURNQUEST]; Progressive Liberal Party or PLP [Perry CHRISTIE]
Bahamas, The Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Bahamas, The International organization participation ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)
Bahamas, The Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Joshua SEARS consulate(s) general: Miami and New York FAX: [1] (202) 319-2668 telephone: [1] (202) 319-2660 chancery: 2220 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Bahamas, The Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affairs Robert M. WITAJEWSKI embassy: 42 Queen Street, Nassau mailing address: local or express mail address: P. O. Box N-8197, Nassau; Department of State, 3370 Nassau Place, Washington, DC 20521-3370 telephone: [1] (242) 322-1181, 328-2206 (after hours) FAX: [1] (242) 356-0222
Bahamas, The Flag description three equal horizontal bands of aquamarine (top), gold, and aquamarine, with a black equilateral triangle based on the hoist side
Bahamas, The Economy - overview The Bahamas is a stable, developing nation with an economy heavily dependent on tourism and offshore banking. Tourism alone accounts for more than 60% of GDP and directly or indirectly employs half of the archipelago's labor force. Steady growth in tourism receipts and a boom in construction of new hotels, resorts, and residences had led to solid GDP growth in recent years, but the slowdown in the US economy and the attacks of 11 September 2001 held back growth in these sectors in 2002. Manufacturing and agriculture together contribute approximately a tenth of GDP and show little growth, despite government incentives aimed at those sectors. Overall growth prospects in the short run rest heavily on the fortunes of the tourism sector, which depends on growth in the US, the source of most of the visitors.
Bahamas, The GDP purchasing power parity - $4.59 billion (2002 est.)
Bahamas, The GDP - real growth rate 0.1% (2002 est.)
Bahamas, The GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $15,300 (2002 est.)
Bahamas, The GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 3% industry: 7% services: 90% (1999 est.)
Bahamas, The Population below poverty line NA%
Bahamas, The Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Bahamas, The Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.8% (2001 est.)
Bahamas, The Labor force 156,000 (1999)
Bahamas, The Labor force - by occupation tourism 50%, other services 40%, industry 5%, agriculture 5% (1999 est.)
Bahamas, The Unemployment rate 6.9% (2001 est.)
Bahamas, The Budget revenues: $918.5 million expenditures: $956.5 million, including capital expenditures of $106.7 million (FY 99/00)
Bahamas, The Industries tourism, banking, e-commerce, cement, oil refining and transshipment, salt, rum, aragonite, pharmaceuticals, spiral-welded steel pipe
Bahamas, The Industrial production growth rate NA%
Bahamas, The Electricity - production 1.56 billion kWh (2001)
Bahamas, The Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Bahamas, The Electricity - consumption 1.451 billion kWh (2001)
Bahamas, The Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Bahamas, The Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Bahamas, The Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bahamas, The Oil - consumption 23,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bahamas, The Oil - exports NA (2001)
Bahamas, The Oil - imports NA (2001)
Bahamas, The Agriculture - products citrus, vegetables; poultry
Bahamas, The Exports $560.7 million (2002 est.)
Bahamas, The Exports - commodities fish and crawfish; rum, salt, chemicals; fruit and vegetables
Bahamas, The Exports - partners US 39.1%, Germany 15.4%, Spain 10.8%, France 7.4%, Poland 4.6%, Switzerland 4.3% (2002)
Bahamas, The Imports $1.86 billion (2002 est.)
Bahamas, The Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, mineral fuels; food and live animals
Bahamas, The Imports - partners US 20.3%, South Korea 20.1%, Germany 11.5%, Norway 11.5%, Japan 10%, Italy 7.2% (2002)
Bahamas, The Debt - external $371.6 million (2001)
Bahamas, The Economic aid - recipient $9.8 million (1995)
Bahamas, The Currency Bahamian dollar (BSD)
Bahamas, The Currency code BSD
Bahamas, The Exchange rates Bahamian dollars per US dollar - 1 (2002), 1 (2001), 1 (2000), 1 (1999), 1 (1998)
Bahamas, The Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Bahamas, The Telephones - main lines in use 96,000 (1997)
Bahamas, The Telephones - mobile cellular 6,152 (1997)
Bahamas, The Telephone system general assessment: modern facilities domestic: totally automatic system; highly developed international: tropospheric scatter and submarine cable to Florida; 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (1997)
Bahamas, The Radio broadcast stations AM 3, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)
Bahamas, The Television broadcast stations 1 (1997)
Bahamas, The Internet country code .bs
Bahamas, The Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 19 (2000)
Bahamas, The Internet users 16,900 (2002)
Bahamas, The Railways 0 km
Bahamas, The Highways total: 2,693 km paved: 1,546 km unpaved: 1,147 km (1999 est.)
Bahamas, The Waterways none
Bahamas, The Ports and harbors Freeport, Matthew Town, Nassau
Bahamas, The Merchant marine total: 1,090 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 33,065,778 GRT/46,202,085 DWT ships by type: bulk 150, cargo 223, chemical tanker 45, combination bulk 12, combination ore/oil 18, container 108, liquefied gas 26, livestock carrier 2, multi-functional large-load carrier 8, passenger 102, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 178, refrigerated cargo 135, roll on/roll off 40, short-sea passenger 17, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 23 note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Angola 1, Argentina 1, Australia 4, Belgium 18, Bermuda 1, Canada 5, Chile 1, China 3, Croatia 2, Cuba 3, Cyprus 2, Denmark 27, Ecuador 1, Estonia 2, Finland 9, France 15, Germany 26, Greece 173, Hong Kong 6, India 2, Indonesia 2, Ireland 1, Israel 3, Italy 9, Jamaica 1, Japan 32, Kenya 3, Malaysia 10, Malta 2, Monaco 67, Netherlands 32, New Zealand 2, Norway 237, Panama 2, Philippines 3, Poland 13, Reunion 1, Russia 6, Saudi Arabia 9, Singapore 13, Slovenia 1, South Korea 2, Spain 7, Sweden 12, Switzerland 8, Thailand 1, Trinidad and Tobago 2, Turkey 2, Ukraine 2, United Arab Emirates 10, United Kingdom 107, United States 159, Uruguay 1 (2002 est.)
Bahamas, The Airports 64 (2002)
Bahamas, The Airports - with paved runways total: 30 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 11 under 914 m: 2 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
Bahamas, The Airports - with unpaved runways total: 34 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 9 under 914 m: 22 (2002)
Bahamas, The Heliports 1 (2002)
Bahamas, The Military branches Royal Bahamas Defense Force (Coast Guard only), Royal Bahamas Police Force
Bahamas, The Military expenditures - dollar figure $20 million (FY95/96)
Bahamas, The Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.7% (FY99)
Bahamas, The Disputes - international have not been able to agree on a maritime boundary with the US
Bahamas, The Illicit drugs transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for US and Europe; offshore financial center
Bahrain Background Bahrain's small size and central location among Persian Gulf countries require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign affairs among its larger neighbors. Facing declining oil reserves, Bahrain has turned to petroleum processing and refining and has transformed itself into an international banking center. The new amir, installed in 1999, has pushed economic and political reforms and has worked to improve relations with the Shi'a community. In February 2001, Bahraini voters approved a referendum on the National Action Charter - the centerpiece of the amir's political liberalization program. In February 2002, Amir HAMAD bin Isa Al Khalifa proclaimed himself king. In October 2002, Bahrainis elected members of the lower house of Bahrain's reconstituted bicameral legislature, the National Assembly.
Bahrain Location Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia
Bahrain Geographic coordinates 26 00 N, 50 33 E
Bahrain Map references Middle East
Bahrain Area total: 665 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 665 sq km
Bahrain Area - comparative 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Bahrain Land boundaries 0 km
Bahrain Coastline 161 km
Bahrain Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined
Bahrain Climate arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
Bahrain Terrain mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment
Bahrain Elevation extremes lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 122 m
Bahrain Natural resources oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls
Bahrain Land use arable land: 4.35% permanent crops: 4.35% other: 91.3% (1998 est.)
Bahrain Irrigated land 50 sq km (1998 est.)
Bahrain Natural hazards periodic droughts; dust storms
Bahrain Environment - current issues desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations; lack of freshwater resources, groundwater and seawater are the only sources for all water needs
Bahrain Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Bahrain Geography - note close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf, which much of Western world's petroleum must transit to reach open ocean
Bahrain Population 667,238 note: includes 235,108 non-nationals (July 2003 est.)
Bahrain Age structure 0-14 years: 28.8% (male 97,294; female 94,930) 15-64 years: 68% (male 266,351; female 187,473) 65 years and over: 3.2% (male 10,807; female 10,383) (2003 est.)
Bahrain Median age total: 28.7 years male: 31.6 years female: 25.1 years (2002)
Bahrain Population growth rate 1.61% (2003 est.)
Bahrain Birth rate 19.02 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bahrain Death rate 3.99 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bahrain Net migration rate 1.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bahrain Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.42 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female total population: 1.28 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Bahrain Infant mortality rate total: 18.59 deaths/1,000 live births female: 15.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 21.65 deaths/1,000 live births
Bahrain Life expectancy at birth total population: 73.72 years male: 71.28 years female: 76.24 years (2003 est.)
Bahrain Total fertility rate 2.71 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Bahrain HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.3% (2001 est.)
Bahrain HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS less than 1,000
Bahrain HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Bahrain Nationality noun: Bahraini(s) adjective: Bahraini
Bahrain Ethnic groups Bahraini 63%, Asian 19%, other Arab 10%, Iranian 8%
Bahrain Religions Shi'a Muslim 70%, Sunni Muslim 30%
Bahrain Languages Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu
Bahrain Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 89.1% male: 91.9% female: 85% (2003 est.)
Bahrain Country name conventional long form: Kingdom of Bahrain conventional short form: Bahrain local short form: Al Bahrayn former: Dilmun local long form: Mamlakat al Bahrayn
Bahrain Government type constitutional hereditary monarchy
Bahrain Capital Manama
Bahrain Administrative divisions 12 municipalities (manatiq, singular - mintaqah); Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Al Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah al Wusta, Al Mintaqah ash Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq, Ar Rifa' wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah, Jidd Hafs, Madinat Hamad, Madinat 'Isa, Juzur Hawar, Sitrah note: all municipalities administered from Manama
Bahrain Independence 15 August 1971 (from UK)
Bahrain National holiday National Day, 16 December (1971); note - 15 August 1971 is the date of independence from the UK, 16 December 1971 is the date of independence from British protection
Bahrain Constitution adopted late December 2000; Bahrani voters approved on 13-14 February 2001 a referendum on legislative changes (revised constitution calls for a partially elected legislature, a constitutional monarchy, and an independent judiciary)
Bahrain Legal system based on Islamic law and English common law
Bahrain Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Bahrain Executive branch chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa Al Khalifa (since 6 March 1999); Heir Apparent Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad (son of the monarch, born 21 October 1969) head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since NA 1971) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
Bahrain Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of Shura Council (40 members appointed by the King) and House of Deputies (40 members directly elected to serve four-year terms) elections: House of Deputies - last held 31 October 2002 (next election to be held NA 2006) note: first elections since 7 December 1973; unicameral National Assembly dissolved 26 August 1975; National Action Charter created bicameral legislature on 23 December 2000; approved by referendum 14 February 2001; first legislative session of Parliament held on 25 December 2002 election results: House of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - independents 21, Sunni Islamists 9, other 10
Bahrain Judicial branch High Civil Appeals Court
Bahrain Political parties and leaders political parties prohibited but politically oriented societies are allowed
Bahrain Political pressure groups and leaders Shi'a activists fomented unrest sporadically in 1994-97, demanding the return of an elected National Assembly and an end to unemployment; several small, clandestine leftist and Islamic fundamentalist groups are active
Bahrain International organization participation ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Bahrain Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Khalifa bin Ali bin Rashid AL KHALIFA chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008 consulate(s) general: New York FAX: [1] (202) 362-2192 telephone: [1] (202) 342-0741
Bahrain Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Ronald E. NEUMANN embassy: Building #979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club), Block 321, Zinj District, Manama mailing address: American Embassy Manama, PSC 451, FPO AE 09834-5100; international mail: American Embassy, Box 26431, Manama telephone: [973] 273-300 FAX: [973] 272-594
Bahrain Flag description red with a white serrated band (five white points) on the hoist side; the five points represent the five pillars of Islam
Bahrain Economy - overview In Bahrain, petroleum production and refining account for about 60% of export receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 30% of GDP. With its highly developed communication and transport facilities, Bahrain is home to numerous multinational firms with business in the Gulf. Bahrain is dependent on Saudi Arabia for oil granted as aid. A large share of exports consists of petroleum products made from refining imported crude. Construction proceeds on several major industrial projects. Unemployment, especially among the young, and the depletion of oil and underground water resources are major long-term economic problems.
Bahrain GDP purchasing power parity - $9.91 billion (2002 est.)
Bahrain GDP - real growth rate 2.9% (2002 est.)
Bahrain GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $15,100 (2002 est.)
Bahrain GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 1% industry: 35% services: 64% (2001 est.)
Bahrain Population below poverty line NA%
Bahrain Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Bahrain Inflation rate (consumer prices) 0.5% (2002 est.)
Bahrain Labor force 295,000 note: 44% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national (1998 est.)
Bahrain Labor force - by occupation industry, commerce, and service 79%, government 20%, agriculture 1% (1997 est.)
Bahrain Unemployment rate 15% (1998 est.)
Bahrain Budget revenues: $1.8 billion expenditures: $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $700 million (2002 est.)
Bahrain Industries petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, offshore banking, ship repairing; tourism
Bahrain Industrial production growth rate 2% (2000 est.)
Bahrain Electricity - production 6.257 billion kWh (2001)
Bahrain Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Bahrain Electricity - consumption 5.819 billion kWh (2001)
Bahrain Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Bahrain Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Bahrain Oil - production 43,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bahrain Oil - consumption 31,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bahrain Oil - exports NA (2001)
Bahrain Oil - imports NA (2001)
Bahrain Oil - proved reserves 62.28 million bbl (37257)
Bahrain Natural gas - production 8.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Bahrain Natural gas - consumption 8.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Bahrain Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Bahrain Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Bahrain Natural gas - proved reserves 46 billion cu m (37257)
Bahrain Agriculture - products fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products; shrimp, fish
Bahrain Exports $5.8 billion (2002)
Bahrain Exports - commodities petroleum and petroleum products, aluminum, textiles
Bahrain Exports - partners US 4.5%, India 3.2%, Saudi Arabia 2.1% (2002)
Bahrain Imports $4.2 billion (2002)
Bahrain Imports - commodities crude oil, machinery, chemicals
Bahrain Imports - partners Saudi Arabia 30.1%, US 11.7%, Japan 7.1%, Germany 6.5%, UK 5.6% (2002)
Bahrain Debt - external $3.7 billion (2002)
Bahrain Economic aid - recipient $150 million; note - $50 million annually since 1992 from each of Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Kuwait (2002)
Bahrain Currency Bahraini dinar (BHD)
Bahrain Currency code BHD
Bahrain Exchange rates Bahraini dinars per US dollar - 0.38 (2002), 0.38 (2001), 0.38 (2000), 0.38 (1999), 0.38 (1998)
Bahrain Fiscal year calendar year
Bahrain Telephones - main lines in use 152,000 (1997)
Bahrain Telephones - mobile cellular 58,543 (1997)
Bahrain Telephone system general assessment: modern system domestic: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly growing use of mobile cellular telephones international: tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to Qatar, UAE, and Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat (1997)
Bahrain Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)
Bahrain Television broadcast stations 4 (1997)
Bahrain Internet country code .bh
Bahrain Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Bahrain Internet users 140,200 (2002)
Bahrain Railways 0 km
Bahrain Highways total: 3,261 km paved: 2,531 km unpaved: 730 km (2000)
Bahrain Waterways none
Bahrain Pipelines gas 20 km; oil 53 km (2003)
Bahrain Ports and harbors Manama, Mina' Salman, Sitrah
Bahrain Merchant marine total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 234,599 GRT/336,528 DWT ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 1, container 2, petroleum tanker 1, includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Kuwait 1 (2002 est.)
Bahrain Airports 4 (2002)
Bahrain Airports - with paved runways total: 3 over 3,047 m: 2 1524 to 2437 m: 1 (2002)
Bahrain Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)
Bahrain Heliports 1 (2002)
Bahrain Military branches Bahrain Defense Forces (BDF) comprising Ground Force (includes Air Defense), Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, Police Force, Amiri Guards, National Guard
Bahrain Military manpower - military age 15 years of age (2003 est.)
Bahrain Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 222,242 (2003 est.)
Bahrain Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 121,739 (2003 est.)
Bahrain Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 6,126 (2003 est.)
Bahrain Military expenditures - dollar figure $526.2 million (FY01)
Bahrain Military expenditures - percent of GDP 6.7% (FY01)
Bahrain Disputes - international none
Bahrain Background Bahrain's small size and central location among Persian Gulf countries require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign affairs among its larger neighbors. Facing declining oil reserves, Bahrain has turned to petroleum processing and refining and has transformed itself into an international banking center. The new amir, installed in 1999, has pushed economic and political reforms and has worked to improve relations with the Shi'a community. In February 2001, Bahraini voters approved a referendum on the National Action Charter - the centerpiece of the amir's political liberalization program. In February 2002, Amir HAMAD bin Isa Al Khalifa proclaimed himself king. In October 2002, Bahrainis elected members of the lower house of Bahrain's reconstituted bicameral legislature, the National Assembly.
Bahrain Location Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia
Bahrain Geographic coordinates 26 00 N, 50 33 E
Bahrain Map references Middle East
Bahrain Area total: 665 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 665 sq km
Bahrain Area - comparative 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Bahrain Land boundaries 0 km
Bahrain Coastline 161 km
Bahrain Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined
Bahrain Climate arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
Bahrain Terrain mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment
Bahrain Elevation extremes lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 122 m
Bahrain Natural resources oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls
Bahrain Land use arable land: 4.35% permanent crops: 4.35% other: 91.3% (1998 est.)
Bahrain Irrigated land 50 sq km (1998 est.)
Bahrain Natural hazards periodic droughts; dust storms
Bahrain Environment - current issues desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations; lack of freshwater resources, groundwater and seawater are the only sources for all water needs
Bahrain Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Bahrain Geography - note close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf, which much of Western world's petroleum must transit to reach open ocean
Bahrain Population 667,238 note: includes 235,108 non-nationals (July 2003 est.)
Bahrain Age structure 0-14 years: 28.8% (male 97,294; female 94,930) 15-64 years: 68% (male 266,351; female 187,473) 65 years and over: 3.2% (male 10,807; female 10,383) (2003 est.)
Bahrain Median age total: 28.7 years male: 31.6 years female: 25.1 years (2002)
Bahrain Population growth rate 1.61% (2003 est.)
Bahrain Birth rate 19.02 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bahrain Death rate 3.99 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bahrain Net migration rate 1.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bahrain Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.42 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female total population: 1.28 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Bahrain Infant mortality rate total: 18.59 deaths/1,000 live births female: 15.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 21.65 deaths/1,000 live births
Bahrain Life expectancy at birth total population: 73.72 years male: 71.28 years female: 76.24 years (2003 est.)
Bahrain Total fertility rate 2.71 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Bahrain HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.3% (2001 est.)
Bahrain HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS less than 1,000
Bahrain HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Bahrain Nationality noun: Bahraini(s) adjective: Bahraini
Bahrain Ethnic groups Bahraini 63%, Asian 19%, other Arab 10%, Iranian 8%
Bahrain Religions Shi'a Muslim 70%, Sunni Muslim 30%
Bahrain Languages Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu
Bahrain Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 89.1% male: 91.9% female: 85% (2003 est.)
Bahrain Country name conventional long form: Kingdom of Bahrain conventional short form: Bahrain local short form: Al Bahrayn former: Dilmun local long form: Mamlakat al Bahrayn
Bahrain Government type constitutional hereditary monarchy
Bahrain Capital Manama
Bahrain Administrative divisions 12 municipalities (manatiq, singular - mintaqah); Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Al Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah al Wusta, Al Mintaqah ash Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq, Ar Rifa' wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah, Jidd Hafs, Madinat Hamad, Madinat 'Isa, Juzur Hawar, Sitrah note: all municipalities administered from Manama
Bahrain Independence 15 August 1971 (from UK)
Bahrain National holiday National Day, 16 December (1971); note - 15 August 1971 is the date of independence from the UK, 16 December 1971 is the date of independence from British protection
Bahrain Constitution adopted late December 2000; Bahrani voters approved on 13-14 February 2001 a referendum on legislative changes (revised constitution calls for a partially elected legislature, a constitutional monarchy, and an independent judiciary)
Bahrain Legal system based on Islamic law and English common law
Bahrain Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Bahrain Executive branch chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa Al Khalifa (since 6 March 1999); Heir Apparent Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad (son of the monarch, born 21 October 1969) head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since NA 1971) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
Bahrain Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of Shura Council (40 members appointed by the King) and House of Deputies (40 members directly elected to serve four-year terms) elections: House of Deputies - last held 31 October 2002 (next election to be held NA 2006) note: first elections since 7 December 1973; unicameral National Assembly dissolved 26 August 1975; National Action Charter created bicameral legislature on 23 December 2000; approved by referendum 14 February 2001; first legislative session of Parliament held on 25 December 2002 election results: House of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - independents 21, Sunni Islamists 9, other 10
Bahrain Judicial branch High Civil Appeals Court
Bahrain Political parties and leaders political parties prohibited but politically oriented societies are allowed
Bahrain Political pressure groups and leaders Shi'a activists fomented unrest sporadically in 1994-97, demanding the return of an elected National Assembly and an end to unemployment; several small, clandestine leftist and Islamic fundamentalist groups are active
Bahrain International organization participation ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Bahrain Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Khalifa bin Ali bin Rashid AL KHALIFA chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008 consulate(s) general: New York FAX: [1] (202) 362-2192 telephone: [1] (202) 342-0741
Bahrain Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Ronald E. NEUMANN embassy: Building #979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club), Block 321, Zinj District, Manama mailing address: American Embassy Manama, PSC 451, FPO AE 09834-5100; international mail: American Embassy, Box 26431, Manama telephone: [973] 273-300 FAX: [973] 272-594
Bahrain Flag description red with a white serrated band (five white points) on the hoist side; the five points represent the five pillars of Islam
Bahrain Economy - overview In Bahrain, petroleum production and refining account for about 60% of export receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 30% of GDP. With its highly developed communication and transport facilities, Bahrain is home to numerous multinational firms with business in the Gulf. Bahrain is dependent on Saudi Arabia for oil granted as aid. A large share of exports consists of petroleum products made from refining imported crude. Construction proceeds on several major industrial projects. Unemployment, especially among the young, and the depletion of oil and underground water resources are major long-term economic problems.
Bahrain GDP purchasing power parity - $9.91 billion (2002 est.)
Bahrain GDP - real growth rate 2.9% (2002 est.)
Bahrain GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $15,100 (2002 est.)
Bahrain GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 1% industry: 35% services: 64% (2001 est.)
Bahrain Population below poverty line NA%
Bahrain Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Bahrain Inflation rate (consumer prices) 0.5% (2002 est.)
Bahrain Labor force 295,000 note: 44% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national (1998 est.)
Bahrain Labor force - by occupation industry, commerce, and service 79%, government 20%, agriculture 1% (1997 est.)
Bahrain Unemployment rate 15% (1998 est.)
Bahrain Budget revenues: $1.8 billion expenditures: $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $700 million (2002 est.)
Bahrain Industries petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, offshore banking, ship repairing; tourism
Bahrain Industrial production growth rate 2% (2000 est.)
Bahrain Electricity - production 6.257 billion kWh (2001)
Bahrain Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Bahrain Electricity - consumption 5.819 billion kWh (2001)
Bahrain Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Bahrain Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Bahrain Oil - production 43,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bahrain Oil - consumption 31,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bahrain Oil - exports NA (2001)
Bahrain Oil - imports NA (2001)
Bahrain Oil - proved reserves 62.28 million bbl (37257)
Bahrain Natural gas - production 8.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Bahrain Natural gas - consumption 8.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Bahrain Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Bahrain Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Bahrain Natural gas - proved reserves 46 billion cu m (37257)
Bahrain Agriculture - products fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products; shrimp, fish
Bahrain Exports $5.8 billion (2002)
Bahrain Exports - commodities petroleum and petroleum products, aluminum, textiles
Bahrain Exports - partners US 4.5%, India 3.2%, Saudi Arabia 2.1% (2002)
Bahrain Imports $4.2 billion (2002)
Bahrain Imports - commodities crude oil, machinery, chemicals
Bahrain Imports - partners Saudi Arabia 30.1%, US 11.7%, Japan 7.1%, Germany 6.5%, UK 5.6% (2002)
Bahrain Debt - external $3.7 billion (2002)
Bahrain Economic aid - recipient $150 million; note - $50 million annually since 1992 from each of Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Kuwait (2002)
Bahrain Currency Bahraini dinar (BHD)
Bahrain Currency code BHD
Bahrain Exchange rates Bahraini dinars per US dollar - 0.38 (2002), 0.38 (2001), 0.38 (2000), 0.38 (1999), 0.38 (1998)
Bahrain Fiscal year calendar year
Bahrain Telephones - main lines in use 152,000 (1997)
Bahrain Telephones - mobile cellular 58,543 (1997)
Bahrain Telephone system general assessment: modern system domestic: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly growing use of mobile cellular telephones international: tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to Qatar, UAE, and Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat (1997)
Bahrain Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)
Bahrain Television broadcast stations 4 (1997)
Bahrain Internet country code .bh
Bahrain Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Bahrain Internet users 140,200 (2002)
Bahrain Railways 0 km
Bahrain Highways total: 3,261 km paved: 2,531 km unpaved: 730 km (2000)
Bahrain Waterways none
Bahrain Pipelines gas 20 km; oil 53 km (2003)
Bahrain Ports and harbors Manama, Mina' Salman, Sitrah
Bahrain Merchant marine total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 234,599 GRT/336,528 DWT ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 1, container 2, petroleum tanker 1, includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Kuwait 1 (2002 est.)
Bahrain Airports 4 (2002)
Bahrain Airports - with paved runways total: 3 over 3,047 m: 2 1524 to 2437 m: 1 (2002)
Bahrain Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)
Bahrain Heliports 1 (2002)
Bahrain Military branches Bahrain Defense Forces (BDF) comprising Ground Force (includes Air Defense), Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, Police Force, Amiri Guards, National Guard
Bahrain Military manpower - military age 15 years of age (2003 est.)
Bahrain Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 222,242 (2003 est.)
Bahrain Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 121,739 (2003 est.)
Bahrain Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 6,126 (2003 est.)
Bahrain Military expenditures - dollar figure $526.2 million (FY01)
Bahrain Military expenditures - percent of GDP 6.7% (FY01)
Bahrain Disputes - international none
Baker Island Background The US took possession of the island in 1857, and its guano deposits were mined by US and British companies during the second half of the 19th century. In 1935, a short-lived attempt at colonization was begun on this island - as well as on nearby Howland Island - but was disrupted by World War II and thereafter abandoned. Presently the island is a National Wildlife Refuge run by the US Department of the Interior; a day beacon is situated near the middle of the west coast.
Baker Island Location Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about half way between Hawaii and Australia
Baker Island Geographic coordinates 0 13 N, 176 31 W
Baker Island Map references Oceania
Baker Island Area total: 1.4 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 1.4 sq km
Baker Island Area - comparative about 2.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Baker Island Land boundaries 0 km
Baker Island Coastline 4.8 km
Baker Island Maritime claims exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
Baker Island Climate equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun
Baker Island Terrain low, nearly level coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef
Baker Island Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 8 m
Baker Island Natural resources guano (deposits worked until 1891), terrestrial and aquatic wildlife
Baker Island Land use arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (1998 est.)
Baker Island Irrigated land 0 sq km (1998 est.)
Baker Island Natural hazards the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime hazard
Baker Island Environment - current issues no natural fresh water resources
Baker Island Geography - note treeless, sparse, and scattered vegetation consisting of grasses, prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife
Baker Island Population uninhabited note: American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during World War II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by special-use permit from US Fish and Wildlife Service only and generally restricted to scientists and educators; a cemetery and remnants of structures from early settlement are located near the middle of the west coast; visited annually by US Fish and Wildlife Service (July 2003 est.)
Baker Island Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Baker Island
Baker Island Dependency status unincorporated territory of the US; administered from Washington, DC, by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system
Baker Island Legal system the laws of the US, where applicable, apply
Baker Island Flag description the flag of the US is used
Baker Island Economy - overview no economic activity
Baker Island Waterways none
Baker Island Ports and harbors none; offshore anchorage only; note - there is one small boat landing area along the middle of the west coast
Baker Island Airports 1 abandoned World War II runway of 1,665 m, completely covered with vegetation and unusable (2002)
Baker Island Transportation - note there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast
Baker Island Military - note defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US Coast Guard
Baker Island Disputes - international none
Baker Island Background The US took possession of the island in 1857, and its guano deposits were mined by US and British companies during the second half of the 19th century. In 1935, a short-lived attempt at colonization was begun on this island - as well as on nearby Howland Island - but was disrupted by World War II and thereafter abandoned. Presently the island is a National Wildlife Refuge run by the US Department of the Interior; a day beacon is situated near the middle of the west coast.
Baker Island Location Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about half way between Hawaii and Australia
Baker Island Geographic coordinates 0 13 N, 176 31 W
Baker Island Map references Oceania
Baker Island Area total: 1.4 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 1.4 sq km
Baker Island Area - comparative about 2.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Baker Island Land boundaries 0 km
Baker Island Coastline 4.8 km
Baker Island Maritime claims exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
Baker Island Climate equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun
Baker Island Terrain low, nearly level coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef
Baker Island Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 8 m
Baker Island Natural resources guano (deposits worked until 1891), terrestrial and aquatic wildlife
Baker Island Land use arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (1998 est.)
Baker Island Irrigated land 0 sq km (1998 est.)
Baker Island Natural hazards the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime hazard
Baker Island Environment - current issues no natural fresh water resources
Baker Island Geography - note treeless, sparse, and scattered vegetation consisting of grasses, prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife
Baker Island Population uninhabited note: American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during World War II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by special-use permit from US Fish and Wildlife Service only and generally restricted to scientists and educators; a cemetery and remnants of structures from early settlement are located near the middle of the west coast; visited annually by US Fish and Wildlife Service (July 2003 est.)
Baker Island Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Baker Island
Baker Island Dependency status unincorporated territory of the US; administered from Washington, DC, by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system
Baker Island Legal system the laws of the US, where applicable, apply
Baker Island Flag description the flag of the US is used
Baker Island Economy - overview no economic activity
Baker Island Waterways none
Baker Island Ports and harbors none; offshore anchorage only; note - there is one small boat landing area along the middle of the west coast
Baker Island Airports 1 abandoned World War II runway of 1,665 m, completely covered with vegetation and unusable (2002)
Baker Island Transportation - note there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast
Baker Island Military - note defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US Coast Guard
Baker Island Disputes - international none
Bangladesh Background Bangladesh came into existence in 1971 when Bengali East Pakistan seceded from its union with West Pakistan. About a third of this extremely poor country floods annually during the monsoon rainy season, hampering economic development.
Bangladesh Location Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India
Bangladesh Geographic coordinates 24 00 N, 90 00 E
Bangladesh Map references Asia
Bangladesh Area total: 144,000 sq km land: 133,910 sq km water: 10,090 sq km
Bangladesh Area - comparative slightly smaller than Iowa
Bangladesh Land boundaries total: 4,246 km border countries: Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km
Bangladesh Coastline 580 km
Bangladesh Maritime claims contiguous zone: 18 NM territorial sea: 12 NM continental shelf: up to the outer limits of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Bangladesh Climate tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)
Bangladesh Terrain mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast
Bangladesh Elevation extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Keokradong 1,230 m
Bangladesh Natural resources natural gas, arable land, timber, coal
Bangladesh Land use arable land: 60.7% permanent crops: 2.61% other: 36.69% (1998 est.)
Bangladesh Irrigated land 38,440 sq km (1998 est.)
Bangladesh Natural hazards droughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely inundated during the summer monsoon season
Bangladesh Environment - current issues many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; water-borne diseases prevalent in surface water; water pollution, especially of fishing areas, results from the use of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by naturally occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation and erosion; deforestation; severe overpopulation
Bangladesh Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Bangladesh Geography - note most of the country is situated on deltas of large rivers flowing from the Himalayas: the Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna to eventually empty into the Bay of Bengal
Bangladesh Population 138,448,210 (July 2003 est.)
Bangladesh Age structure 0-14 years: 34.1% (male 24,255,300; female 23,007,632) 15-64 years: 62.5% (male 44,261,739; female 42,281,331) 65 years and over: 3.4% (male 2,506,606; female 2,135,602) (2003 est.)
Bangladesh Median age total: 21.2 years male: 21.2 years female: 21.1 years (2002)
Bangladesh Population growth rate 2.06% (2003 est.)
Bangladesh Birth rate 29.9 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bangladesh Death rate 8.63 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bangladesh Net migration rate -0.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bangladesh Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.17 male(s)/female total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Bangladesh Infant mortality rate total: 66.08 deaths/1,000 live births female: 64.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 67.21 deaths/1,000 live births
Bangladesh Life expectancy at birth total population: 61.33 years male: 61.46 years female: 61.2 years (2003 est.)
Bangladesh Total fertility rate 3.17 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Bangladesh HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
Bangladesh HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 13,000 (2001 est.)
Bangladesh HIV/AIDS - deaths 650 (2001 est.)
Bangladesh Nationality noun: Bangladeshi(s) adjective: Bangladeshi
Bangladesh Ethnic groups Bengali 98%, tribal groups, non-Bengali Muslims (1998)
Bangladesh Religions Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, other 1% (1998)
Bangladesh Languages Bangla (official, also known as Bengali), English
Bangladesh Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 43.1% male: 53.9% female: 31.8% (2003 est.)
Bangladesh Country name conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh conventional short form: Bangladesh former: East Pakistan
Bangladesh Government type parliamentary democracy
Bangladesh Capital Dhaka
Bangladesh Administrative divisions 5 divisions; Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi; note - there may be one additional division named Sylhet
Bangladesh Independence 16 December 1971 (from West Pakistan); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is known as Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh
Bangladesh National holiday Independence Day, 26 March (1971); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh
Bangladesh Constitution 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended following coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986, amended many times
Bangladesh Legal system based on English common law
Bangladesh Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Bangladesh Executive branch chief of state: President Iajuddin AHMED (since 6 September 2002); note - the president's duties are normally ceremonial, but with the 13th amendment to the constitution ("Caretaker Government Amendment"), the president's role becomes significant at times when Parliament is dissolved and a caretaker government is installed - at presidential direction - to supervise the elections head of government: Prime Minister Khaleda ZIA (since 10 October 2001) cabinet: Cabinet selected by the prime minister and appointed by the president elections: president elected by National Parliament for a five-year term; election scheduled for 16 September 2002 was not held since Iajuddin AHMED was the only presidential candidate; he was sworn in on 6 September 2002 (next election to be held by NA 2007); following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins the most seats is usually appointed prime minister by the president election results: Iajuddin AHMED declared by the Election Commission elected unopposed as president; percent of National Parliament vote - NA%
Bangladesh Legislative branch unicameral National Parliament or Jatiya Sangsad; 300 seats elected by popular vote from single territorial constituencies (the constitutional amendment reserving 30 seats for women over and above the 300 regular parliament seats expired in May 2001); members serve five-year terms elections: last held 1 October 2001 (next to be held before October 2006) election results: percent of vote by party - BNP and alliance partners 46%, AL 42%; seats by party - BNP 191, AL 62, JI 18, JP (Ershad faction) 14, IOJ 2, JP (Naziur) 4, other 9; note - the election of October 2001 brought a majority BNP government aligned with three other smaller parties - Jamaat-i-Islami, Islami Oikya Jote, and Jatiya Party (Naziur)
Bangladesh Judicial branch Supreme Court (the chief justices and other judges are appointed by the president)
Bangladesh Political parties and leaders Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA]; Bangladesh Communist Party or BCP [Saifuddin Ahmed MANIK]; Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP [Khaleda ZIA, chairperson]; Islami Oikya Jote or IOJ [Mufti Fazlul Haq AMINI]; Jamaat-E-Islami or JI [Motiur Rahman NIZAMI]; Jatiya Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD]; Jatiya Party (Manzur faction) [Naziur Rahman MANZUR]
Bangladesh Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Bangladesh International organization participation AsDB, C, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OPCW, SAARC, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMISET, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNU, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Bangladesh Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Syed Hasan AHMAD consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York FAX: [1] (202) 244-5366 telephone: [1] (202) 244-0183 chancery: 3510 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
Bangladesh Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Ann PETERS embassy: Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212 mailing address: G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000 telephone: [880] (2) 8824700 through 8824722 FAX: [880] (2) 8823744
Bangladesh Flag description green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist side of center; the red sun of freedom represents the blood shed to achieve independence; the green field symbolizes the lush countryside, and secondarily, the traditional color of Islam
Bangladesh Economy - overview Despite sustained domestic and international efforts to improve economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh remains a poor, overpopulated, and ill-governed nation. Although half of GDP is generated through the service sector, nearly two-thirds of Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector, with rice as the single-most-important product. Major impediments to growth include frequent cyclones and floods, inefficient state-owned enterprises, inadequate port facilities, a rapidly growing labor force that cannot be absorbed by agriculture, delays in exploiting energy resources (natural gas), insufficient power supplies, and slow implementation of economic reforms. Economic reform is stalled in many instances by political infighting and corruption at all levels of government. Progress also has been blocked by opposition from the bureaucracy, public sector unions, and other vested interest groups. The BNP government, led by Prime Minister Khaleda ZIA, has the parliamentary strength to push through needed reforms, but the party's political will to do so has been lacking in key areas.
Bangladesh GDP purchasing power parity - $238.2 billion (2002 est.)
Bangladesh GDP - real growth rate 4.8% (2002 est.)
Bangladesh GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,800 (2002 est.)
Bangladesh GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 35% industry: 19% services: 46% (2001 est.)
Bangladesh Population below poverty line 35.6% (FY 95/96 est.)
Bangladesh Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3.9% highest 10%: 28.6% (1995-96 est.)
Bangladesh Distribution of family income - Gini index 33.6 (FY 95/96)
Bangladesh Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.1% (2002 est.)
Bangladesh Labor force 64.1 million note: extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman, Qatar, and Malaysia; workers' remittances estimated at $1.71 billion in 1998-99 (1998)
Bangladesh Labor force - by occupation agriculture 63%, services 26%, industry 11% (FY 95/96)
Bangladesh Unemployment rate 40% (includes underemployment) (2002 est.)
Bangladesh Budget revenues: $4.9 billion expenditures: $6.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY99/00 est.)
Bangladesh Industries cotton textiles, jute, garments, tea processing, paper newsprint, cement, chemical fertilizer, light engineering, sugar
Bangladesh Industrial production growth rate 1.8% (2002 est.)
Bangladesh Electricity - production 15.33 billion kWh (2001)
Bangladesh Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 93.7% hydro: 6.3% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Bangladesh Electricity - consumption 14.25 billion kWh (2001)
Bangladesh Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Bangladesh Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Bangladesh Oil - production 3,581 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bangladesh Oil - consumption 71,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bangladesh Oil - exports NA (2001)
Bangladesh Oil - imports NA (2001)
Bangladesh Oil - proved reserves 28.45 million bbl (37257)
Bangladesh Natural gas - production 9.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Bangladesh Natural gas - consumption 9.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Bangladesh Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Bangladesh Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Bangladesh Natural gas - proved reserves 150.3 billion cu m (37257)
Bangladesh Agriculture - products rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, tobacco, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry
Bangladesh Exports $6.2 billion (2002)
Bangladesh Exports - commodities garments, jute and jute goods, leather, frozen fish and seafood (2001)
Bangladesh Exports - partners US 27.6%, Germany 10.4%, UK 9.8%, France 5.7%, Italy 4% (2002)
Bangladesh Imports $8.5 billion (2002)
Bangladesh Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, foodstuffs, petroleum products, cement (2000)
Bangladesh Imports - partners India 14.6%, China 11.6%, Singapore 11.5%, Japan 7.6%, Hong Kong 5.4%, South Korea 4.3% (2002)
Bangladesh Debt - external $16.5 billion (2002)
Bangladesh Economic aid - recipient $1.575 billion (2000 est.)
Bangladesh Currency taka (BDT)
Bangladesh Currency code BDT
Bangladesh Exchange rates taka per US dollar - 57.89 (2002), 55.81 (2001), 52.14 (2000), 49.09 (1999), 46.91 (1998)
Bangladesh Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Bangladesh Telephones - main lines in use 500,000 (2000)
Bangladesh Telephones - mobile cellular 283,000 (2000)
Bangladesh Telephone system general assessment: totally inadequate for a modern country domestic: modernizing; introducing digital systems; trunk systems include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links, and some fiber-optic cable in cities international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean); international radiotelephone communications and landline service to neighboring countries (2000)
Bangladesh Radio broadcast stations AM 12, FM 12, shortwave 2 (1999)
Bangladesh Television broadcast stations 15 (1999)
Bangladesh Internet country code .bd
Bangladesh Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 10 (2000)
Bangladesh Internet users 150,000 (2002)
Bangladesh Railways total: 2,706 km broad gauge: 884 km 1.676-m gauge narrow gauge: 1,822 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)
Bangladesh Highways total: 207,486 km paved: 19,773 km unpaved: 187,713 km (1999)
Bangladesh Waterways up to 8,046 km depending on season note: includes 3,058 km main cargo routes
Bangladesh Pipelines gas 2,016 km (2003)
Bangladesh Ports and harbors Chittagong, Dhaka, Mongla Port, Narayanganj
Bangladesh Merchant marine total: 40 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 314,437 GRT/436,465 DWT ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 23, container 11, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1 (2002 est.)
Bangladesh Airports 18 (2002)
Bangladesh Airports - with paved runways total: 15 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 6 (2002)
Bangladesh Airports - with unpaved runways total: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Bangladesh Military branches Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, paramilitary forces (includes Bangladesh Rifles, Bangladesh Ansars, Village Defense Parties, Armed Police Battalions, National Cadet Corps)
Bangladesh Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 38,436,912 (2003 est.)
Bangladesh Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 22,807,339 (2003 est.)
Bangladesh Military expenditures - dollar figure $559 million (FY96)
Bangladesh Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.8% (FY96)
Bangladesh Disputes - international discussions with India remain stalled to delimit a small section of river boundary, demarcate and fence the porous land boundary, exchange 162 miniscule enclaves, allocate divided villages, and stop illegal cross-border trade and violence; Bangladesh protests India's attempts to fence off high-traffic sections of the porous boundary; dispute with India over New Moore/South Talpatty Island in the Bay of Bengal prevents maritime boundary delimitation; Burmese Muslim refugees strain Bangladesh's meager resources
Bangladesh Illicit drugs transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries
Bangladesh Background Bangladesh came into existence in 1971 when Bengali East Pakistan seceded from its union with West Pakistan. About a third of this extremely poor country floods annually during the monsoon rainy season, hampering economic development.
Bangladesh Location Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India
Bangladesh Geographic coordinates 24 00 N, 90 00 E
Bangladesh Map references Asia
Bangladesh Area total: 144,000 sq km land: 133,910 sq km water: 10,090 sq km
Bangladesh Area - comparative slightly smaller than Iowa
Bangladesh Land boundaries total: 4,246 km border countries: Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km
Bangladesh Coastline 580 km
Bangladesh Maritime claims contiguous zone: 18 NM territorial sea: 12 NM continental shelf: up to the outer limits of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Bangladesh Climate tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)
Bangladesh Terrain mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast
Bangladesh Elevation extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Keokradong 1,230 m
Bangladesh Natural resources natural gas, arable land, timber, coal
Bangladesh Land use arable land: 60.7% permanent crops: 2.61% other: 36.69% (1998 est.)
Bangladesh Irrigated land 38,440 sq km (1998 est.)
Bangladesh Natural hazards droughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely inundated during the summer monsoon season
Bangladesh Environment - current issues many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; water-borne diseases prevalent in surface water; water pollution, especially of fishing areas, results from the use of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by naturally occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation and erosion; deforestation; severe overpopulation
Bangladesh Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Bangladesh Geography - note most of the country is situated on deltas of large rivers flowing from the Himalayas: the Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna to eventually empty into the Bay of Bengal
Bangladesh Population 138,448,210 (July 2003 est.)
Bangladesh Age structure 0-14 years: 34.1% (male 24,255,300; female 23,007,632) 15-64 years: 62.5% (male 44,261,739; female 42,281,331) 65 years and over: 3.4% (male 2,506,606; female 2,135,602) (2003 est.)
Bangladesh Median age total: 21.2 years male: 21.2 years female: 21.1 years (2002)
Bangladesh Population growth rate 2.06% (2003 est.)
Bangladesh Birth rate 29.9 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bangladesh Death rate 8.63 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bangladesh Net migration rate -0.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bangladesh Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.17 male(s)/female total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Bangladesh Infant mortality rate total: 66.08 deaths/1,000 live births female: 64.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 67.21 deaths/1,000 live births
Bangladesh Life expectancy at birth total population: 61.33 years male: 61.46 years female: 61.2 years (2003 est.)
Bangladesh Total fertility rate 3.17 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Bangladesh HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
Bangladesh HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 13,000 (2001 est.)
Bangladesh HIV/AIDS - deaths 650 (2001 est.)
Bangladesh Nationality noun: Bangladeshi(s) adjective: Bangladeshi
Bangladesh Ethnic groups Bengali 98%, tribal groups, non-Bengali Muslims (1998)
Bangladesh Religions Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, other 1% (1998)
Bangladesh Languages Bangla (official, also known as Bengali), English
Bangladesh Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 43.1% male: 53.9% female: 31.8% (2003 est.)
Bangladesh Country name conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh conventional short form: Bangladesh former: East Pakistan
Bangladesh Government type parliamentary democracy
Bangladesh Capital Dhaka
Bangladesh Administrative divisions 5 divisions; Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi; note - there may be one additional division named Sylhet
Bangladesh Independence 16 December 1971 (from West Pakistan); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is known as Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh
Bangladesh National holiday Independence Day, 26 March (1971); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh
Bangladesh Constitution 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended following coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986, amended many times
Bangladesh Legal system based on English common law
Bangladesh Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Bangladesh Executive branch chief of state: President Iajuddin AHMED (since 6 September 2002); note - the president's duties are normally ceremonial, but with the 13th amendment to the constitution ("Caretaker Government Amendment"), the president's role becomes significant at times when Parliament is dissolved and a caretaker government is installed - at presidential direction - to supervise the elections head of government: Prime Minister Khaleda ZIA (since 10 October 2001) cabinet: Cabinet selected by the prime minister and appointed by the president elections: president elected by National Parliament for a five-year term; election scheduled for 16 September 2002 was not held since Iajuddin AHMED was the only presidential candidate; he was sworn in on 6 September 2002 (next election to be held by NA 2007); following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins the most seats is usually appointed prime minister by the president election results: Iajuddin AHMED declared by the Election Commission elected unopposed as president; percent of National Parliament vote - NA%
Bangladesh Legislative branch unicameral National Parliament or Jatiya Sangsad; 300 seats elected by popular vote from single territorial constituencies (the constitutional amendment reserving 30 seats for women over and above the 300 regular parliament seats expired in May 2001); members serve five-year terms elections: last held 1 October 2001 (next to be held before October 2006) election results: percent of vote by party - BNP and alliance partners 46%, AL 42%; seats by party - BNP 191, AL 62, JI 18, JP (Ershad faction) 14, IOJ 2, JP (Naziur) 4, other 9; note - the election of October 2001 brought a majority BNP government aligned with three other smaller parties - Jamaat-i-Islami, Islami Oikya Jote, and Jatiya Party (Naziur)
Bangladesh Judicial branch Supreme Court (the chief justices and other judges are appointed by the president)
Bangladesh Political parties and leaders Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA]; Bangladesh Communist Party or BCP [Saifuddin Ahmed MANIK]; Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP [Khaleda ZIA, chairperson]; Islami Oikya Jote or IOJ [Mufti Fazlul Haq AMINI]; Jamaat-E-Islami or JI [Motiur Rahman NIZAMI]; Jatiya Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD]; Jatiya Party (Manzur faction) [Naziur Rahman MANZUR]
Bangladesh Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Bangladesh International organization participation AsDB, C, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OPCW, SAARC, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMISET, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNU, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Bangladesh Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Syed Hasan AHMAD consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York FAX: [1] (202) 244-5366 telephone: [1] (202) 244-0183 chancery: 3510 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
Bangladesh Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Ann PETERS embassy: Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212 mailing address: G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000 telephone: [880] (2) 8824700 through 8824722 FAX: [880] (2) 8823744
Bangladesh Flag description green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist side of center; the red sun of freedom represents the blood shed to achieve independence; the green field symbolizes the lush countryside, and secondarily, the traditional color of Islam
Bangladesh Economy - overview Despite sustained domestic and international efforts to improve economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh remains a poor, overpopulated, and ill-governed nation. Although half of GDP is generated through the service sector, nearly two-thirds of Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector, with rice as the single-most-important product. Major impediments to growth include frequent cyclones and floods, inefficient state-owned enterprises, inadequate port facilities, a rapidly growing labor force that cannot be absorbed by agriculture, delays in exploiting energy resources (natural gas), insufficient power supplies, and slow implementation of economic reforms. Economic reform is stalled in many instances by political infighting and corruption at all levels of government. Progress also has been blocked by opposition from the bureaucracy, public sector unions, and other vested interest groups. The BNP government, led by Prime Minister Khaleda ZIA, has the parliamentary strength to push through needed reforms, but the party's political will to do so has been lacking in key areas.
Bangladesh GDP purchasing power parity - $238.2 billion (2002 est.)
Bangladesh GDP - real growth rate 4.8% (2002 est.)
Bangladesh GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,800 (2002 est.)
Bangladesh GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 35% industry: 19% services: 46% (2001 est.)
Bangladesh Population below poverty line 35.6% (FY 95/96 est.)
Bangladesh Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3.9% highest 10%: 28.6% (1995-96 est.)
Bangladesh Distribution of family income - Gini index 33.6 (FY 95/96)
Bangladesh Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.1% (2002 est.)
Bangladesh Labor force 64.1 million note: extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman, Qatar, and Malaysia; workers' remittances estimated at $1.71 billion in 1998-99 (1998)
Bangladesh Labor force - by occupation agriculture 63%, services 26%, industry 11% (FY 95/96)
Bangladesh Unemployment rate 40% (includes underemployment) (2002 est.)
Bangladesh Budget revenues: $4.9 billion expenditures: $6.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY99/00 est.)
Bangladesh Industries cotton textiles, jute, garments, tea processing, paper newsprint, cement, chemical fertilizer, light engineering, sugar
Bangladesh Industrial production growth rate 1.8% (2002 est.)
Bangladesh Electricity - production 15.33 billion kWh (2001)
Bangladesh Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 93.7% hydro: 6.3% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Bangladesh Electricity - consumption 14.25 billion kWh (2001)
Bangladesh Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Bangladesh Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Bangladesh Oil - production 3,581 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bangladesh Oil - consumption 71,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bangladesh Oil - exports NA (2001)
Bangladesh Oil - imports NA (2001)
Bangladesh Oil - proved reserves 28.45 million bbl (37257)
Bangladesh Natural gas - production 9.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Bangladesh Natural gas - consumption 9.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Bangladesh Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Bangladesh Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Bangladesh Natural gas - proved reserves 150.3 billion cu m (37257)
Bangladesh Agriculture - products rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, tobacco, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry
Bangladesh Exports $6.2 billion (2002)
Bangladesh Exports - commodities garments, jute and jute goods, leather, frozen fish and seafood (2001)
Bangladesh Exports - partners US 27.6%, Germany 10.4%, UK 9.8%, France 5.7%, Italy 4% (2002)
Bangladesh Imports $8.5 billion (2002)
Bangladesh Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, foodstuffs, petroleum products, cement (2000)
Bangladesh Imports - partners India 14.6%, China 11.6%, Singapore 11.5%, Japan 7.6%, Hong Kong 5.4%, South Korea 4.3% (2002)
Bangladesh Debt - external $16.5 billion (2002)
Bangladesh Economic aid - recipient $1.575 billion (2000 est.)
Bangladesh Currency taka (BDT)
Bangladesh Currency code BDT
Bangladesh Exchange rates taka per US dollar - 57.89 (2002), 55.81 (2001), 52.14 (2000), 49.09 (1999), 46.91 (1998)
Bangladesh Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Bangladesh Telephones - main lines in use 500,000 (2000)
Bangladesh Telephones - mobile cellular 283,000 (2000)
Bangladesh Telephone system general assessment: totally inadequate for a modern country domestic: modernizing; introducing digital systems; trunk systems include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links, and some fiber-optic cable in cities international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean); international radiotelephone communications and landline service to neighboring countries (2000)
Bangladesh Radio broadcast stations AM 12, FM 12, shortwave 2 (1999)
Bangladesh Television broadcast stations 15 (1999)
Bangladesh Internet country code .bd
Bangladesh Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 10 (2000)
Bangladesh Internet users 150,000 (2002)
Bangladesh Railways total: 2,706 km broad gauge: 884 km 1.676-m gauge narrow gauge: 1,822 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)
Bangladesh Highways total: 207,486 km paved: 19,773 km unpaved: 187,713 km (1999)
Bangladesh Waterways up to 8,046 km depending on season note: includes 3,058 km main cargo routes
Bangladesh Pipelines gas 2,016 km (2003)
Bangladesh Ports and harbors Chittagong, Dhaka, Mongla Port, Narayanganj
Bangladesh Merchant marine total: 40 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 314,437 GRT/436,465 DWT ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 23, container 11, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1 (2002 est.)
Bangladesh Airports 18 (2002)
Bangladesh Airports - with paved runways total: 15 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 6 (2002)
Bangladesh Airports - with unpaved runways total: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Bangladesh Military branches Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, paramilitary forces (includes Bangladesh Rifles, Bangladesh Ansars, Village Defense Parties, Armed Police Battalions, National Cadet Corps)
Bangladesh Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 38,436,912 (2003 est.)
Bangladesh Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 22,807,339 (2003 est.)
Bangladesh Military expenditures - dollar figure $559 million (FY96)
Bangladesh Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.8% (FY96)
Bangladesh Disputes - international discussions with India remain stalled to delimit a small section of river boundary, demarcate and fence the porous land boundary, exchange 162 miniscule enclaves, allocate divided villages, and stop illegal cross-border trade and violence; Bangladesh protests India's attempts to fence off high-traffic sections of the porous boundary; dispute with India over New Moore/South Talpatty Island in the Bay of Bengal prevents maritime boundary delimitation; Burmese Muslim refugees strain Bangladesh's meager resources
Bangladesh Illicit drugs transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries
Barbados Background The island was uninhabited when first settled by the British in 1627. Slaves worked the sugar plantations established on the island until 1834 when slavery was abolished. The economy remained heavily dependent on sugar, rum, and molasses production through most of the 20th century. The gradual introduction of social and political reforms in the 1940s and 1950s led to complete independence from the UK in 1966. In the 1990s, tourism and manufacturing surpassed the sugar industry in economic importance.
Barbados Location Caribbean, island in the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela
Barbados Geographic coordinates 13 10 N, 59 32 W
Barbados Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Barbados Area total: 431 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 431 sq km
Barbados Area - comparative 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Barbados Land boundaries 0 km
Barbados Coastline 97 km
Barbados Maritime claims exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
Barbados Climate tropical; rainy season (June to October)
Barbados Terrain relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region
Barbados Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Hillaby 336 m
Barbados Natural resources petroleum, fish, natural gas
Barbados Land use arable land: 37.21% permanent crops: 2.33% other: 60.46% (1998 est.)
Barbados Irrigated land 10 sq km (1998 est.)
Barbados Natural hazards infrequent hurricanes; periodic landslides
Barbados Environment - current issues pollution of coastal waters from waste disposal by ships; soil erosion; illegal solid waste disposal threatens contamination of aquifers
Barbados Environment - international agreements party to: Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity
Barbados Geography - note easternmost Caribbean island
Barbados Population 277,264 (July 2003 est.)
Barbados Age structure 0-14 years: 21.2% (male 29,621; female 29,207) 15-64 years: 70% (male 94,840; female 99,230) 65 years and over: 8.8% (male 9,355; female 15,011) (2003 est.)
Barbados Median age total: 33.3 years male: 32.2 years female: 34.4 years (2002)
Barbados Population growth rate 0.38% (2003 est.)
Barbados Birth rate 13.15 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Barbados Death rate 9.02 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Barbados Net migration rate -0.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Barbados Sex ratio at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Barbados Infant mortality rate total: 12.72 deaths/1,000 live births female: 11.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 14.39 deaths/1,000 live births
Barbados Life expectancy at birth total population: 71.84 years male: 69.56 years female: 74.14 years (2003 est.)
Barbados Total fertility rate 1.65 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Barbados HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 1.2% - note: no country specific models provided (2001 est.)
Barbados HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 1,800 (2001 est.)
Barbados HIV/AIDS - deaths 250 (2001 est.)
Barbados Nationality noun: Barbadian(s) or Bajan (colloquial) adjective: Barbadian or Bajan (colloquial)
Barbados Ethnic groups black 90%, white 4%, Asian and mixed 6%
Barbados Religions Protestant 67% (Anglican 40%, Pentecostal 8%, Methodist 7%, other 12%), Roman Catholic 4%, none 17%, other 12%
Barbados Languages English
Barbados Literacy definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school total population: 97.4% male: 98% female: 96.8% (1995 est.)
Barbados Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Barbados
Barbados Government type parliamentary democracy; independent sovereign state within the Commonwealth
Barbados Capital Bridgetown
Barbados Administrative divisions 11 parishes; Christ Church, Saint Andrew, Saint George, Saint James, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Lucy, Saint Michael, Saint Peter, Saint Philip, Saint Thomas; note - the city of Bridgetown may be given parish status
Barbados Independence 30 November 1966 (from UK)
Barbados National holiday Independence Day, 30 November (1966)
Barbados Constitution 30 November 1966
Barbados Legal system English common law; no judicial review of legislative acts
Barbados Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Barbados Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Clifford Straughn HUSBANDS (since 1 June 1996) head of government: Prime Minister Owen Seymour ARTHUR (since 6 September 1994); Deputy Prime Minister Mia MOTTLEY (since 26 May 2003) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; the prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister
Barbados Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (21-member body appointed by the governor general) and the House of Assembly (30 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: House of Assembly - last held 21 May 2003 (next to be held by May 2008) election results: House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - BLP 23, DLP 7
Barbados Judicial branch Supreme Court of Judicature (judges are appointed by the Service Commissions for the Judicial and Legal Services)
Barbados Political parties and leaders Barbados Labor Party or BLP [Owen ARTHUR]; Democratic Labor Party or DLP [Clyde Mascoll]
Barbados Political pressure groups and leaders Barbados Workers Union [Leroy TROTMAN]; Clement Payne Labor Union [David COMMISSIONG]; People's Progressive Movement [Eric SEALY]; Worker's Party of Barbados [Dr. George BELLE]
Barbados International organization participation ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Barbados Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Michael Ian KING consulate(s): Los Angeles consulate(s) general: Miami and New York FAX: [1] (202) 332-7467 telephone: [1] (202) 339-9201 chancery: 2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Barbados Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Earl N. PHILLIPS, Jr. embassy: Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Building, Broad Street, Bridgetown; (courier) ALICO Building-Cheapside, Bridgetown mailing address: P. O. Box 302, Bridgetown; FPO AA 34055 telephone: [1] (246) 436-4950 FAX: [1] (246) 429-5246, 429-3379
Barbados Flag description three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold, and blue with the head of a black trident centered on the gold band; the trident head represents independence and a break with the past (the colonial coat of arms contained a complete trident)
Barbados Economy - overview Historically, the Barbadian economy had been dependent on sugarcane cultivation and related activities, but production in recent years has diversified into manufacturing and tourism. Offshore finance and information services are important foreign exchange earners, and there is also a light-manufacturing sector. The government continues its efforts to reduce unemployment, to encourage direct foreign investment, and to privatize remaining state-owned enterprises. The economy contracted in 2002 mainly due to a 3% decline in tourism. Growth should be positive in 2003, the precise level largely dependent on economic conditions in the US and Europe.
Barbados GDP purchasing power parity - $4.153 billion (2002 est.)
Barbados GDP - real growth rate -2.8% (2002 est.)
Barbados GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $15,000 (2002 est.)
Barbados GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 6% industry: 16% services: 78% (2000 est.)
Barbados Population below poverty line NA%
Barbados Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Barbados Inflation rate (consumer prices) -0.6% (2002 est.)
Barbados Labor force 128,500 (2001 est.)
Barbados Labor force - by occupation services 75%, industry 15%, agriculture 10% (1996 est.)
Barbados Unemployment rate 10% (2001 est.)
Barbados Budget revenues: $847 million (including grants) expenditures: $886 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Barbados Industries tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly for export
Barbados Industrial production growth rate -3.2% (2000 est.)
Barbados Electricity - production 780 million kWh (2001)
Barbados Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Barbados Electricity - consumption 725.4 million kWh (2001)
Barbados Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Barbados Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Barbados Oil - production 1,271 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Barbados Oil - consumption 10,900 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Barbados Oil - exports NA (2001)
Barbados Oil - imports NA (2001)
Barbados Oil - proved reserves 1.254 million bbl (37257)
Barbados Natural gas - production 29.17 million cu m (2001 est.)
Barbados Natural gas - consumption 29.17 million cu m (2001 est.)
Barbados Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Barbados Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Barbados Natural gas - proved reserves 70.79 million cu m (37257)
Barbados Agriculture - products sugarcane, vegetables, cotton
Barbados Exports $227 million (2002)
Barbados Exports - commodities sugar and molasses, rum, other foods and beverages, chemicals, electrical components
Barbados Exports - partners US 14.7%, Trinidad and Tobago 12%, UK 10.6%, Jamaica 6.2%, Saint Lucia 4.7% (2002)
Barbados Imports $987 million (2002)
Barbados Imports - commodities consumer goods, machinery, foodstuffs, construction materials, chemicals, fuel, electrical components
Barbados Imports - partners US 41.1%, Trinidad and Tobago 17%, UK 7.3%, Japan 4.2% (2002)
Barbados Debt - external $692 million (2002)
Barbados Economic aid - recipient $9.1 million (1995)
Barbados Currency Barbadian dollar (BBD)
Barbados Currency code BBD
Barbados Exchange rates Barbadian dollars per US dollar - 2 (2002), 2 (2001), 2 (2000), 2 (1999), 2 (1998)
Barbados Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Barbados Telephones - main lines in use 108,000 (1997)
Barbados Telephones - mobile cellular 8,013 (1997)
Barbados Telephone system general assessment: NA domestic: island-wide automatic telephone system international: satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Trinidad and Saint Lucia
Barbados Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)
Barbados Television broadcast stations 1 (plus two cable channels) (1997)
Barbados Internet country code .bb
Barbados Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 19 (2000)
Barbados Internet users 6,000 (2000)
Barbados Railways 0 km
Barbados Highways total: 1,793 km paved: 1,719 km unpaved: 74 km (1999)
Barbados Waterways none
Barbados Ports and harbors Bridgetown, Speightstown (Port Charles Marina)
Barbados Merchant marine total: 34 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 284,222 GRT/439,810 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Australia 1, The Bahamas 1, Canada 4, Germany 1, Greece 2, Hong Kong 7, Norway 7, UK 18 (2002 est.) ships by type: bulk 8, cargo 22, combination bulk 1, container 1, petroleum tanker 2
Barbados Airports 1 (2002)
Barbados Airports - with paved runways total: 1 over 3,047 m: 1 (2002)
Barbados Military branches Royal Barbados Defense Force (including Ground Forces and Coast Guard), Royal Barbados Police Force
Barbados Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 77,862 (2003 est.)
Barbados Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 53,282 (2003 est.)
Barbados Military expenditures - dollar figure $NA
Barbados Military expenditures - percent of GDP NA%
Barbados Disputes - international none
Barbados Illicit drugs one of many Caribbean transshipment points for narcotics bound for Europe and the US; offshore financial center
Barbados Background The island was uninhabited when first settled by the British in 1627. Slaves worked the sugar plantations established on the island until 1834 when slavery was abolished. The economy remained heavily dependent on sugar, rum, and molasses production through most of the 20th century. The gradual introduction of social and political reforms in the 1940s and 1950s led to complete independence from the UK in 1966. In the 1990s, tourism and manufacturing surpassed the sugar industry in economic importance.
Barbados Location Caribbean, island in the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela
Barbados Geographic coordinates 13 10 N, 59 32 W
Barbados Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Barbados Area total: 431 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 431 sq km
Barbados Area - comparative 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Barbados Land boundaries 0 km
Barbados Coastline 97 km
Barbados Maritime claims exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
Barbados Climate tropical; rainy season (June to October)
Barbados Terrain relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region
Barbados Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Hillaby 336 m
Barbados Natural resources petroleum, fish, natural gas
Barbados Land use arable land: 37.21% permanent crops: 2.33% other: 60.46% (1998 est.)
Barbados Irrigated land 10 sq km (1998 est.)
Barbados Natural hazards infrequent hurricanes; periodic landslides
Barbados Environment - current issues pollution of coastal waters from waste disposal by ships; soil erosion; illegal solid waste disposal threatens contamination of aquifers
Barbados Environment - international agreements party to: Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity
Barbados Geography - note easternmost Caribbean island
Barbados Population 277,264 (July 2003 est.)
Barbados Age structure 0-14 years: 21.2% (male 29,621; female 29,207) 15-64 years: 70% (male 94,840; female 99,230) 65 years and over: 8.8% (male 9,355; female 15,011) (2003 est.)
Barbados Median age total: 33.3 years male: 32.2 years female: 34.4 years (2002)
Barbados Population growth rate 0.38% (2003 est.)
Barbados Birth rate 13.15 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Barbados Death rate 9.02 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Barbados Net migration rate -0.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Barbados Sex ratio at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Barbados Infant mortality rate total: 12.72 deaths/1,000 live births female: 11.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 14.39 deaths/1,000 live births
Barbados Life expectancy at birth total population: 71.84 years male: 69.56 years female: 74.14 years (2003 est.)
Barbados Total fertility rate 1.65 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Barbados HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 1.2% - note: no country specific models provided (2001 est.)
Barbados HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 1,800 (2001 est.)
Barbados HIV/AIDS - deaths 250 (2001 est.)
Barbados Nationality noun: Barbadian(s) or Bajan (colloquial) adjective: Barbadian or Bajan (colloquial)
Barbados Ethnic groups black 90%, white 4%, Asian and mixed 6%
Barbados Religions Protestant 67% (Anglican 40%, Pentecostal 8%, Methodist 7%, other 12%), Roman Catholic 4%, none 17%, other 12%
Barbados Languages English
Barbados Literacy definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school total population: 97.4% male: 98% female: 96.8% (1995 est.)
Barbados Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Barbados
Barbados Government type parliamentary democracy; independent sovereign state within the Commonwealth
Barbados Capital Bridgetown
Barbados Administrative divisions 11 parishes; Christ Church, Saint Andrew, Saint George, Saint James, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Lucy, Saint Michael, Saint Peter, Saint Philip, Saint Thomas; note - the city of Bridgetown may be given parish status
Barbados Independence 30 November 1966 (from UK)
Barbados National holiday Independence Day, 30 November (1966)
Barbados Constitution 30 November 1966
Barbados Legal system English common law; no judicial review of legislative acts
Barbados Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Barbados Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Clifford Straughn HUSBANDS (since 1 June 1996) head of government: Prime Minister Owen Seymour ARTHUR (since 6 September 1994); Deputy Prime Minister Mia MOTTLEY (since 26 May 2003) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; the prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister
Barbados Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (21-member body appointed by the governor general) and the House of Assembly (30 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: House of Assembly - last held 21 May 2003 (next to be held by May 2008) election results: House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - BLP 23, DLP 7
Barbados Judicial branch Supreme Court of Judicature (judges are appointed by the Service Commissions for the Judicial and Legal Services)
Barbados Political parties and leaders Barbados Labor Party or BLP [Owen ARTHUR]; Democratic Labor Party or DLP [Clyde Mascoll]
Barbados Political pressure groups and leaders Barbados Workers Union [Leroy TROTMAN]; Clement Payne Labor Union [David COMMISSIONG]; People's Progressive Movement [Eric SEALY]; Worker's Party of Barbados [Dr. George BELLE]
Barbados International organization participation ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Barbados Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Michael Ian KING consulate(s): Los Angeles consulate(s) general: Miami and New York FAX: [1] (202) 332-7467 telephone: [1] (202) 339-9201 chancery: 2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Barbados Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Earl N. PHILLIPS, Jr. embassy: Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Building, Broad Street, Bridgetown; (courier) ALICO Building-Cheapside, Bridgetown mailing address: P. O. Box 302, Bridgetown; FPO AA 34055 telephone: [1] (246) 436-4950 FAX: [1] (246) 429-5246, 429-3379
Barbados Flag description three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold, and blue with the head of a black trident centered on the gold band; the trident head represents independence and a break with the past (the colonial coat of arms contained a complete trident)
Barbados Economy - overview Historically, the Barbadian economy had been dependent on sugarcane cultivation and related activities, but production in recent years has diversified into manufacturing and tourism. Offshore finance and information services are important foreign exchange earners, and there is also a light-manufacturing sector. The government continues its efforts to reduce unemployment, to encourage direct foreign investment, and to privatize remaining state-owned enterprises. The economy contracted in 2002 mainly due to a 3% decline in tourism. Growth should be positive in 2003, the precise level largely dependent on economic conditions in the US and Europe.
Barbados GDP purchasing power parity - $4.153 billion (2002 est.)
Barbados GDP - real growth rate -2.8% (2002 est.)
Barbados GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $15,000 (2002 est.)
Barbados GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 6% industry: 16% services: 78% (2000 est.)
Barbados Population below poverty line NA%
Barbados Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Barbados Inflation rate (consumer prices) -0.6% (2002 est.)
Barbados Labor force 128,500 (2001 est.)
Barbados Labor force - by occupation services 75%, industry 15%, agriculture 10% (1996 est.)
Barbados Unemployment rate 10% (2001 est.)
Barbados Budget revenues: $847 million (including grants) expenditures: $886 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Barbados Industries tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly for export
Barbados Industrial production growth rate -3.2% (2000 est.)
Barbados Electricity - production 780 million kWh (2001)
Barbados Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Barbados Electricity - consumption 725.4 million kWh (2001)
Barbados Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Barbados Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Barbados Oil - production 1,271 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Barbados Oil - consumption 10,900 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Barbados Oil - exports NA (2001)
Barbados Oil - imports NA (2001)
Barbados Oil - proved reserves 1.254 million bbl (37257)
Barbados Natural gas - production 29.17 million cu m (2001 est.)
Barbados Natural gas - consumption 29.17 million cu m (2001 est.)
Barbados Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Barbados Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Barbados Natural gas - proved reserves 70.79 million cu m (37257)
Barbados Agriculture - products sugarcane, vegetables, cotton
Barbados Exports $227 million (2002)
Barbados Exports - commodities sugar and molasses, rum, other foods and beverages, chemicals, electrical components
Barbados Exports - partners US 14.7%, Trinidad and Tobago 12%, UK 10.6%, Jamaica 6.2%, Saint Lucia 4.7% (2002)
Barbados Imports $987 million (2002)
Barbados Imports - commodities consumer goods, machinery, foodstuffs, construction materials, chemicals, fuel, electrical components
Barbados Imports - partners US 41.1%, Trinidad and Tobago 17%, UK 7.3%, Japan 4.2% (2002)
Barbados Debt - external $692 million (2002)
Barbados Economic aid - recipient $9.1 million (1995)
Barbados Currency Barbadian dollar (BBD)
Barbados Currency code BBD
Barbados Exchange rates Barbadian dollars per US dollar - 2 (2002), 2 (2001), 2 (2000), 2 (1999), 2 (1998)
Barbados Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Barbados Telephones - main lines in use 108,000 (1997)
Barbados Telephones - mobile cellular 8,013 (1997)
Barbados Telephone system general assessment: NA domestic: island-wide automatic telephone system international: satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Trinidad and Saint Lucia
Barbados Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)
Barbados Television broadcast stations 1 (plus two cable channels) (1997)
Barbados Internet country code .bb
Barbados Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 19 (2000)
Barbados Internet users 6,000 (2000)
Barbados Railways 0 km
Barbados Highways total: 1,793 km paved: 1,719 km unpaved: 74 km (1999)
Barbados Waterways none
Barbados Ports and harbors Bridgetown, Speightstown (Port Charles Marina)
Barbados Merchant marine total: 34 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 284,222 GRT/439,810 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Australia 1, The Bahamas 1, Canada 4, Germany 1, Greece 2, Hong Kong 7, Norway 7, UK 18 (2002 est.) ships by type: bulk 8, cargo 22, combination bulk 1, container 1, petroleum tanker 2
Barbados Airports 1 (2002)
Barbados Airports - with paved runways total: 1 over 3,047 m: 1 (2002)
Barbados Military branches Royal Barbados Defense Force (including Ground Forces and Coast Guard), Royal Barbados Police Force
Barbados Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 77,862 (2003 est.)
Barbados Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 53,282 (2003 est.)
Barbados Military expenditures - dollar figure $NA
Barbados Military expenditures - percent of GDP NA%
Barbados Disputes - international none
Barbados Illicit drugs one of many Caribbean transshipment points for narcotics bound for Europe and the US; offshore financial center
Bassas da India Background This atoll is a volcanic rock surrounded by reefs and is awash at high tide. A French possession since 1897, it was placed under the administration of a commissioner residing in Reunion in 1968.
Bassas da India Location Southern Africa, islands in the southern Mozambique Channel, about one-half of the way from Madagascar to Mozambique
Bassas da India Geographic coordinates 21 30 S, 39 50 E
Bassas da India Map references Africa
Bassas da India Area total: 0.2 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 0.2 sq km
Bassas da India Area - comparative about one-third the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Bassas da India Land boundaries 0 km
Bassas da India Coastline 35.2 km
Bassas da India Maritime claims exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
Bassas da India Climate tropical
Bassas da India Terrain volcanic rock
Bassas da India Elevation extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 2.4 m
Bassas da India Natural resources none
Bassas da India Land use arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (all rock) (1998 est.)
Bassas da India Irrigated land 0 sq km (1998 est.)
Bassas da India Natural hazards maritime hazard since it is usually under water during high tide and surrounded by reefs; subject to periodic cyclones
Bassas da India Environment - current issues NA
Bassas da India Geography - note the islands emerge from a circular reef that sits atop a long-extinct, submerged volcano
Bassas da India Population uninhabited (July 2003 est.)
Bassas da India Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Bassas da India
Bassas da India Dependency status possession of France; administered by a high commissioner of the Republic, resident in Reunion
Bassas da India Legal system the laws of France, where applicable, apply
Bassas da India Flag description the flag of France is used
Bassas da India Economy - overview no economic activity
Bassas da India Waterways none
Bassas da India Ports and harbors none; offshore anchorage only
Bassas da India Military - note defense is the responsibility of France
Bassas da India Disputes - international claimed by Madagascar
Bassas da India Background This atoll is a volcanic rock surrounded by reefs and is awash at high tide. A French possession since 1897, it was placed under the administration of a commissioner residing in Reunion in 1968.
Bassas da India Location Southern Africa, islands in the southern Mozambique Channel, about one-half of the way from Madagascar to Mozambique
Bassas da India Geographic coordinates 21 30 S, 39 50 E
Bassas da India Map references Africa
Bassas da India Area total: 0.2 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 0.2 sq km
Bassas da India Area - comparative about one-third the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Bassas da India Land boundaries 0 km
Bassas da India Coastline 35.2 km
Bassas da India Maritime claims exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
Bassas da India Climate tropical
Bassas da India Terrain volcanic rock
Bassas da India Elevation extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 2.4 m
Bassas da India Natural resources none
Bassas da India Land use arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (all rock) (1998 est.)
Bassas da India Irrigated land 0 sq km (1998 est.)
Bassas da India Natural hazards maritime hazard since it is usually under water during high tide and surrounded by reefs; subject to periodic cyclones
Bassas da India Environment - current issues NA
Bassas da India Geography - note the islands emerge from a circular reef that sits atop a long-extinct, submerged volcano
Bassas da India Population uninhabited (July 2003 est.)
Bassas da India Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Bassas da India
Bassas da India Dependency status possession of France; administered by a high commissioner of the Republic, resident in Reunion
Bassas da India Legal system the laws of France, where applicable, apply
Bassas da India Flag description the flag of France is used
Bassas da India Economy - overview no economic activity
Bassas da India Waterways none
Bassas da India Ports and harbors none; offshore anchorage only
Bassas da India Military - note defense is the responsibility of France
Bassas da India Disputes - international claimed by Madagascar
Belarus Background After seven decades as a constituent republic of the USSR, Belarus attained its independence in 1991. It has retained closer political and economic ties to Russia than any of the other former Soviet republics. Belarus and Russia signed a treaty on a two-state union on 8 December 1999 envisioning greater political and economic integration. Although Belarus agreed to a framework to carry out the accord, serious implementation has yet to take place.
Belarus Location Eastern Europe, east of Poland
Belarus Geographic coordinates 53 00 N, 28 00 E
Belarus Map references Europe
Belarus Area total: 207,600 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 207,600 sq km
Belarus Area - comparative slightly smaller than Kansas
Belarus Land boundaries total: 2,900 km border countries: Latvia 141 km, Lithuania 502 km, Poland 407 km, Russia 959 km, Ukraine 891 km
Belarus Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Belarus Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Belarus Climate cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between continental and maritime
Belarus Terrain generally flat and contains much marshland
Belarus Elevation extremes lowest point: Nyoman River 90 m highest point: Dzyarzhynskaya Hara 346 m
Belarus Natural resources forests, peat deposits, small quantities of oil and natural gas, granite, dolomitic limestone, marl, chalk, sand, gravel, clay
Belarus Land use arable land: 29.76% permanent crops: 0.69% other: 69.55% (1998 est.)
Belarus Irrigated land 1,150 sq km (1998 est.)
Belarus Natural hazards NA
Belarus Environment - current issues soil pollution from pesticide use; southern part of the country contaminated with fallout from 1986 nuclear reactor accident at Chornobyl' in northern Ukraine
Belarus Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Belarus Geography - note landlocked; glacial scouring accounts for the flatness of Belarusian terrain and for its 11,000 lakes; the country is geologically well endowed with extensive deposits of granite, dolomitic limestone, marl, chalk, sand, gravel, and clay
Belarus Population 10,322,151 (July 2003 est.)
Belarus Age structure 0-14 years: 16.8% (male 885,265; female 848,516) 15-64 years: 68.9% (male 3,456,769; female 3,652,766) 65 years and over: 14.3% (male 490,529; female 988,306) (2003 est.)
Belarus Median age total: 36.7 years male: 34.1 years female: 39.3 years (2002)
Belarus Population growth rate -0.12% (2003 est.)
Belarus Birth rate 10.18 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Belarus Death rate 14.05 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Belarus Net migration rate 2.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Belarus Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.5 male(s)/female total population: 0.88 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Belarus Infant mortality rate total: 13.87 deaths/1,000 live births female: 12.56 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 15.13 deaths/1,000 live births
Belarus Life expectancy at birth total population: 68.43 years male: 62.54 years female: 74.6 years (2003 est.)
Belarus Total fertility rate 1.34 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Belarus HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.3% (2001 est.)
Belarus HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 15,000 (2001 est.)
Belarus HIV/AIDS - deaths 1,000 (2001 est.)
Belarus Nationality noun: Belarusian(s) adjective: Belarusian
Belarus Ethnic groups Belarusian 81.2%, Russian 11.4%, Polish, Ukrainian, and other 7.4%
Belarus Religions Eastern Orthodox 80%, other (including Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim) 20% (1997 est.)
Belarus Languages Belarusian, Russian, other
Belarus Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 99.6% male: 99.8% female: 99.5% (2003 est.)
Belarus Country name conventional long form: Republic of Belarus conventional short form: Belarus local short form: none former: Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic local long form: Respublika Byelarus'
Belarus Government type republic
Belarus Capital Minsk
Belarus Administrative divisions 6 voblastsi (singular - voblasts') and one municipality* (harady, singular - horad); Brestskaya (Brest), Homyel'skaya (Homyel'), Horad Minsk*, Hrodzyenskaya (Hrodna), Mahilyowskaya (Mahilyow), Minskaya, Vitsyebskaya (Vitsyebsk); note - when using a place name with the adjectival ending 'skaya,' the word voblasts' should be added to the place name note: voblasti have the administrative center name following in parentheses
Belarus Independence 25 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Belarus National holiday Independence Day, 3 July (1944); note - 3 July 1944 was the date Minsk was liberated from German troops, 25 August 1991 was the date of independence from the Soviet Union
Belarus Constitution 30 March 1994; revised by national referendum of 24 November 1996 giving the presidency greatly expanded powers and became effective 27 November 1996
Belarus Legal system based on civil law system
Belarus Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Belarus Executive branch chief of state: President Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (since 20 July 1994) head of government: Prime Minister Sergei SIDORSKY (acting; since 10 July 2003); Deputy Prime Ministers Andrei KOBYAKOV (since 13 March 2000), Sergei SIDORSKY (since 24 September 2001), Vladimir DRAZHIN (since 24 September 2001), Roman VNUCHKO (since 10 July 2003) cabinet: Council of Ministers election results: Aleksandr LUKASHENKO reelected president; percent of vote - Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 75.6%, Vladimir GONCHARIK 15.4% elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; first election took place 23 June and 10 July 1994; according to the 1994 constitution, the next election should have been held in 1999, however LUKASHENKO extended his term to 2001 via a November 1996 referendum; new election held 9 September 2001 (next election to be held by September 2006); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
Belarus Legislative branch bicameral Parliament or Natsionalnoye Sobranie consists of the Council of the Republic or Soviet Respubliki (64 seats; 56 members elected by regional councils and 8 members appointed by the president, all for 4-year terms) and the Chamber of Representatives or Palata Pretsaviteley (110 seats; members elected by universal adult suffrage to serve 4-year terms) election results: party affiliation data unavailable; under present political conditions party designations are meaningless elections: last held October 2000 (next to be held NA 2004)
Belarus Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); Constitutional Court (half of the judges appointed by the president and half appointed by the Chamber of Representatives)
Belarus Political parties and leaders Agrarian Party or AP [Mikhail SHIMANSKY]; Belarusian Communist Party or KPB [Viktor CHIKIN, chairman]; Belarusian Ecological Green Party (merger of Belarusian Ecological Party and Green Party of Belarus) [leader NA]; Belarusian Patriotic Movement (Belarusian Patriotic Party) or BPR [Anatoliy BARANKEVICH, chairman]; Belarusian Popular Front or BNF [Vintsuk VYACHORKA]; Belarusian Social-Democrat Party or SDBP [Nikolay STATKEVICH, chairman]; Belarusian Social-Democratic Party or Hromada [Stanislav SHUSHKEVICH, chairman]; Belarusian Socialist Party [Vyacheslav KUZNETSOV]; Civic Accord Bloc (United Civic Party) or CAB [Anatol LIABEDZKA]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDPB [Sergei GAYDUKEVICH, chairman]; Party of Communists Belarusian or PKB [Sergei KALYAKIN, chairman]; Republican Party of Labor and Justice or RPPS [Anatoliy NETYLKIN, chairman]; Social-Democrat Party of Popular Accord or PPA [Leanid SECHKA]; Women's Party or "Nadezhda" [Valentina POLEVIKOVA, chairperson]
Belarus Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Belarus International organization participation CEI, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, NAM (observer), NSG, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)
Belarus Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Mikhail KHVOSTOV chancery: 1619 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 consulate(s) general: New York FAX: [1] (202) 986-1805 telephone: [1] (202) 986-1604
Belarus Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Michael G. KOZAK embassy: 46 Starovilenskaya St., Minsk 220002 mailing address: PSC 78, Box B Minsk, APO 09723 telephone: [375] (17) 210-12-83 FAX: [375] (17) 234-7853
Belarus Flag description red horizontal band (top) and green horizontal band one-half the width of the red band; a white vertical stripe on the hoist side bears a Belarusian national ornament in red
Belarus Economy - overview Belarus has seen little structural reform since 1995, when President LUKASHENKO launched the country on the path of "market socialism." In keeping with this policy, LUKASHENKO reimposed administrative controls over prices and currency exchange rates and expanded the state's right to intervene in the management of private enterprise. In addition to the burdens imposed by high inflation and persistent trade deficits, businesses have been subject to pressure on the part of central and local governments, e.g., arbitrary changes in regulations, numerous rigorous inspections, retroactive application of new business regulations, and arrests of "disruptive" businessmen and factory owners. A wide range of redistributive policies has helped those at the bottom of the ladder. Close relations with Russia, possibly leading to reunion, color the pattern of economic developments. For the time being, Belarus remains self-isolated from the West and its open-market economies.
Belarus GDP purchasing power parity - $90.19 billion (2002 est.)
Belarus GDP - real growth rate 4.7% (2002 est.)
Belarus GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $8,700 (2002 est.)
Belarus GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 15% industry: 40% services: 45% (2002 est.)
Belarus Population below poverty line 22% (1995 est.)
Belarus Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 5.1% highest 10%: 20% (1998)
Belarus Distribution of family income - Gini index 21.7 (1998)
Belarus Inflation rate (consumer prices) 42.8% (2002 est.)
Belarus Labor force 4.8 million (2000)
Belarus Labor force - by occupation industry and construction NA%, agriculture and forestry NA%, services NA%
Belarus Unemployment rate 2.1% officially registered unemployed (December 2000); large number of underemployed workers
Belarus Budget revenues: $4 billion expenditures: $4.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $180 million (1997 est.)
Belarus Industries metal-cutting machine tools, tractors, trucks, earthmovers, motorcycles, television sets, chemical fibers, fertilizer, textiles, radios, refrigerators
Belarus Industrial production growth rate 2.5% (2002 est.)
Belarus Electricity - production 24.4 billion kWh (2001)
Belarus Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 99.5% hydro: 0.1% other: 0.4% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Belarus Electricity - consumption 26.69 billion kWh (2001)
Belarus Electricity - exports 300 million kWh (2001)
Belarus Electricity - imports 4.3 billion kWh (2001)
Belarus Oil - production 37,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Belarus Oil - consumption 230,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Belarus Oil - exports NA (2001)
Belarus Oil - imports NA (2001)
Belarus Natural gas - production 200 million cu m (2001 est.)
Belarus Natural gas - consumption 18 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Belarus Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Belarus Natural gas - imports 17.8 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Belarus Agriculture - products grain, potatoes, vegetables, sugar beets, flax; beef, milk
Belarus Exports $7.7 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Belarus Exports - commodities machinery and equipment, mineral products, chemicals, metals; textiles, foodstuffs
Belarus Exports - partners Russia 50.8%, Latvia 7.3%, Ukraine 6.3%, Lithuania 4.1%, Germany 4.1% (2002)
Belarus Imports $8.8 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Belarus Imports - commodities mineral products, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs, metals
Belarus Imports - partners Russia 68.2%, Germany 9.4%, Ukraine 3.2% (2002)
Belarus Debt - external $851 million (2001 est.)
Belarus Economic aid - recipient $194.3 million (1995)
Belarus Currency Belarusian ruble (BYB/BYR)
Belarus Currency code BYB/BYR
Belarus Exchange rates Belarusian rubles per US dollar - NA (2002), 1,390 (2001), 876.75 (2000), 248.8 (1999), 46.13 (1998)
Belarus Fiscal year calendar year
Belarus Telephones - main lines in use 2.313 million (1997)
Belarus Telephones - mobile cellular 8,167 (1997)
Belarus Telephone system general assessment: the Ministry of Telecommunications controls all telecommunications through its carrier (a joint stock company) Beltelcom which is a monopoly domestic: local - Minsk has a digital metropolitan network and a cellular NMT-450 network; waiting lists for telephones are long; local service outside Minsk is neglected and poor; intercity - Belarus has a partly developed fiber-optic backbone system presently serving at least 13 major cities (1998); Belarus's fiber optics form synchronous digital hierarchy rings through other countries' systems; an inadequate analog system remains operational international: Belarus is a member of the Trans-European Line (TEL), Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line, and has access to the Trans-Siberia Line (TSL); three fiber-optic segments provide connectivity to Latvia, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine; worldwide service is available to Belarus through this infrastructure; additional analog lines to Russia; Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik earth stations
Belarus Radio broadcast stations AM 28, FM 37, shortwave 11 (1998)
Belarus Television broadcast stations 47 (plus 27 repeaters) (1995)
Belarus Internet country code .by
Belarus Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 23 (2002)
Belarus Internet users 422,000 (2002)
Belarus Railways total: 5,523 km broad gauge: 5,523 km 1.520-m gauge (875 km electrified) (2002)
Belarus Highways total: 74,385 km paved: 66,203 km unpaved: 8,182 km (2000)
Belarus Waterways NA km; note - Belarus has extensive and widely used canal and river systems
Belarus Pipelines gas 4,519 km; oil 1,811 km; refined products 1,686 km (2003)
Belarus Ports and harbors Mazyr
Belarus Airports 124 (2002)
Belarus Airports - with paved runways total: 28 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 21 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Belarus Airports - with unpaved runways total: 96 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 914 to 1,523 m: 14 under 914 m: 67 (2002)
Belarus Military branches Army, Air Force (including air defense), Interior Ministry Troops, Border Guards
Belarus Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Belarus Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,756,572 (2003 est.)
Belarus Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 2,158,875 (2003 est.)
Belarus Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 86,654 (2003 est.)
Belarus Military expenditures - dollar figure $176.1 million (FY02)
Belarus Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.4% (FY02)
Belarus Disputes - international 1997 boundary treaty with Ukraine remains unratified over unresolved financial claims, preventing demarcation and encouraging illegal border crossing; boundaries with Latvia and Lithuania remain undemarcated despite European Union financial support
Belarus Illicit drugs limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for the domestic market; transshipment point for illicit drugs to and via Russia, and to the Baltics and Western Europe; lax money-laundering and banking regulations
Belarus Background After seven decades as a constituent republic of the USSR, Belarus attained its independence in 1991. It has retained closer political and economic ties to Russia than any of the other former Soviet republics. Belarus and Russia signed a treaty on a two-state union on 8 December 1999 envisioning greater political and economic integration. Although Belarus agreed to a framework to carry out the accord, serious implementation has yet to take place.
Belarus Location Eastern Europe, east of Poland
Belarus Geographic coordinates 53 00 N, 28 00 E
Belarus Map references Europe
Belarus Area total: 207,600 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 207,600 sq km
Belarus Area - comparative slightly smaller than Kansas
Belarus Land boundaries total: 2,900 km border countries: Latvia 141 km, Lithuania 502 km, Poland 407 km, Russia 959 km, Ukraine 891 km
Belarus Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Belarus Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Belarus Climate cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between continental and maritime
Belarus Terrain generally flat and contains much marshland
Belarus Elevation extremes lowest point: Nyoman River 90 m highest point: Dzyarzhynskaya Hara 346 m
Belarus Natural resources forests, peat deposits, small quantities of oil and natural gas, granite, dolomitic limestone, marl, chalk, sand, gravel, clay
Belarus Land use arable land: 29.76% permanent crops: 0.69% other: 69.55% (1998 est.)
Belarus Irrigated land 1,150 sq km (1998 est.)
Belarus Natural hazards NA
Belarus Environment - current issues soil pollution from pesticide use; southern part of the country contaminated with fallout from 1986 nuclear reactor accident at Chornobyl' in northern Ukraine
Belarus Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Belarus Geography - note landlocked; glacial scouring accounts for the flatness of Belarusian terrain and for its 11,000 lakes; the country is geologically well endowed with extensive deposits of granite, dolomitic limestone, marl, chalk, sand, gravel, and clay
Belarus Population 10,322,151 (July 2003 est.)
Belarus Age structure 0-14 years: 16.8% (male 885,265; female 848,516) 15-64 years: 68.9% (male 3,456,769; female 3,652,766) 65 years and over: 14.3% (male 490,529; female 988,306) (2003 est.)
Belarus Median age total: 36.7 years male: 34.1 years female: 39.3 years (2002)
Belarus Population growth rate -0.12% (2003 est.)
Belarus Birth rate 10.18 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Belarus Death rate 14.05 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Belarus Net migration rate 2.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Belarus Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.5 male(s)/female total population: 0.88 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Belarus Infant mortality rate total: 13.87 deaths/1,000 live births female: 12.56 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 15.13 deaths/1,000 live births
Belarus Life expectancy at birth total population: 68.43 years male: 62.54 years female: 74.6 years (2003 est.)
Belarus Total fertility rate 1.34 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Belarus HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.3% (2001 est.)
Belarus HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 15,000 (2001 est.)
Belarus HIV/AIDS - deaths 1,000 (2001 est.)
Belarus Nationality noun: Belarusian(s) adjective: Belarusian
Belarus Ethnic groups Belarusian 81.2%, Russian 11.4%, Polish, Ukrainian, and other 7.4%
Belarus Religions Eastern Orthodox 80%, other (including Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim) 20% (1997 est.)
Belarus Languages Belarusian, Russian, other
Belarus Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 99.6% male: 99.8% female: 99.5% (2003 est.)
Belarus Country name conventional long form: Republic of Belarus conventional short form: Belarus local short form: none former: Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic local long form: Respublika Byelarus'
Belarus Government type republic
Belarus Capital Minsk
Belarus Administrative divisions 6 voblastsi (singular - voblasts') and one municipality* (harady, singular - horad); Brestskaya (Brest), Homyel'skaya (Homyel'), Horad Minsk*, Hrodzyenskaya (Hrodna), Mahilyowskaya (Mahilyow), Minskaya, Vitsyebskaya (Vitsyebsk); note - when using a place name with the adjectival ending 'skaya,' the word voblasts' should be added to the place name note: voblasti have the administrative center name following in parentheses
Belarus Independence 25 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Belarus National holiday Independence Day, 3 July (1944); note - 3 July 1944 was the date Minsk was liberated from German troops, 25 August 1991 was the date of independence from the Soviet Union
Belarus Constitution 30 March 1994; revised by national referendum of 24 November 1996 giving the presidency greatly expanded powers and became effective 27 November 1996
Belarus Legal system based on civil law system
Belarus Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Belarus Executive branch chief of state: President Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (since 20 July 1994) head of government: Prime Minister Sergei SIDORSKY (acting; since 10 July 2003); Deputy Prime Ministers Andrei KOBYAKOV (since 13 March 2000), Sergei SIDORSKY (since 24 September 2001), Vladimir DRAZHIN (since 24 September 2001), Roman VNUCHKO (since 10 July 2003) cabinet: Council of Ministers election results: Aleksandr LUKASHENKO reelected president; percent of vote - Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 75.6%, Vladimir GONCHARIK 15.4% elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; first election took place 23 June and 10 July 1994; according to the 1994 constitution, the next election should have been held in 1999, however LUKASHENKO extended his term to 2001 via a November 1996 referendum; new election held 9 September 2001 (next election to be held by September 2006); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
Belarus Legislative branch bicameral Parliament or Natsionalnoye Sobranie consists of the Council of the Republic or Soviet Respubliki (64 seats; 56 members elected by regional councils and 8 members appointed by the president, all for 4-year terms) and the Chamber of Representatives or Palata Pretsaviteley (110 seats; members elected by universal adult suffrage to serve 4-year terms) election results: party affiliation data unavailable; under present political conditions party designations are meaningless elections: last held October 2000 (next to be held NA 2004)
Belarus Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); Constitutional Court (half of the judges appointed by the president and half appointed by the Chamber of Representatives)
Belarus Political parties and leaders Agrarian Party or AP [Mikhail SHIMANSKY]; Belarusian Communist Party or KPB [Viktor CHIKIN, chairman]; Belarusian Ecological Green Party (merger of Belarusian Ecological Party and Green Party of Belarus) [leader NA]; Belarusian Patriotic Movement (Belarusian Patriotic Party) or BPR [Anatoliy BARANKEVICH, chairman]; Belarusian Popular Front or BNF [Vintsuk VYACHORKA]; Belarusian Social-Democrat Party or SDBP [Nikolay STATKEVICH, chairman]; Belarusian Social-Democratic Party or Hromada [Stanislav SHUSHKEVICH, chairman]; Belarusian Socialist Party [Vyacheslav KUZNETSOV]; Civic Accord Bloc (United Civic Party) or CAB [Anatol LIABEDZKA]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDPB [Sergei GAYDUKEVICH, chairman]; Party of Communists Belarusian or PKB [Sergei KALYAKIN, chairman]; Republican Party of Labor and Justice or RPPS [Anatoliy NETYLKIN, chairman]; Social-Democrat Party of Popular Accord or PPA [Leanid SECHKA]; Women's Party or "Nadezhda" [Valentina POLEVIKOVA, chairperson]
Belarus Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Belarus International organization participation CEI, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, NAM (observer), NSG, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)
Belarus Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Mikhail KHVOSTOV chancery: 1619 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 consulate(s) general: New York FAX: [1] (202) 986-1805 telephone: [1] (202) 986-1604
Belarus Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Michael G. KOZAK embassy: 46 Starovilenskaya St., Minsk 220002 mailing address: PSC 78, Box B Minsk, APO 09723 telephone: [375] (17) 210-12-83 FAX: [375] (17) 234-7853
Belarus Flag description red horizontal band (top) and green horizontal band one-half the width of the red band; a white vertical stripe on the hoist side bears a Belarusian national ornament in red
Belarus Economy - overview Belarus has seen little structural reform since 1995, when President LUKASHENKO launched the country on the path of "market socialism." In keeping with this policy, LUKASHENKO reimposed administrative controls over prices and currency exchange rates and expanded the state's right to intervene in the management of private enterprise. In addition to the burdens imposed by high inflation and persistent trade deficits, businesses have been subject to pressure on the part of central and local governments, e.g., arbitrary changes in regulations, numerous rigorous inspections, retroactive application of new business regulations, and arrests of "disruptive" businessmen and factory owners. A wide range of redistributive policies has helped those at the bottom of the ladder. Close relations with Russia, possibly leading to reunion, color the pattern of economic developments. For the time being, Belarus remains self-isolated from the West and its open-market economies.
Belarus GDP purchasing power parity - $90.19 billion (2002 est.)
Belarus GDP - real growth rate 4.7% (2002 est.)
Belarus GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $8,700 (2002 est.)
Belarus GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 15% industry: 40% services: 45% (2002 est.)
Belarus Population below poverty line 22% (1995 est.)
Belarus Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 5.1% highest 10%: 20% (1998)
Belarus Distribution of family income - Gini index 21.7 (1998)
Belarus Inflation rate (consumer prices) 42.8% (2002 est.)
Belarus Labor force 4.8 million (2000)
Belarus Labor force - by occupation industry and construction NA%, agriculture and forestry NA%, services NA%
Belarus Unemployment rate 2.1% officially registered unemployed (December 2000); large number of underemployed workers
Belarus Budget revenues: $4 billion expenditures: $4.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $180 million (1997 est.)
Belarus Industries metal-cutting machine tools, tractors, trucks, earthmovers, motorcycles, television sets, chemical fibers, fertilizer, textiles, radios, refrigerators
Belarus Industrial production growth rate 2.5% (2002 est.)
Belarus Electricity - production 24.4 billion kWh (2001)
Belarus Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 99.5% hydro: 0.1% other: 0.4% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Belarus Electricity - consumption 26.69 billion kWh (2001)
Belarus Electricity - exports 300 million kWh (2001)
Belarus Electricity - imports 4.3 billion kWh (2001)
Belarus Oil - production 37,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Belarus Oil - consumption 230,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Belarus Oil - exports NA (2001)
Belarus Oil - imports NA (2001)
Belarus Natural gas - production 200 million cu m (2001 est.)
Belarus Natural gas - consumption 18 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Belarus Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Belarus Natural gas - imports 17.8 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Belarus Agriculture - products grain, potatoes, vegetables, sugar beets, flax; beef, milk
Belarus Exports $7.7 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Belarus Exports - commodities machinery and equipment, mineral products, chemicals, metals; textiles, foodstuffs
Belarus Exports - partners Russia 50.8%, Latvia 7.3%, Ukraine 6.3%, Lithuania 4.1%, Germany 4.1% (2002)
Belarus Imports $8.8 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Belarus Imports - commodities mineral products, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs, metals
Belarus Imports - partners Russia 68.2%, Germany 9.4%, Ukraine 3.2% (2002)
Belarus Debt - external $851 million (2001 est.)
Belarus Economic aid - recipient $194.3 million (1995)
Belarus Currency Belarusian ruble (BYB/BYR)
Belarus Currency code BYB/BYR
Belarus Exchange rates Belarusian rubles per US dollar - NA (2002), 1,390 (2001), 876.75 (2000), 248.8 (1999), 46.13 (1998)
Belarus Fiscal year calendar year
Belarus Telephones - main lines in use 2.313 million (1997)
Belarus Telephones - mobile cellular 8,167 (1997)
Belarus Telephone system general assessment: the Ministry of Telecommunications controls all telecommunications through its carrier (a joint stock company) Beltelcom which is a monopoly domestic: local - Minsk has a digital metropolitan network and a cellular NMT-450 network; waiting lists for telephones are long; local service outside Minsk is neglected and poor; intercity - Belarus has a partly developed fiber-optic backbone system presently serving at least 13 major cities (1998); Belarus's fiber optics form synchronous digital hierarchy rings through other countries' systems; an inadequate analog system remains operational international: Belarus is a member of the Trans-European Line (TEL), Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line, and has access to the Trans-Siberia Line (TSL); three fiber-optic segments provide connectivity to Latvia, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine; worldwide service is available to Belarus through this infrastructure; additional analog lines to Russia; Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik earth stations
Belarus Radio broadcast stations AM 28, FM 37, shortwave 11 (1998)
Belarus Television broadcast stations 47 (plus 27 repeaters) (1995)
Belarus Internet country code .by
Belarus Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 23 (2002)
Belarus Internet users 422,000 (2002)
Belarus Railways total: 5,523 km broad gauge: 5,523 km 1.520-m gauge (875 km electrified) (2002)
Belarus Highways total: 74,385 km paved: 66,203 km unpaved: 8,182 km (2000)
Belarus Waterways NA km; note - Belarus has extensive and widely used canal and river systems
Belarus Pipelines gas 4,519 km; oil 1,811 km; refined products 1,686 km (2003)
Belarus Ports and harbors Mazyr
Belarus Airports 124 (2002)
Belarus Airports - with paved runways total: 28 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 21 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Belarus Airports - with unpaved runways total: 96 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 914 to 1,523 m: 14 under 914 m: 67 (2002)
Belarus Military branches Army, Air Force (including air defense), Interior Ministry Troops, Border Guards
Belarus Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Belarus Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,756,572 (2003 est.)
Belarus Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 2,158,875 (2003 est.)
Belarus Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 86,654 (2003 est.)
Belarus Military expenditures - dollar figure $176.1 million (FY02)
Belarus Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.4% (FY02)
Belarus Disputes - international 1997 boundary treaty with Ukraine remains unratified over unresolved financial claims, preventing demarcation and encouraging illegal border crossing; boundaries with Latvia and Lithuania remain undemarcated despite European Union financial support
Belarus Illicit drugs limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for the domestic market; transshipment point for illicit drugs to and via Russia, and to the Baltics and Western Europe; lax money-laundering and banking regulations
Belgium Background Belgium became independent from the Netherlands in 1830 and was occupied by Germany during World Wars I and II. It has prospered in the past half century as a modern, technologically advanced European state and member of NATO and the EU. Tensions between the Dutch-speaking Flemings of the north and the French-speaking Walloons of the south have led in recent years to constitutional amendments granting these regions formal recognition and autonomy.
Belgium Location Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between France and the Netherlands
Belgium Geographic coordinates 50 50 N, 4 00 E
Belgium Map references Europe
Belgium Area total: 30,510 sq km land: 30,230 sq km water: 280 sq km
Belgium Area - comparative about the size of Maryland
Belgium Land boundaries total: 1,385 km border countries: France 620 km, Germany 167 km, Luxembourg 148 km, Netherlands 450 km
Belgium Coastline 66 km
Belgium Maritime claims continental shelf: median line with neighbors territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: median line with neighbors (extends about 68 km from coast)
Belgium Climate temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy
Belgium Terrain flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills, rugged mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast
Belgium Elevation extremes lowest point: North Sea 0 m highest point: Signal de Botrange 694 m
Belgium Natural resources coal, natural gas
Belgium Land use arable land: 25% permanent crops: 0% note: includes Luxembourg (1998 est.) other: 75%
Belgium Irrigated land 40 sq km (includes Luxembourg) (1998 est.)
Belgium Natural hazards flooding is a threat in areas of reclaimed coastal land, protected from the sea by concrete dikes
Belgium Environment - current issues the environment is exposed to intense pressures from human activities: urbanization, dense transportation network, industry, extensive animal breeding and crop cultivation; air and water pollution also have repercussions for neighboring countries; uncertainties regarding federal and regional responsibilities (now resolved) have slowed progress in tackling environmental challenges
Belgium Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Belgium Geography - note crossroads of Western Europe; majority of West European capitals within 1,000 km of Brussels, the seat of both the European Union and NATO
Belgium Population 10,289,088 (July 2003 est.)
Belgium Age structure 0-14 years: 17.2% (male 905,856; female 865,589) 15-64 years: 65.6% (male 3,400,419; female 3,346,182) 65 years and over: 17.2% (male 725,162; female 1,045,880) (2003 est.)
Belgium Median age total: 40 years male: 38.7 years female: 41.3 years (2002)
Belgium Population growth rate 0.14% (2003 est.)
Belgium Birth rate 10.45 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Belgium Death rate 10.07 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Belgium Net migration rate 0.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Belgium Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Belgium Infant mortality rate total: 4.57 deaths/1,000 live births female: 3.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 5.16 deaths/1,000 live births
Belgium Life expectancy at birth total population: 78.29 years male: 74.97 years female: 81.78 years (2003 est.)
Belgium Total fertility rate 1.62 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Belgium HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.2% (2001 est.)
Belgium HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 8,500 (2001 est.)
Belgium HIV/AIDS - deaths less than 100 (2001 est.)
Belgium Nationality noun: Belgian(s) adjective: Belgian
Belgium Ethnic groups Fleming 58%, Walloon 31%, mixed or other 11%
Belgium Religions Roman Catholic 75%, Protestant or other 25%
Belgium Languages Dutch (official) 60%, French (official) 40%, German (official) less than 1%, legally bilingual (Dutch and French)
Belgium Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 98% male: NA% female: NA%
Belgium Country name conventional long form: Kingdom of Belgium conventional short form: Belgium local short form: Belgique/Belgie local long form: Royaume de Belgique/Koninkrijk Belgie
Belgium Government type federal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarch
Belgium Capital Brussels
Belgium Administrative divisions 10 provinces (French: provinces, singular - province; Dutch: provincies, singular - provincie) and 3 regions* (French: regions; Dutch: gewesten); Antwerpen, Brabant Wallon, Brussels* (Bruxelles), Flanders*, Hainaut, Liege, Limburg, Luxembourg, Namur, Oost-Vlaanderen, Vlaams-Brabant, Wallonia*, West-Vlaanderen
Belgium Independence 4 October 1830 a provisional government declared independence from the Netherlands; 21 July 1831 the ascension of King Leopold I to the throne
Belgium National holiday 21 July (1831) ascension to the Throne of King Leopold I
Belgium Constitution 7 February 1831, last revised 14 July 1993; parliament approved a constitutional package creating a federal state
Belgium Legal system civil law system influenced by English constitutional theory; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Belgium Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Belgium Executive branch chief of state: King ALBERT II (since 9 August 1993); Heir Apparent Prince PHILIPPE, son of the monarch head of government: Prime Minister Guy VERHOFSTADT (since 13 July 1999) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch and approved by Parliament elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch and then approved by Parliament note: government coalition - VLD, MR, PS, SP, AGALEV, and ECOLO
Belgium Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of a Senate or Senaat in Dutch, Senat in French (71 seats; 40 members are directly elected by popular vote, 31 are indirectly elected; members serve four-year terms) and a Chamber of Deputies or Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers in Dutch, Chambre des Representants in French (150 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms) elections: Senate and Chamber of Deputies - last held 18 June 2003 (next to be held in NA May 2007) note: as a result of the 1993 constitutional revision that furthered devolution into a federal state, there are now three levels of government (federal, regional, and linguistic community) with a complex division of responsibilities; this reality leaves six governments each with its own legislative assembly; for other acronyms of the listed parties see the Political parties and leaders entry election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - SP.A-Spirit 15.5%, VLD 15.4%, CD & V 12.7%, PS 12.8%, MR 12.1%, VB 9.4%, CDH 5.6%; seats by party - SP.A-Spirit 7, VLD 7, CD & V 6, PS 6, MR 5, VB 5, CDH 2, other 2 (note - there are also 31 indirectly elected senators); Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - VLD 15.4%, SP.A-Spirit 14.9%, CD & V 13.3%, PS 13.0%, VB 11.6%, MR 11.4%, CDH 5.5%, Ecolo 3.1%; seats by party - VLD 25, SP.A-Spirit 23, CD & V 21, PS 25, VB 18, MR 24, CDH 8 Ecolo 4, other 2
Belgium Judicial branch Supreme Court of Justice or Hof van Cassatie (in Dutch) or Cour de Cassation (in French) (judges are appointed for life by the monarch, although selected by the Government)
Belgium Political parties and leaders AGALEV (Flemish Greens) [Dirk HOLEMANS]; Christian Democrats and Flemish or CD & V [Yves LETERME]; note - used to be the Flemish Christian Democrats or CVP; Ecolo (Francophone Greens) [Jean-Michel JAVAUK, Evelyne HUYTEBROECK, Claude BROUIR]; Flemish Liberal Democrats or VLD [Karel DE GUCHT]; Francophone Humanist and Democratic Center of CDH (used to be Social Christian Party or PSC) [Joelle MILQUET]; Francophone Reformist Movement or MR (used to be Liberal Reformation Party or PRL) [Antoine DUQUESNE]; Francophone Socialist Party or PS [Elio DI RUPO]; National Front or FN [Daniel FERET]; New Flemish Alliance or NVA [Geert BOURGEOIS]; note - new party that emerged after the demise of the People's Union or VU; Social Progressive Alternative Party or SP.A [Steve STEVAERT]; note - was Flemish Socialist Party or SP; Spirit [Els VAN WEERT]; note - new party that emerged after the demise of the People's Union or VU; Vlaams Blok or VB [Frank VANHECKE]; other minor parties
Belgium Political pressure groups and leaders Christian and Socialist Trade Unions; Federation of Belgian Industries; numerous other associations representing bankers, manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the legal and medical professions; various organizations represent the cultural interests of Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such as Pax Christi and groups representing immigrants
Belgium International organization participation ACCT, AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WADB (nonregional), WCL, WCO, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC
Belgium Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Franciskus VAN DAELE chancery: 3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York FAX: [1] (202) 333-3079 telephone: [1] (202) 333-6900
Belgium Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen Franklin BRAUER embassy: Regentlaan 27 Boulevard du Regent, B-1000 Brussels mailing address: PSC 82, Box 002, APO AE 09710 telephone: [32] (2) 508-2111 FAX: [32] (2) 511-2725
Belgium Flag description three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), yellow, and red; the design was based on the flag of France
Belgium Economy - overview This modern private enterprise economy has capitalized on its central geographic location, highly developed transport network, and diversified industrial and commercial base. Industry is concentrated mainly in the populous Flemish area in the north. With few natural resources, Belgium must import substantial quantities of raw materials and export a large volume of manufactures, making its economy unusually dependent on the state of world markets. Roughly three-quarters of its trade is with other EU countries. Public debt is about 100% of GDP, and the government has succeeded in balancing its budget. Belgium, together with 11 of its EU partners, began circulating the euro currency in January 2002. Economic growth in 2001-03 dropped sharply due to the global economic slowdown. Prospects for 2004 again depend largely on recovery in the EU and the US.
Belgium GDP purchasing power parity - $299.7 billion (2002 est.)
Belgium GDP - real growth rate 0.7% (2002 est.)
Belgium GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $29,200 (2002 est.)
Belgium GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 1.3% industry: 24.4% services: 74.3% (2001)
Belgium Population below poverty line 4%
Belgium Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3.2% highest 10%: 23% (1996)
Belgium Distribution of family income - Gini index 28.7 (1996)
Belgium Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.7% (2002 est.)
Belgium Labor force 4.44 million (2001)
Belgium Labor force - by occupation services 73%, industry 25%, agriculture 2% (1999 est.)
Belgium Unemployment rate 7.2% (2002 est.)
Belgium Budget revenues: $113.4 billion expenditures: $106 billion, including capital expenditures of $7.17 billion (2000)
Belgium Industries engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly, processed food and beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles, glass, petroleum, coal
Belgium Industrial production growth rate 4.5% (2000 est.)
Belgium Electricity - production 74.28 billion kWh (2001)
Belgium Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 38.4% hydro: 0.6% other: 1.8% (2001) nuclear: 59.3%
Belgium Electricity - consumption 78.18 billion kWh (2001)
Belgium Electricity - exports 6.712 billion kWh (2001)
Belgium Electricity - imports 15.82 billion kWh (2001)
Belgium Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Belgium Oil - consumption 595,100 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Belgium Oil - exports 450,000 bbl/day (2001)
Belgium Oil - imports 1.042 million bbl/day (2001)
Belgium Natural gas - production 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Belgium Natural gas - consumption 15.5 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Belgium Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Belgium Natural gas - imports 15.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Belgium Agriculture - products sugar beets, fresh vegetables, fruits, grain, tobacco; beef, veal, pork, milk
Belgium Exports $162 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Belgium Exports - commodities machinery and equipment, chemicals, diamonds, metals and metal products, foodstuffs
Belgium Exports - partners Germany 18.6%, France 16.3%, Netherlands 11.6%, UK 9.6%, US 7.9%, Italy 5.4% (2002)
Belgium Imports $152 billion f.o.b. (2001)
Belgium Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals and metal products, foodstuffs
Belgium Imports - partners Germany 17.2%, Netherlands 15.6%, France 12.8%, UK 7.3%, Ireland 7%, US 6.4%, Italy 4% (2002)
Belgium Debt - external $28.3 billion (1999 est.)
Belgium Economic aid - donor ODA, $764 million (1997)
Belgium Currency euro (EUR) note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Belgium Currency code EUR
Belgium Exchange rates euros per US dollar - 1.06 (2002), 1.12 (2001), 1.09 (2000), 0.94 (1999), 36.3 (1998)
Belgium Fiscal year calendar year
Belgium Telephones - main lines in use 4.769 million (1997)
Belgium Telephones - mobile cellular 974,494 (1997)
Belgium Telephone system general assessment: highly developed, technologically advanced, and completely automated domestic and international telephone and telegraph facilities domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; extensive cable network; limited microwave radio relay network international: 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat
Belgium Radio broadcast stations FM 79, AM 7, shortwave 1 (1998)
Belgium Television broadcast stations 25 (plus 10 repeaters) (1997)
Belgium Internet country code .be
Belgium Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 61 (2000)
Belgium Internet users 3.76 million (2002)
Belgium Railways total: 3,471 km standard gauge: 3,471 km 1.435-m gauge (2,631 km electrified) (2002)
Belgium Highways total: 148,216 km paved: 116,687 km (including 1,727 km of expressways) unpaved: 31,529 km (2000)
Belgium Waterways 1,570 km (route length in regular commercial use) (2001)
Belgium Pipelines gas 1,485 km; oil 158 km; refined products 535 km (2003)
Belgium Ports and harbors Antwerp (one of the world's busiest ports), Brugge, Gent, Hasselt, Liege, Mons, Namur, Oostende, Zeebrugge
Belgium Merchant marine total: 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 32,215 GRT/55,725 DWT ships by type: cargo 6, chemical tanker 10, petroleum tanker 4, includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Finland 1, Netherlands 3 (2002 est.)
Belgium Airports 42 (2002)
Belgium Airports - with paved runways total: 25 over 3,047 m: 6 2,438 to 3,047 m: 8 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 7 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
Belgium Airports - with unpaved runways total: 17 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m: 15 (2002)
Belgium Heliports 1 (2002)
Belgium Military branches Army, Navy, Air Components, Federal Police
Belgium Military manpower - military age 19 years of age (2003 est.)
Belgium Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,497,423 (2003 est.)
Belgium Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 2,059,131 (2003 est.)
Belgium Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 60,921 (2003 est.)
Belgium Military expenditures - dollar figure $3.077 billion (FY01/02)
Belgium Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.4% (FY01/02)
Belgium Disputes - international none
Belgium Illicit drugs growing producer of synthetic drugs; transit point for US-bound ecstasy; source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors; transshipment point for cocaine, heroin, hashish, and marijuana entering Western Europe; money laundering related to trafficking of drugs, automobiles, alcohol, and tobacco
Belgium Background Belgium became independent from the Netherlands in 1830 and was occupied by Germany during World Wars I and II. It has prospered in the past half century as a modern, technologically advanced European state and member of NATO and the EU. Tensions between the Dutch-speaking Flemings of the north and the French-speaking Walloons of the south have led in recent years to constitutional amendments granting these regions formal recognition and autonomy.
Belgium Location Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between France and the Netherlands
Belgium Geographic coordinates 50 50 N, 4 00 E
Belgium Map references Europe
Belgium Area total: 30,510 sq km land: 30,230 sq km water: 280 sq km
Belgium Area - comparative about the size of Maryland
Belgium Land boundaries total: 1,385 km border countries: France 620 km, Germany 167 km, Luxembourg 148 km, Netherlands 450 km
Belgium Coastline 66 km
Belgium Maritime claims continental shelf: median line with neighbors territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: median line with neighbors (extends about 68 km from coast)
Belgium Climate temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy
Belgium Terrain flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills, rugged mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast
Belgium Elevation extremes lowest point: North Sea 0 m highest point: Signal de Botrange 694 m
Belgium Natural resources coal, natural gas
Belgium Land use arable land: 25% permanent crops: 0% note: includes Luxembourg (1998 est.) other: 75%
Belgium Irrigated land 40 sq km (includes Luxembourg) (1998 est.)
Belgium Natural hazards flooding is a threat in areas of reclaimed coastal land, protected from the sea by concrete dikes
Belgium Environment - current issues the environment is exposed to intense pressures from human activities: urbanization, dense transportation network, industry, extensive animal breeding and crop cultivation; air and water pollution also have repercussions for neighboring countries; uncertainties regarding federal and regional responsibilities (now resolved) have slowed progress in tackling environmental challenges
Belgium Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Belgium Geography - note crossroads of Western Europe; majority of West European capitals within 1,000 km of Brussels, the seat of both the European Union and NATO
Belgium Population 10,289,088 (July 2003 est.)
Belgium Age structure 0-14 years: 17.2% (male 905,856; female 865,589) 15-64 years: 65.6% (male 3,400,419; female 3,346,182) 65 years and over: 17.2% (male 725,162; female 1,045,880) (2003 est.)
Belgium Median age total: 40 years male: 38.7 years female: 41.3 years (2002)
Belgium Population growth rate 0.14% (2003 est.)
Belgium Birth rate 10.45 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Belgium Death rate 10.07 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Belgium Net migration rate 0.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Belgium Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Belgium Infant mortality rate total: 4.57 deaths/1,000 live births female: 3.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 5.16 deaths/1,000 live births
Belgium Life expectancy at birth total population: 78.29 years male: 74.97 years female: 81.78 years (2003 est.)
Belgium Total fertility rate 1.62 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Belgium HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.2% (2001 est.)
Belgium HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 8,500 (2001 est.)
Belgium HIV/AIDS - deaths less than 100 (2001 est.)
Belgium Nationality noun: Belgian(s) adjective: Belgian
Belgium Ethnic groups Fleming 58%, Walloon 31%, mixed or other 11%
Belgium Religions Roman Catholic 75%, Protestant or other 25%
Belgium Languages Dutch (official) 60%, French (official) 40%, German (official) less than 1%, legally bilingual (Dutch and French)
Belgium Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 98% male: NA% female: NA%
Belgium Country name conventional long form: Kingdom of Belgium conventional short form: Belgium local short form: Belgique/Belgie local long form: Royaume de Belgique/Koninkrijk Belgie
Belgium Government type federal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarch
Belgium Capital Brussels
Belgium Administrative divisions 10 provinces (French: provinces, singular - province; Dutch: provincies, singular - provincie) and 3 regions* (French: regions; Dutch: gewesten); Antwerpen, Brabant Wallon, Brussels* (Bruxelles), Flanders*, Hainaut, Liege, Limburg, Luxembourg, Namur, Oost-Vlaanderen, Vlaams-Brabant, Wallonia*, West-Vlaanderen
Belgium Independence 4 October 1830 a provisional government declared independence from the Netherlands; 21 July 1831 the ascension of King Leopold I to the throne
Belgium National holiday 21 July (1831) ascension to the Throne of King Leopold I
Belgium Constitution 7 February 1831, last revised 14 July 1993; parliament approved a constitutional package creating a federal state
Belgium Legal system civil law system influenced by English constitutional theory; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Belgium Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Belgium Executive branch chief of state: King ALBERT II (since 9 August 1993); Heir Apparent Prince PHILIPPE, son of the monarch head of government: Prime Minister Guy VERHOFSTADT (since 13 July 1999) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch and approved by Parliament elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch and then approved by Parliament note: government coalition - VLD, MR, PS, SP, AGALEV, and ECOLO
Belgium Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of a Senate or Senaat in Dutch, Senat in French (71 seats; 40 members are directly elected by popular vote, 31 are indirectly elected; members serve four-year terms) and a Chamber of Deputies or Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers in Dutch, Chambre des Representants in French (150 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms) elections: Senate and Chamber of Deputies - last held 18 June 2003 (next to be held in NA May 2007) note: as a result of the 1993 constitutional revision that furthered devolution into a federal state, there are now three levels of government (federal, regional, and linguistic community) with a complex division of responsibilities; this reality leaves six governments each with its own legislative assembly; for other acronyms of the listed parties see the Political parties and leaders entry election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - SP.A-Spirit 15.5%, VLD 15.4%, CD & V 12.7%, PS 12.8%, MR 12.1%, VB 9.4%, CDH 5.6%; seats by party - SP.A-Spirit 7, VLD 7, CD & V 6, PS 6, MR 5, VB 5, CDH 2, other 2 (note - there are also 31 indirectly elected senators); Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - VLD 15.4%, SP.A-Spirit 14.9%, CD & V 13.3%, PS 13.0%, VB 11.6%, MR 11.4%, CDH 5.5%, Ecolo 3.1%; seats by party - VLD 25, SP.A-Spirit 23, CD & V 21, PS 25, VB 18, MR 24, CDH 8 Ecolo 4, other 2
Belgium Judicial branch Supreme Court of Justice or Hof van Cassatie (in Dutch) or Cour de Cassation (in French) (judges are appointed for life by the monarch, although selected by the Government)
Belgium Political parties and leaders AGALEV (Flemish Greens) [Dirk HOLEMANS]; Christian Democrats and Flemish or CD & V [Yves LETERME]; note - used to be the Flemish Christian Democrats or CVP; Ecolo (Francophone Greens) [Jean-Michel JAVAUK, Evelyne HUYTEBROECK, Claude BROUIR]; Flemish Liberal Democrats or VLD [Karel DE GUCHT]; Francophone Humanist and Democratic Center of CDH (used to be Social Christian Party or PSC) [Joelle MILQUET]; Francophone Reformist Movement or MR (used to be Liberal Reformation Party or PRL) [Antoine DUQUESNE]; Francophone Socialist Party or PS [Elio DI RUPO]; National Front or FN [Daniel FERET]; New Flemish Alliance or NVA [Geert BOURGEOIS]; note - new party that emerged after the demise of the People's Union or VU; Social Progressive Alternative Party or SP.A [Steve STEVAERT]; note - was Flemish Socialist Party or SP; Spirit [Els VAN WEERT]; note - new party that emerged after the demise of the People's Union or VU; Vlaams Blok or VB [Frank VANHECKE]; other minor parties
Belgium Political pressure groups and leaders Christian and Socialist Trade Unions; Federation of Belgian Industries; numerous other associations representing bankers, manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the legal and medical professions; various organizations represent the cultural interests of Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such as Pax Christi and groups representing immigrants
Belgium International organization participation ACCT, AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WADB (nonregional), WCL, WCO, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC
Belgium Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Franciskus VAN DAELE chancery: 3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York FAX: [1] (202) 333-3079 telephone: [1] (202) 333-6900
Belgium Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen Franklin BRAUER embassy: Regentlaan 27 Boulevard du Regent, B-1000 Brussels mailing address: PSC 82, Box 002, APO AE 09710 telephone: [32] (2) 508-2111 FAX: [32] (2) 511-2725
Belgium Flag description three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), yellow, and red; the design was based on the flag of France
Belgium Economy - overview This modern private enterprise economy has capitalized on its central geographic location, highly developed transport network, and diversified industrial and commercial base. Industry is concentrated mainly in the populous Flemish area in the north. With few natural resources, Belgium must import substantial quantities of raw materials and export a large volume of manufactures, making its economy unusually dependent on the state of world markets. Roughly three-quarters of its trade is with other EU countries. Public debt is about 100% of GDP, and the government has succeeded in balancing its budget. Belgium, together with 11 of its EU partners, began circulating the euro currency in January 2002. Economic growth in 2001-03 dropped sharply due to the global economic slowdown. Prospects for 2004 again depend largely on recovery in the EU and the US.
Belgium GDP purchasing power parity - $299.7 billion (2002 est.)
Belgium GDP - real growth rate 0.7% (2002 est.)
Belgium GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $29,200 (2002 est.)
Belgium GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 1.3% industry: 24.4% services: 74.3% (2001)
Belgium Population below poverty line 4%
Belgium Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3.2% highest 10%: 23% (1996)
Belgium Distribution of family income - Gini index 28.7 (1996)
Belgium Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.7% (2002 est.)
Belgium Labor force 4.44 million (2001)
Belgium Labor force - by occupation services 73%, industry 25%, agriculture 2% (1999 est.)
Belgium Unemployment rate 7.2% (2002 est.)
Belgium Budget revenues: $113.4 billion expenditures: $106 billion, including capital expenditures of $7.17 billion (2000)
Belgium Industries engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly, processed food and beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles, glass, petroleum, coal
Belgium Industrial production growth rate 4.5% (2000 est.)
Belgium Electricity - production 74.28 billion kWh (2001)
Belgium Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 38.4% hydro: 0.6% other: 1.8% (2001) nuclear: 59.3%
Belgium Electricity - consumption 78.18 billion kWh (2001)
Belgium Electricity - exports 6.712 billion kWh (2001)
Belgium Electricity - imports 15.82 billion kWh (2001)
Belgium Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Belgium Oil - consumption 595,100 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Belgium Oil - exports 450,000 bbl/day (2001)
Belgium Oil - imports 1.042 million bbl/day (2001)
Belgium Natural gas - production 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Belgium Natural gas - consumption 15.5 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Belgium Natural gas - exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Belgium Natural gas - imports 15.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Belgium Agriculture - products sugar beets, fresh vegetables, fruits, grain, tobacco; beef, veal, pork, milk
Belgium Exports $162 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Belgium Exports - commodities machinery and equipment, chemicals, diamonds, metals and metal products, foodstuffs
Belgium Exports - partners Germany 18.6%, France 16.3%, Netherlands 11.6%, UK 9.6%, US 7.9%, Italy 5.4% (2002)
Belgium Imports $152 billion f.o.b. (2001)
Belgium Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals and metal products, foodstuffs
Belgium Imports - partners Germany 17.2%, Netherlands 15.6%, France 12.8%, UK 7.3%, Ireland 7%, US 6.4%, Italy 4% (2002)
Belgium Debt - external $28.3 billion (1999 est.)
Belgium Economic aid - donor ODA, $764 million (1997)
Belgium Currency euro (EUR) note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Belgium Currency code EUR
Belgium Exchange rates euros per US dollar - 1.06 (2002), 1.12 (2001), 1.09 (2000), 0.94 (1999), 36.3 (1998)
Belgium Fiscal year calendar year
Belgium Telephones - main lines in use 4.769 million (1997)
Belgium Telephones - mobile cellular 974,494 (1997)
Belgium Telephone system general assessment: highly developed, technologically advanced, and completely automated domestic and international telephone and telegraph facilities domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; extensive cable network; limited microwave radio relay network international: 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat
Belgium Radio broadcast stations FM 79, AM 7, shortwave 1 (1998)
Belgium Television broadcast stations 25 (plus 10 repeaters) (1997)
Belgium Internet country code .be
Belgium Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 61 (2000)
Belgium Internet users 3.76 million (2002)
Belgium Railways total: 3,471 km standard gauge: 3,471 km 1.435-m gauge (2,631 km electrified) (2002)
Belgium Highways total: 148,216 km paved: 116,687 km (including 1,727 km of expressways) unpaved: 31,529 km (2000)
Belgium Waterways 1,570 km (route length in regular commercial use) (2001)
Belgium Pipelines gas 1,485 km; oil 158 km; refined products 535 km (2003)
Belgium Ports and harbors Antwerp (one of the world's busiest ports), Brugge, Gent, Hasselt, Liege, Mons, Namur, Oostende, Zeebrugge
Belgium Merchant marine total: 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 32,215 GRT/55,725 DWT ships by type: cargo 6, chemical tanker 10, petroleum tanker 4, includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Finland 1, Netherlands 3 (2002 est.)
Belgium Airports 42 (2002)
Belgium Airports - with paved runways total: 25 over 3,047 m: 6 2,438 to 3,047 m: 8 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 7 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
Belgium Airports - with unpaved runways total: 17 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m: 15 (2002)
Belgium Heliports 1 (2002)
Belgium Military branches Army, Navy, Air Components, Federal Police
Belgium Military manpower - military age 19 years of age (2003 est.)
Belgium Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,497,423 (2003 est.)
Belgium Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 2,059,131 (2003 est.)
Belgium Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 60,921 (2003 est.)
Belgium Military expenditures - dollar figure $3.077 billion (FY01/02)
Belgium Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.4% (FY01/02)
Belgium Disputes - international none
Belgium Illicit drugs growing producer of synthetic drugs; transit point for US-bound ecstasy; source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors; transshipment point for cocaine, heroin, hashish, and marijuana entering Western Europe; money laundering related to trafficking of drugs, automobiles, alcohol, and tobacco
Belize Background Territorial disputes between the UK and Guatemala delayed the independence of Belize (formerly British Honduras) until 1981. Guatemala refused to recognize the new nation until 1992. Tourism has become the mainstay of the economy. The country remains plagued by high unemployment, growing involvement in the South American drug trade, and increased urban crime.
Belize Location Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and Mexico
Belize Geographic coordinates 17 15 N, 88 45 W
Belize Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Belize Area total: 22,966 sq km water: 160 sq km land: 22,806 sq km
Belize Area - comparative slightly smaller than Massachusetts
Belize Land boundaries total: 516 km border countries: Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km
Belize Coastline 386 km
Belize Maritime claims exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM in the north, 3 NM in the south; note - from the mouth of the Sarstoon River to Ranguana Cay, Belize's territorial sea is 3 NM; according to Belize's Maritime Areas Act, 1992, the purpose of this limitation is to provide a framework for the negotiation of a definitive agreement on territorial differences with Guatemala
Belize Climate tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to November); dry season (February to May)
Belize Terrain flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south
Belize Elevation extremes lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Victoria Peak 1,160 m
Belize Natural resources arable land potential, timber, fish, hydropower
Belize Land use arable land: 2.81% permanent crops: 1.1% other: 96.09% (1998 est.)
Belize Irrigated land 30 sq km (1998 est.)
Belize Natural hazards frequent, devastating hurricanes (June to November) and coastal flooding (especially in south)
Belize Environment - current issues deforestation; water pollution from sewage, industrial effluents, agricultural runoff; solid and sewage waste disposal
Belize Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Belize Geography - note only country in Central America without a coastline on the North Pacific Ocean
Belize Population 266,440 (July 2003 est.)
Belize Age structure 0-14 years: 41.1% (male 55,880; female 53,706) 15-64 years: 55.3% (male 74,612; female 72,813) 65 years and over: 3.5% (male 4,571; female 4,858) (2003 est.)
Belize Median age total: 18.9 years male: 18.8 years female: 19 years (2002)
Belize Population growth rate 2.44% (2003 est.)
Belize Birth rate 30.46 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Belize Death rate 6.05 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Belize Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Belize Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Belize Infant mortality rate total: 27.07 deaths/1,000 live births female: 23.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 30.56 deaths/1,000 live births
Belize Life expectancy at birth total population: 67.36 years male: 65.19 years female: 69.63 years (2003 est.)
Belize Total fertility rate 3.86 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Belize HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 2% (2001 est.)
Belize HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 2,500 (2001 est.)
Belize HIV/AIDS - deaths 300 (2001 est.)
Belize Nationality noun: Belizean(s) adjective: Belizean
Belize Ethnic groups mestizo 48.7%, Creole 24.9%, Maya 10.6%, Garifuna 6.1%, other 9.7%
Belize Religions Roman Catholic 49.6%, Protestant 27% (Anglican 5.3%, Methodist 3.5%, Mennonite 4.1%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5.2%, Pentecostal 7.4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.5%), none 9.4%, other 14% (2000)
Belize Languages English (official), Spanish, Mayan, Garifuna (Carib), Creole
Belize Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 94.1% male: 94.1% female: 94.1% (2003 est.)
Belize Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Belize former: British Honduras
Belize Government type parliamentary democracy
Belize Capital Belmopan
Belize Administrative divisions 6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo
Belize Independence 21 September 1981 (from UK)
Belize National holiday Independence Day, 21 September (1981)
Belize Constitution 21 September 1981
Belize Legal system English law
Belize Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Belize Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Colville YOUNG, Sr. (since 17 November 1993) head of government: Prime Minister Said Wilbert MUSA (since 28 August 1998); Deputy Prime Minister John BRICENO (since 1 September 1998) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister
Belize Legislative branch bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (12 members appointed by the governor general - six on the advice of the prime minister, three on the advice of the leader of the opposition, and one each on the advice of the Belize Council of Churches and Evangelical Association of Churches, the Belize Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the Belize Better Business Bureau, and the National Trade Union Congress and the Civil Society Steering Committee; members are appointed for five-year terms) and the House of Representatives (29 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: House of Representatives - last held 5 March 2003 (next to be held NA March 2008) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PUP 21, UDP 8
Belize Judicial branch Supreme Court (the chief justice is appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister)
Belize Political parties and leaders People's United Party or PUP [Said MUSA]; United Democratic Party or UDP [Dean BARROW, party leader; Douglas SINGH, party chairman]
Belize Political pressure groups and leaders Society for the Promotion of Education and Research or SPEAR [Adele CATZIM]
Belize International organization participation ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Belize Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Lisa M. SHOMAN consulate(s) general: Los Angeles FAX: [1] (202) 332-6888 telephone: [1] (202) 332-9636 chancery: 2535 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Belize Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Russell F. FREEMAN embassy: 29 Gabourel Lane and Hutson Street, Belize City mailing address: P. O. Box 286, Unit 7401, APO AA 34025 telephone: [501] 227-7161 through 7163 FAX: [501] 30802
Belize Flag description blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the bottom edges; centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms; the coat of arms features a shield flanked by two workers in front of a mahogany tree with the related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I Flourish in the Shade) on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a green garland
Belize Economy - overview In this small, essentially private enterprise economy the tourism industry is the number one foreign exchange earner followed by cane sugar, citrus, marine products, bananas, and garments. The government's expansionary monetary and fiscal policies, initiated in September 1998, led to GDP growth of 6.5% in 1999, 10.8% in 2000, 4.6% in 2001, and 3.7% in 2002. Major concerns continue to be the sizable trade deficit and foreign debt. A key short-term objective remains the reduction of poverty with the help of international donors.
Belize GDP purchasing power parity - $1.28 billion (2002 est.)
Belize GDP - real growth rate 3.7% (2002 est.)
Belize GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $4,900 (2002 est.)
Belize GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 18% industry: 24% services: 58% (2001 est.)
Belize Population below poverty line 33% (1999 est.)
Belize Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Belize Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.9% (2002 est.)
Belize Labor force 90,000 note: shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical personnel
Belize Labor force - by occupation agriculture 27%, industry 18%, services 55% (2001 est.)
Belize Unemployment rate 9.1% (2002)
Belize Budget revenues: $224 million expenditures: $209 million, including capital expenditures of $70 million (2002 est.)
Belize Industries garment production, food processing, tourism, construction
Belize Industrial production growth rate 4.6% (1999)
Belize Electricity - production 199.5 million kWh (2001)
Belize Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 59.9% hydro: 40.1% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Belize Electricity - consumption 185.5 million kWh (2001)
Belize Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Belize Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Belize Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Belize Oil - consumption 5,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Belize Oil - exports NA (2001)
Belize Oil - imports NA (2001)
Belize Agriculture - products bananas, coca, citrus, sugar; fish, cultured shrimp; lumber; garments
Belize Exports $290 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Belize Exports - commodities sugar, bananas, citrus, clothing, fish products, molasses, wood
Belize Exports - partners US 40.5%, UK 23.2%, Peru 8.3% (2002)
Belize Imports $430 million c.i.f. (2002 est.)
Belize Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods; fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals; food, beverages, tobacco
Belize Imports - partners US 35.7%, Mexico 10.1%, Netherlands Antilles 6.1%, Japan 5.9%, Cuba 5.7%, UK 5.4% (2002)
Belize Debt - external $475 million (2001 est.)
Belize Economic aid - recipient $NA
Belize Currency Belizean dollar (BZD)
Belize Currency code BZD
Belize Exchange rates Belizean dollars per US dollar - 2 (2002), 2 (2001), 2 (2000), 2 (1999), 2 (1998)
Belize Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Belize Telephones - main lines in use 31,000 (1997)
Belize Telephones - mobile cellular 3,023 (1997)
Belize Telephone system general assessment: above-average system domestic: trunk network depends primarily on microwave radio relay international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Belize Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 12, shortwave 0 (1998)
Belize Television broadcast stations 2 (1997)
Belize Internet country code .bz
Belize Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 2 (2000)
Belize Internet users 18,000 (2002)
Belize Railways 0 km
Belize Highways total: 2,872 km paved: 488 km unpaved: 2,384 km (1999 est.)
Belize Waterways 825 km (river network used by shallow-draft craft; seasonally navigable)
Belize Ports and harbors Belize City, Big Creek, Corozol, Punta Gorda
Belize Merchant marine total: 292 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,030,141 GRT/1,499,777 DWT ships by type: bulk 15, cargo 200, chemical tanker 7, combination ore/oil 1, container 12, petroleum tanker 31, refrigerated cargo 18, roll on/roll off 5, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 1 note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Albania 2, Belgium 3, British Virgin Islands 6, Cambodia 1, China 38, Cyprus 1, Ecuador 1, Egypt 1, Equatorial Guinea 1, Eritrea 1, Estonia 7, Germany 3, Greece 4, Grenada 1, Honduras 1, Hong Kong 20, Indonesia 6, Italy 2, Japan 4, Jordan 1, Lebanon 1, Liberia 5, Malaysia 3, Malta 2, Man, Isle of 1, Marshall Islands 13, Mexico 1, Netherlands 1, Nigeria 1, Panama 12, Philippines 4, Portugal 1, Romania 1, Russia 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Saudi Arabia 1, Singapore 22, South Korea 10, Spain 4, Switzerland 1, Taiwan 1, Thailand 6, Tunisia 1, Turkey 1, Ukraine 3, United Arab Emirates 9, United Kingdom 2, United States 4, Virgin Islands (UK) 6, Yemen 1 (2002 est.)
Belize Airports 42 (2002)
Belize Airports - with paved runways total: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Belize Airports - with unpaved runways total: 38 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 10 under 914 m: 27 (2002)
Belize Military branches Belize Defense Force (includes Army, Maritime Wing, Air Wing, and Volunteer Guard)
Belize Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Belize Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 66,332 (2003 est.)
Belize Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 39,337 (2003 est.)
Belize Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 3,046 (2003 est.)
Belize Military expenditures - dollar figure $7.7 million (FY00/01)
Belize Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.87% (FY00/01)
Belize Disputes - international Guatemala has claimed half of southern Belize; Guatemalan squatters continue to settle along the border despite a 2000 agreement; OAS brokered a Differendum in 2002 that created a small adjustment to land boundary, a large Guatemalan maritime corridor in the Caribbean, a joint ecological park for disputed Sapodilla Cays, and a substantial US-UK financial package, but agreement was not brought to a popular referendum
Belize Illicit drugs major transshipment point for cocaine; small-scale illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; some money-laundering activity related to offshore sector
Belize Background Territorial disputes between the UK and Guatemala delayed the independence of Belize (formerly British Honduras) until 1981. Guatemala refused to recognize the new nation until 1992. Tourism has become the mainstay of the economy. The country remains plagued by high unemployment, growing involvement in the South American drug trade, and increased urban crime.
Belize Location Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and Mexico
Belize Geographic coordinates 17 15 N, 88 45 W
Belize Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Belize Area total: 22,966 sq km water: 160 sq km land: 22,806 sq km
Belize Area - comparative slightly smaller than Massachusetts
Belize Land boundaries total: 516 km border countries: Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km
Belize Coastline 386 km
Belize Maritime claims exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM in the north, 3 NM in the south; note - from the mouth of the Sarstoon River to Ranguana Cay, Belize's territorial sea is 3 NM; according to Belize's Maritime Areas Act, 1992, the purpose of this limitation is to provide a framework for the negotiation of a definitive agreement on territorial differences with Guatemala
Belize Climate tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to November); dry season (February to May)
Belize Terrain flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south
Belize Elevation extremes lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Victoria Peak 1,160 m
Belize Natural resources arable land potential, timber, fish, hydropower
Belize Land use arable land: 2.81% permanent crops: 1.1% other: 96.09% (1998 est.)
Belize Irrigated land 30 sq km (1998 est.)
Belize Natural hazards frequent, devastating hurricanes (June to November) and coastal flooding (especially in south)
Belize Environment - current issues deforestation; water pollution from sewage, industrial effluents, agricultural runoff; solid and sewage waste disposal
Belize Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Belize Geography - note only country in Central America without a coastline on the North Pacific Ocean
Belize Population 266,440 (July 2003 est.)
Belize Age structure 0-14 years: 41.1% (male 55,880; female 53,706) 15-64 years: 55.3% (male 74,612; female 72,813) 65 years and over: 3.5% (male 4,571; female 4,858) (2003 est.)
Belize Median age total: 18.9 years male: 18.8 years female: 19 years (2002)
Belize Population growth rate 2.44% (2003 est.)
Belize Birth rate 30.46 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Belize Death rate 6.05 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Belize Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Belize Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Belize Infant mortality rate total: 27.07 deaths/1,000 live births female: 23.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 30.56 deaths/1,000 live births
Belize Life expectancy at birth total population: 67.36 years male: 65.19 years female: 69.63 years (2003 est.)
Belize Total fertility rate 3.86 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Belize HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 2% (2001 est.)
Belize HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 2,500 (2001 est.)
Belize HIV/AIDS - deaths 300 (2001 est.)
Belize Nationality noun: Belizean(s) adjective: Belizean
Belize Ethnic groups mestizo 48.7%, Creole 24.9%, Maya 10.6%, Garifuna 6.1%, other 9.7%
Belize Religions Roman Catholic 49.6%, Protestant 27% (Anglican 5.3%, Methodist 3.5%, Mennonite 4.1%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5.2%, Pentecostal 7.4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.5%), none 9.4%, other 14% (2000)
Belize Languages English (official), Spanish, Mayan, Garifuna (Carib), Creole
Belize Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 94.1% male: 94.1% female: 94.1% (2003 est.)
Belize Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Belize former: British Honduras
Belize Government type parliamentary democracy
Belize Capital Belmopan
Belize Administrative divisions 6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo
Belize Independence 21 September 1981 (from UK)
Belize National holiday Independence Day, 21 September (1981)
Belize Constitution 21 September 1981
Belize Legal system English law
Belize Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Belize Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Colville YOUNG, Sr. (since 17 November 1993) head of government: Prime Minister Said Wilbert MUSA (since 28 August 1998); Deputy Prime Minister John BRICENO (since 1 September 1998) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister
Belize Legislative branch bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (12 members appointed by the governor general - six on the advice of the prime minister, three on the advice of the leader of the opposition, and one each on the advice of the Belize Council of Churches and Evangelical Association of Churches, the Belize Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the Belize Better Business Bureau, and the National Trade Union Congress and the Civil Society Steering Committee; members are appointed for five-year terms) and the House of Representatives (29 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: House of Representatives - last held 5 March 2003 (next to be held NA March 2008) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PUP 21, UDP 8
Belize Judicial branch Supreme Court (the chief justice is appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister)
Belize Political parties and leaders People's United Party or PUP [Said MUSA]; United Democratic Party or UDP [Dean BARROW, party leader; Douglas SINGH, party chairman]
Belize Political pressure groups and leaders Society for the Promotion of Education and Research or SPEAR [Adele CATZIM]
Belize International organization participation ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Belize Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Lisa M. SHOMAN consulate(s) general: Los Angeles FAX: [1] (202) 332-6888 telephone: [1] (202) 332-9636 chancery: 2535 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Belize Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Russell F. FREEMAN embassy: 29 Gabourel Lane and Hutson Street, Belize City mailing address: P. O. Box 286, Unit 7401, APO AA 34025 telephone: [501] 227-7161 through 7163 FAX: [501] 30802
Belize Flag description blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the bottom edges; centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms; the coat of arms features a shield flanked by two workers in front of a mahogany tree with the related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I Flourish in the Shade) on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a green garland
Belize Economy - overview In this small, essentially private enterprise economy the tourism industry is the number one foreign exchange earner followed by cane sugar, citrus, marine products, bananas, and garments. The government's expansionary monetary and fiscal policies, initiated in September 1998, led to GDP growth of 6.5% in 1999, 10.8% in 2000, 4.6% in 2001, and 3.7% in 2002. Major concerns continue to be the sizable trade deficit and foreign debt. A key short-term objective remains the reduction of poverty with the help of international donors.
Belize GDP purchasing power parity - $1.28 billion (2002 est.)
Belize GDP - real growth rate 3.7% (2002 est.)
Belize GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $4,900 (2002 est.)
Belize GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 18% industry: 24% services: 58% (2001 est.)
Belize Population below poverty line 33% (1999 est.)
Belize Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Belize Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.9% (2002 est.)
Belize Labor force 90,000 note: shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical personnel
Belize Labor force - by occupation agriculture 27%, industry 18%, services 55% (2001 est.)
Belize Unemployment rate 9.1% (2002)
Belize Budget revenues: $224 million expenditures: $209 million, including capital expenditures of $70 million (2002 est.)
Belize Industries garment production, food processing, tourism, construction
Belize Industrial production growth rate 4.6% (1999)
Belize Electricity - production 199.5 million kWh (2001)
Belize Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 59.9% hydro: 40.1% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Belize Electricity - consumption 185.5 million kWh (2001)
Belize Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Belize Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Belize Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Belize Oil - consumption 5,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Belize Oil - exports NA (2001)
Belize Oil - imports NA (2001)
Belize Agriculture - products bananas, coca, citrus, sugar; fish, cultured shrimp; lumber; garments
Belize Exports $290 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Belize Exports - commodities sugar, bananas, citrus, clothing, fish products, molasses, wood
Belize Exports - partners US 40.5%, UK 23.2%, Peru 8.3% (2002)
Belize Imports $430 million c.i.f. (2002 est.)
Belize Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods; fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals; food, beverages, tobacco
Belize Imports - partners US 35.7%, Mexico 10.1%, Netherlands Antilles 6.1%, Japan 5.9%, Cuba 5.7%, UK 5.4% (2002)
Belize Debt - external $475 million (2001 est.)
Belize Economic aid - recipient $NA
Belize Currency Belizean dollar (BZD)
Belize Currency code BZD
Belize Exchange rates Belizean dollars per US dollar - 2 (2002), 2 (2001), 2 (2000), 2 (1999), 2 (1998)
Belize Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Belize Telephones - main lines in use 31,000 (1997)
Belize Telephones - mobile cellular 3,023 (1997)
Belize Telephone system general assessment: above-average system domestic: trunk network depends primarily on microwave radio relay international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Belize Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 12, shortwave 0 (1998)
Belize Television broadcast stations 2 (1997)
Belize Internet country code .bz
Belize Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 2 (2000)
Belize Internet users 18,000 (2002)
Belize Railways 0 km
Belize Highways total: 2,872 km paved: 488 km unpaved: 2,384 km (1999 est.)
Belize Waterways 825 km (river network used by shallow-draft craft; seasonally navigable)
Belize Ports and harbors Belize City, Big Creek, Corozol, Punta Gorda
Belize Merchant marine total: 292 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,030,141 GRT/1,499,777 DWT ships by type: bulk 15, cargo 200, chemical tanker 7, combination ore/oil 1, container 12, petroleum tanker 31, refrigerated cargo 18, roll on/roll off 5, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 1 note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Albania 2, Belgium 3, British Virgin Islands 6, Cambodia 1, China 38, Cyprus 1, Ecuador 1, Egypt 1, Equatorial Guinea 1, Eritrea 1, Estonia 7, Germany 3, Greece 4, Grenada 1, Honduras 1, Hong Kong 20, Indonesia 6, Italy 2, Japan 4, Jordan 1, Lebanon 1, Liberia 5, Malaysia 3, Malta 2, Man, Isle of 1, Marshall Islands 13, Mexico 1, Netherlands 1, Nigeria 1, Panama 12, Philippines 4, Portugal 1, Romania 1, Russia 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Saudi Arabia 1, Singapore 22, South Korea 10, Spain 4, Switzerland 1, Taiwan 1, Thailand 6, Tunisia 1, Turkey 1, Ukraine 3, United Arab Emirates 9, United Kingdom 2, United States 4, Virgin Islands (UK) 6, Yemen 1 (2002 est.)
Belize Airports 42 (2002)
Belize Airports - with paved runways total: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Belize Airports - with unpaved runways total: 38 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 10 under 914 m: 27 (2002)
Belize Military branches Belize Defense Force (includes Army, Maritime Wing, Air Wing, and Volunteer Guard)
Belize Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Belize Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 66,332 (2003 est.)
Belize Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 39,337 (2003 est.)
Belize Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 3,046 (2003 est.)
Belize Military expenditures - dollar figure $7.7 million (FY00/01)
Belize Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.87% (FY00/01)
Belize Disputes - international Guatemala has claimed half of southern Belize; Guatemalan squatters continue to settle along the border despite a 2000 agreement; OAS brokered a Differendum in 2002 that created a small adjustment to land boundary, a large Guatemalan maritime corridor in the Caribbean, a joint ecological park for disputed Sapodilla Cays, and a substantial US-UK financial package, but agreement was not brought to a popular referendum
Belize Illicit drugs major transshipment point for cocaine; small-scale illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; some money-laundering activity related to offshore sector
Benin Background Present day Benin was the site of Dahomey, a prominent West African kingdom that rose in the 15th century. The territory became a French Colony in 1872 and achieved independence on 1 August 1960, as the Republic of Benin. A succession of military governments ended in 1972 with the rise to power of Mathieu KEREKOU and the establishment of a government based on Marxist-Leninist principles. A move to representative government began in 1989. Two years later, free elections ushered in former Prime Minister Nicephore SOGLO as president, marking the first successful transfer of power in Africa from a dictatorship to a democracy. KEREKOU was returned to power by elections held in 1996 and 2001, though some irregularities were alleged.
Benin Location Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Nigeria and Togo
Benin Geographic coordinates 9 30 N, 2 15 E
Benin Map references Africa
Benin Area total: 112,620 sq km water: 2,000 sq km land: 110,620 sq km
Benin Area - comparative slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Benin Land boundaries total: 1,989 km border countries: Burkina Faso 306 km, Niger 266 km, Nigeria 773 km, Togo 644 km
Benin Coastline 121 km
Benin Maritime claims territorial sea: 200 NM
Benin Climate tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Benin Terrain mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains
Benin Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mont Sokbaro 658 m
Benin Natural resources small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble, timber
Benin Land use arable land: 15.28% permanent crops: 1.36% other: 83.36% (1998 est.)
Benin Irrigated land 120 sq km (1998 est.)
Benin Natural hazards hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north from December to March
Benin Environment - current issues inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching threatens wildlife populations; deforestation; desertification
Benin Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Benin Geography - note sandbanks create difficult access to a coast with no natural harbors, river mouths, or islands
Benin Population 7,041,490 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2003 est.)
Benin Age structure 0-14 years: 47% (male 1,668,817; female 1,638,291) 15-64 years: 50.7% (male 1,739,517; female 1,834,231) 65 years and over: 2.3% (male 67,504; female 93,130) (2003 est.)
Benin Median age total: 16.4 years male: 15.9 years female: 16.9 years (2002)
Benin Population growth rate 2.95% (2003 est.)
Benin Birth rate 43.15 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Benin Death rate 13.65 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Benin Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Benin Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Benin Infant mortality rate total: 86.76 deaths/1,000 live births female: 81.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 91.79 deaths/1,000 live births
Benin Life expectancy at birth total population: 51.08 years male: 50.35 years female: 51.84 years (2003 est.)
Benin Total fertility rate 6.04 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Benin HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 3.6% (2001 est.)
Benin HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 120,000 (2001 est.)
Benin HIV/AIDS - deaths 8,100 (2001 est.)
Benin Nationality noun: Beninese (singular and plural) adjective: Beninese
Benin Ethnic groups African 99% (42 ethnic groups, most important being Fon, Adja, Yoruba, Bariba), Europeans 5,500
Benin Religions indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 30%, Muslim 20%
Benin Languages French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common vernaculars in south), tribal languages (at least six major ones in north)
Benin Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 40.9% male: 56.2% female: 26.5% (2000)
Benin Country name conventional long form: Republic of Benin conventional short form: Benin local short form: Benin former: Dahomey local long form: Republique du Benin
Benin Government type republic under multiparty democratic rule; dropped Marxism-Leninism December 1989; democratic reforms adopted February 1990; transition to multiparty system completed 4 April 1991
Benin Capital Porto-Novo is the official capital; Cotonou is the seat of government
Benin Administrative divisions 12 departments; Alibori, Atakora, Atlantique, Borgou, Collines, Kouffo, Donga, Littoral, Mono, Oueme, Plateau, Zou
Benin Independence 1 August 1960 (from France)
Benin National holiday National Day, 1 August (1960)
Benin Constitution December 1990
Benin Legal system based on French civil law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Benin Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Benin Executive branch chief of state: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 April 1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 April 1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections: president reelected by popular vote for a five-year term; runoff election held 22 March 2001 (next to be held NA March 2006) note: the four top-ranking contenders following the first-round presidential elections were: Mathieu KEREKOU (incumbent) 45.4%, Nicephore SOGOLO (former president) 27.1%, Adrien HOUNGBEDJI (National Assembly Speaker) 12.6%, and Bruno AMOUSSOU (Minister of State) 8.6%; the second-round balloting, originally scheduled for 18 March 2001, was postponed four days because both SOGOLO and HOUNGBEDJI withdrew alleging electoral fraud; this left KEREKOU to run against his own Minister of State, AMOUSSOU, in what was termed a "friendly match" election results: Mathieu KEREKOU reelected president; percent of vote - Mathieu KEREKOU 84.1%, Bruno AMOUSSOU 15.9%
Benin Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (83 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms) election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Presidential Movement 52, opposition (PRB, PRD, E'toile, and 5 other small parties) 31 elections: last held 30 March 2003 (next to be held NA March 2007)
Benin Judicial branch Constitutional Court or Cour Constitutionnelle; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; High Court of Justice
Benin Political parties and leaders African Congress for Renewal or DUNYA [Saka SALEY]; African Movement for Democracy and Progress or MADEP [Sefou FAGBOHOUN]; Alliance of the Social Democratic Party or PSD [Bruno AMOUSSOU]; Coalition of Democratic Forces [Gatien HOUNGBEDJI]; Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Adrien HOUNGBEDJI]; Front for Renewal and Development or FARD-ALAFIA [Jerome Sakia KINA]; Impulse for Progress and Democracy or IPD [Bertin BORNA]; Key Force or FC [leader NA]; Presidential Movement (UBF, MADEP, FC, IDP, and 4 other small parties); Renaissance Party du Benin or PRB [Nicephore SOGLO]; The Star Alliance (Alliance E'toile) [Sacca LAFIA]; Union of Tomorrow's Benin or UBF [Bruno AMOUSSOU] note: approximately 20 additional minor parties
Benin Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Benin International organization participation ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Benin Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Cyrille Segbe OGUIN FAX: [1] (202) 265-1996 telephone: [1] (202) 232-6656 chancery: 2124 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
Benin Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Wayne NEILL embassy: Rue Caporal Bernard Anani, Cotonou mailing address: 01 B. P. 2012, Cotonou telephone: [229] 30-06-50 FAX: [229] 30-06-70
Benin Flag description two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red with a vertical green band on the hoist side
Benin Economy - overview The economy of Benin remains underdeveloped and dependent on subsistence agriculture, cotton production, and regional trade. Growth in real output has averaged a stable 5% in the past six years, but rapid population rise has offset much of this increase. Inflation has subsided over the past several years. In order to raise growth still further, Benin plans to attract more foreign investment, place more emphasis on tourism, facilitate the development of new food processing systems and agricultural products, and encourage new information and communication technology. The 2001 privatization policy should continue in telecommunications, water, electricity, and agriculture in spite of initial government reluctance. The Paris Club and bilateral creditors have eased the external debt situation, while pressing for speeded-up structural reforms.
Benin GDP purchasing power parity - $7.38 billion (2002 est.)
Benin GDP - real growth rate 6% (2002 est.)
Benin GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,100 (2002 est.)
Benin GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 38% industry: 15% services: 47% (2002 est.)
Benin Population below poverty line 37% (2001 est.)
Benin Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Benin Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.3% (2002 est.)
Benin Labor force NA
Benin Unemployment rate NA%
Benin Budget revenues: $377.4 million expenditures: $561.8 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001)
Benin Industries textiles, food processing, chemical production, construction materials (2001)
Benin Industrial production growth rate 8.3% (2001 est.)
Benin Electricity - production 274.3 million kWh (2001)
Benin Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 14.2% hydro: 85.8% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Benin Electricity - consumption 631.1 million kWh (2001)
Benin Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Benin Electricity - imports 376 million kWh (2001)
Benin Oil - production 700 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Benin Oil - consumption 11,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Benin Oil - exports NA (2001)
Benin Oil - imports NA (2001)
Benin Oil - proved reserves 4.105 million bbl (37257)
Benin Natural gas - proved reserves 608.8 million cu m (37257)
Benin Agriculture - products cotton, corn, cassava (tapioca), yams, beans, palm oil, peanuts, livestock (2001)
Benin Exports $207 million f.o.b. (2002)
Benin Exports - commodities cotton, crude oil, palm products, cocoa
Benin Exports - partners India 25%, Italy 11.1%, Indonesia 7.4%, China 7.2%, Thailand 6.7%, Brazil 6.1%, UK 4.4%, Niger 4% (2002)
Benin Imports $479 million c.i.f. (2002)
Benin Imports - commodities foodstuffs, capital goods, petroleum products
Benin Imports - partners China 30.7%, France 15.7%, UK 4.8%, Italy 4.2% (2002)
Benin Debt - external $1.6 billion (2000)
Benin Economic aid - recipient $342.6 million (2000)
Benin Currency Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Benin Currency code XOF
Benin Exchange rates Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 696.99 (2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.7 (1999), 589.95 (1998)
Benin Fiscal year calendar year
Benin Telephones - main lines in use 51,000 (2000)
Benin Telephones - mobile cellular 55,500 (2000)
Benin Telephone system general assessment: NA domestic: fair system of open-wire, microwave radio relay, and cellular connections international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); submarine cable
Benin Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (2000)
Benin Television broadcast stations 1;; (2001)
Benin Internet country code .bj
Benin Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 4 (2002)
Benin Internet users 25,000 (2002)
Benin Railways total: 578 km narrow gauge: 578 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)
Benin Highways total: 6,787 km paved: 1,357 km (including 10 km of expressways) unpaved: 5,430 km (1999 est.)
Benin Waterways streams navigable along small sections, important only locally
Benin Ports and harbors Cotonou, Porto-Novo
Benin Merchant marine none (2002 est.)
Benin Airports 5 (2002)
Benin Airports - with paved runways total: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)
Benin Airports - with unpaved runways total: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2002)
Benin Military branches Armed Forces (including Army, Navy, Air Force), National Gendarmerie
Benin Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Benin Military manpower - availability note: both sexes are liable for military service females age 15-49: 1,536,036 (2003 est.) males age 15-49: 1,597,562
Benin Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 805,603 females age 15-49: 809,961 (2003 est.)
Benin Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 75,021 females: 78,998 (2003 est.)
Benin Military expenditures - dollar figure $80.8 million (FY02)
Benin Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.7% (FY02)
Benin Disputes - international two villages are in dispute along the border with Burkina Faso; much of Benin-Niger boundary, including tripoint with Nigeria, remains undemarcated, but states accept 2001 arbitration over disputed Niger River islands; several villages along the Okpara River are in dispute with Nigeria; in 2001, Benin claimed Togo moved the boundary stones - joint commission presently resurveying the boundary
Benin Illicit drugs transshipment point for narcotics associated with Nigerian trafficking organizations and most commonly destined for Western Europe and the US; vulnerable to money laundering due to a poorly regulated financial infrastructure
Benin Background Present day Benin was the site of Dahomey, a prominent West African kingdom that rose in the 15th century. The territory became a French Colony in 1872 and achieved independence on 1 August 1960, as the Republic of Benin. A succession of military governments ended in 1972 with the rise to power of Mathieu KEREKOU and the establishment of a government based on Marxist-Leninist principles. A move to representative government began in 1989. Two years later, free elections ushered in former Prime Minister Nicephore SOGLO as president, marking the first successful transfer of power in Africa from a dictatorship to a democracy. KEREKOU was returned to power by elections held in 1996 and 2001, though some irregularities were alleged.
Benin Location Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Nigeria and Togo
Benin Geographic coordinates 9 30 N, 2 15 E
Benin Map references Africa
Benin Area total: 112,620 sq km water: 2,000 sq km land: 110,620 sq km
Benin Area - comparative slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Benin Land boundaries total: 1,989 km border countries: Burkina Faso 306 km, Niger 266 km, Nigeria 773 km, Togo 644 km
Benin Coastline 121 km
Benin Maritime claims territorial sea: 200 NM
Benin Climate tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Benin Terrain mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains
Benin Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mont Sokbaro 658 m
Benin Natural resources small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble, timber
Benin Land use arable land: 15.28% permanent crops: 1.36% other: 83.36% (1998 est.)
Benin Irrigated land 120 sq km (1998 est.)
Benin Natural hazards hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north from December to March
Benin Environment - current issues inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching threatens wildlife populations; deforestation; desertification
Benin Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Benin Geography - note sandbanks create difficult access to a coast with no natural harbors, river mouths, or islands
Benin Population 7,041,490 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2003 est.)
Benin Age structure 0-14 years: 47% (male 1,668,817; female 1,638,291) 15-64 years: 50.7% (male 1,739,517; female 1,834,231) 65 years and over: 2.3% (male 67,504; female 93,130) (2003 est.)
Benin Median age total: 16.4 years male: 15.9 years female: 16.9 years (2002)
Benin Population growth rate 2.95% (2003 est.)
Benin Birth rate 43.15 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Benin Death rate 13.65 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Benin Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Benin Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Benin Infant mortality rate total: 86.76 deaths/1,000 live births female: 81.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 91.79 deaths/1,000 live births
Benin Life expectancy at birth total population: 51.08 years male: 50.35 years female: 51.84 years (2003 est.)
Benin Total fertility rate 6.04 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Benin HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 3.6% (2001 est.)
Benin HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 120,000 (2001 est.)
Benin HIV/AIDS - deaths 8,100 (2001 est.)
Benin Nationality noun: Beninese (singular and plural) adjective: Beninese
Benin Ethnic groups African 99% (42 ethnic groups, most important being Fon, Adja, Yoruba, Bariba), Europeans 5,500
Benin Religions indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 30%, Muslim 20%
Benin Languages French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common vernaculars in south), tribal languages (at least six major ones in north)
Benin Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 40.9% male: 56.2% female: 26.5% (2000)
Benin Country name conventional long form: Republic of Benin conventional short form: Benin local short form: Benin former: Dahomey local long form: Republique du Benin
Benin Government type republic under multiparty democratic rule; dropped Marxism-Leninism December 1989; democratic reforms adopted February 1990; transition to multiparty system completed 4 April 1991
Benin Capital Porto-Novo is the official capital; Cotonou is the seat of government
Benin Administrative divisions 12 departments; Alibori, Atakora, Atlantique, Borgou, Collines, Kouffo, Donga, Littoral, Mono, Oueme, Plateau, Zou
Benin Independence 1 August 1960 (from France)
Benin National holiday National Day, 1 August (1960)
Benin Constitution December 1990
Benin Legal system based on French civil law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Benin Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Benin Executive branch chief of state: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 April 1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 April 1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections: president reelected by popular vote for a five-year term; runoff election held 22 March 2001 (next to be held NA March 2006) note: the four top-ranking contenders following the first-round presidential elections were: Mathieu KEREKOU (incumbent) 45.4%, Nicephore SOGOLO (former president) 27.1%, Adrien HOUNGBEDJI (National Assembly Speaker) 12.6%, and Bruno AMOUSSOU (Minister of State) 8.6%; the second-round balloting, originally scheduled for 18 March 2001, was postponed four days because both SOGOLO and HOUNGBEDJI withdrew alleging electoral fraud; this left KEREKOU to run against his own Minister of State, AMOUSSOU, in what was termed a "friendly match" election results: Mathieu KEREKOU reelected president; percent of vote - Mathieu KEREKOU 84.1%, Bruno AMOUSSOU 15.9%
Benin Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (83 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms) election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Presidential Movement 52, opposition (PRB, PRD, E'toile, and 5 other small parties) 31 elections: last held 30 March 2003 (next to be held NA March 2007)
Benin Judicial branch Constitutional Court or Cour Constitutionnelle; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; High Court of Justice
Benin Political parties and leaders African Congress for Renewal or DUNYA [Saka SALEY]; African Movement for Democracy and Progress or MADEP [Sefou FAGBOHOUN]; Alliance of the Social Democratic Party or PSD [Bruno AMOUSSOU]; Coalition of Democratic Forces [Gatien HOUNGBEDJI]; Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Adrien HOUNGBEDJI]; Front for Renewal and Development or FARD-ALAFIA [Jerome Sakia KINA]; Impulse for Progress and Democracy or IPD [Bertin BORNA]; Key Force or FC [leader NA]; Presidential Movement (UBF, MADEP, FC, IDP, and 4 other small parties); Renaissance Party du Benin or PRB [Nicephore SOGLO]; The Star Alliance (Alliance E'toile) [Sacca LAFIA]; Union of Tomorrow's Benin or UBF [Bruno AMOUSSOU] note: approximately 20 additional minor parties
Benin Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Benin International organization participation ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Benin Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Cyrille Segbe OGUIN FAX: [1] (202) 265-1996 telephone: [1] (202) 232-6656 chancery: 2124 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
Benin Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Wayne NEILL embassy: Rue Caporal Bernard Anani, Cotonou mailing address: 01 B. P. 2012, Cotonou telephone: [229] 30-06-50 FAX: [229] 30-06-70
Benin Flag description two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red with a vertical green band on the hoist side
Benin Economy - overview The economy of Benin remains underdeveloped and dependent on subsistence agriculture, cotton production, and regional trade. Growth in real output has averaged a stable 5% in the past six years, but rapid population rise has offset much of this increase. Inflation has subsided over the past several years. In order to raise growth still further, Benin plans to attract more foreign investment, place more emphasis on tourism, facilitate the development of new food processing systems and agricultural products, and encourage new information and communication technology. The 2001 privatization policy should continue in telecommunications, water, electricity, and agriculture in spite of initial government reluctance. The Paris Club and bilateral creditors have eased the external debt situation, while pressing for speeded-up structural reforms.
Benin GDP purchasing power parity - $7.38 billion (2002 est.)
Benin GDP - real growth rate 6% (2002 est.)
Benin GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,100 (2002 est.)
Benin GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 38% industry: 15% services: 47% (2002 est.)
Benin Population below poverty line 37% (2001 est.)
Benin Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Benin Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.3% (2002 est.)
Benin Labor force NA
Benin Unemployment rate NA%
Benin Budget revenues: $377.4 million expenditures: $561.8 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001)
Benin Industries textiles, food processing, chemical production, construction materials (2001)
Benin Industrial production growth rate 8.3% (2001 est.)
Benin Electricity - production 274.3 million kWh (2001)
Benin Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 14.2% hydro: 85.8% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Benin Electricity - consumption 631.1 million kWh (2001)
Benin Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Benin Electricity - imports 376 million kWh (2001)
Benin Oil - production 700 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Benin Oil - consumption 11,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Benin Oil - exports NA (2001)
Benin Oil - imports NA (2001)
Benin Oil - proved reserves 4.105 million bbl (37257)
Benin Natural gas - proved reserves 608.8 million cu m (37257)
Benin Agriculture - products cotton, corn, cassava (tapioca), yams, beans, palm oil, peanuts, livestock (2001)
Benin Exports $207 million f.o.b. (2002)
Benin Exports - commodities cotton, crude oil, palm products, cocoa
Benin Exports - partners India 25%, Italy 11.1%, Indonesia 7.4%, China 7.2%, Thailand 6.7%, Brazil 6.1%, UK 4.4%, Niger 4% (2002)
Benin Imports $479 million c.i.f. (2002)
Benin Imports - commodities foodstuffs, capital goods, petroleum products
Benin Imports - partners China 30.7%, France 15.7%, UK 4.8%, Italy 4.2% (2002)
Benin Debt - external $1.6 billion (2000)
Benin Economic aid - recipient $342.6 million (2000)
Benin Currency Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Benin Currency code XOF
Benin Exchange rates Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 696.99 (2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.7 (1999), 589.95 (1998)
Benin Fiscal year calendar year
Benin Telephones - main lines in use 51,000 (2000)
Benin Telephones - mobile cellular 55,500 (2000)
Benin Telephone system general assessment: NA domestic: fair system of open-wire, microwave radio relay, and cellular connections international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); submarine cable
Benin Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (2000)
Benin Television broadcast stations 1;; (2001)
Benin Internet country code .bj
Benin Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 4 (2002)
Benin Internet users 25,000 (2002)
Benin Railways total: 578 km narrow gauge: 578 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)
Benin Highways total: 6,787 km paved: 1,357 km (including 10 km of expressways) unpaved: 5,430 km (1999 est.)
Benin Waterways streams navigable along small sections, important only locally
Benin Ports and harbors Cotonou, Porto-Novo
Benin Merchant marine none (2002 est.)
Benin Airports 5 (2002)
Benin Airports - with paved runways total: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)
Benin Airports - with unpaved runways total: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2002)
Benin Military branches Armed Forces (including Army, Navy, Air Force), National Gendarmerie
Benin Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Benin Military manpower - availability note: both sexes are liable for military service females age 15-49: 1,536,036 (2003 est.) males age 15-49: 1,597,562
Benin Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 805,603 females age 15-49: 809,961 (2003 est.)
Benin Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 75,021 females: 78,998 (2003 est.)
Benin Military expenditures - dollar figure $80.8 million (FY02)
Benin Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.7% (FY02)
Benin Disputes - international two villages are in dispute along the border with Burkina Faso; much of Benin-Niger boundary, including tripoint with Nigeria, remains undemarcated, but states accept 2001 arbitration over disputed Niger River islands; several villages along the Okpara River are in dispute with Nigeria; in 2001, Benin claimed Togo moved the boundary stones - joint commission presently resurveying the boundary
Benin Illicit drugs transshipment point for narcotics associated with Nigerian trafficking organizations and most commonly destined for Western Europe and the US; vulnerable to money laundering due to a poorly regulated financial infrastructure
Bermuda Background Bermuda was first settled in 1609 by shipwrecked English colonists headed for Virginia. Tourism to the island to escape North American winters first developed in Victorian times. Tourism continues to be important to the island's economy, although international business has overtaken it in recent years. Bermuda has developed into a highly successful offshore financial center. A referendum on independence was soundly defeated in 1995.
Bermuda Location North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, east of North Carolina (US)
Bermuda Geographic coordinates 32 20 N, 64 45 W
Bermuda Map references North America
Bermuda Area total: 53.3 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 53.3 sq km
Bermuda Area - comparative about one-third the size of Washington, DC
Bermuda Land boundaries 0 km
Bermuda Coastline 103 km
Bermuda Maritime claims exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
Bermuda Climate subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter
Bermuda Terrain low hills separated by fertile depressions
Bermuda Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Town Hill 76 m
Bermuda Natural resources limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism
Bermuda Land use arable land: 6% permanent crops: 0% other: 94% (55% developed, 45% rural/open space) (1998 est.)
Bermuda Irrigated land NA sq km
Bermuda Natural hazards hurricanes (June to November)
Bermuda Environment - current issues asbestos disposal; water pollution; preservation of open space; sustainable development
Bermuda Geography - note consists of about 138 coral islands and islets with ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land was leased by US Government from 1941 to 1995
Bermuda Population 64,482 (July 2003 est.)
Bermuda Age structure 0-14 years: 19.2% (male 6,195; female 6,205) 15-64 years: 69.3% (male 22,110; female 22,574) 65 years and over: 11.5% (male 3,215; female 4,183) (2003 est.)
Bermuda Median age total: 38.7 years male: 37.8 years female: 39.6 years (2002)
Bermuda Population growth rate 0.72% (2003 est.)
Bermuda Birth rate 12.13 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bermuda Death rate 7.46 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bermuda Net migration rate 2.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bermuda Sex ratio at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Bermuda Infant mortality rate total: 9.05 deaths/1,000 live births female: 7.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 10.77 deaths/1,000 live births
Bermuda Life expectancy at birth total population: 77.41 years male: 75.38 years female: 79.49 years (2003 est.)
Bermuda Total fertility rate 1.9 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Bermuda HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate NA%
Bermuda HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
Bermuda HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Bermuda Nationality noun: Bermudian(s) adjective: Bermudian
Bermuda Ethnic groups black 58%, white 36%, other 6%
Bermuda Religions non-Anglican Protestant 39%, Anglican 27%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 19%
Bermuda Languages English (official), Portuguese
Bermuda Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 98% male: 98% female: 99% (1970 est.)
Bermuda Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Bermuda former: Somers Islands
Bermuda Dependency status overseas territory of the UK
Bermuda Government type parliamentary British overseas territory with internal self-government
Bermuda Capital Hamilton
Bermuda Administrative divisions 9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint George's, Sandys, Smith's, Southampton, Warwick
Bermuda Independence none (overseas territory of the UK)
Bermuda National holiday Bermuda Day, 24 May
Bermuda Constitution 8 June 1968, amended 1989
Bermuda Legal system English law
Bermuda Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Bermuda Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Sir John VEREKER (since NA April 2002) head of government: Premier Alex SCOTT (since 24 July 2003) cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed premier by the governor
Bermuda Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (an 11-member body appointed by the governor, the premier, and the opposition) and the House of Assembly (36 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last general election held 24 July 2003 (next to be held NA July 2008) election results: percent of vote by party - PLP 51.7%, UBP 48%; seats by party - PLP 22, UBP 14
Bermuda Judicial branch Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrate Courts
Bermuda Political parties and leaders National Liberal Party or NLP [Dessaline WALDRON]; Progressive Labor Party or PLP [Jennifer SMITH]; United Bermuda Party or UBP [Chairman Wayne FURBERT]
Bermuda Political pressure groups and leaders Bermuda Employer's Union [Eddie SAINTS]; Bermuda Industrial Union or BIU [Derrick BURGESS]; Bermuda Public Services Association or BPSA [leader NA]; Bermuda Union of Teachers [Michael CHARLES]
Bermuda International organization participation Caricom (observer), ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), IOC, WCO
Bermuda Diplomatic representation in the US none (overseas territory of the UK)
Bermuda Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Consul General Denis Patrick COLEMAN, Jr. consulate(s) general: Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire DVO3 mailing address: P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; American Consulate General Hamilton, Department of State, 5300 Hamilton Place, Washington, DC 20520-5300 telephone: [1] (441) 295-1342 FAX: [1] (441) 295-1592, [1] (441) 296-9233
Bermuda Flag description red, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (white and green shield with a red lion holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag
Bermuda Economy - overview Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, with its economy primarily based on providing financial services for international business and luxury facilities for tourists. The effects of 11 September 2001 have had both positive and negative ramifications for Bermuda. On the positive side, a number of new reinsurance companies have located on the island, contributing to the expansion of an already robust international business sector. On the negative side, Bermuda's tourism industry - which derives over 80% of its visitors from the US - has been severely hit as American tourists have chosen not to travel. Tourism rebounded somewhat in 2002, but remains below the pre-11 September level. Most capital equipment and food must be imported. Bermuda's industrial sector is small, although construction continues to be important. Agriculture is limited, only 6% of the land being arable.
Bermuda GDP purchasing power parity - $2.25 billion (2002 est.)
Bermuda GDP - real growth rate 0.5% (2002 est.)
Bermuda GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $35,200 (2002 est.)
Bermuda GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 1% industry: 10% services: 89% (2002 est.)
Bermuda Population below poverty line NA%
Bermuda Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Bermuda Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.3% (July 2002)
Bermuda Labor force 37,472 (2000)
Bermuda Labor force - by occupation clerical 22%, services 20%, laborers 17%, professional and technical 17%, administrative and managerial 13%, sales 8%, agriculture and fishing 3% (2000 est.)
Bermuda Unemployment rate 4.5% (1993)
Bermuda Budget revenues: $609.5 million expenditures: $574.6 million, including capital expenditures of $54.8 million (FY 00/01)
Bermuda Industries tourism, international business, light manufacturing
Bermuda Industrial production growth rate NA%
Bermuda Electricity - production 643.7 million kWh (2001)
Bermuda Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Bermuda Electricity - consumption 598.6 million kWh (2001)
Bermuda Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Bermuda Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Bermuda Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bermuda Oil - consumption 4,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bermuda Oil - exports NA (2001)
Bermuda Oil - imports NA (2001)
Bermuda Agriculture - products bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy products
Bermuda Exports $51 million (2000)
Bermuda Exports - commodities reexports of pharmaceuticals
Bermuda Exports - partners France 77.4%, UK 2.8%, US 2.4% (2002)
Bermuda Imports $719 million (2000)
Bermuda Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, chemicals, food and live animals
Bermuda Imports - partners Kazakhstan 30.9%, France 24.7%, Italy 10.5%, US 9.7%, South Korea 8.4%, Mexico 4.3% (2002)
Bermuda Debt - external $145 million (FY 99/00)
Bermuda Economic aid - recipient $NA
Bermuda Currency Bermudian dollar (BMD)
Bermuda Currency code BMD
Bermuda Exchange rates Bermudian dollar per US dollar - 1.0000 (fixed rate pegged to the US dollar)
Bermuda Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Bermuda Telephones - main lines in use 52,000 (1997)
Bermuda Telephones - mobile cellular 7,980 (1996)
Bermuda Telephone system general assessment: NA domestic: modern, fully automatic telephone system international: 3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Bermuda Radio broadcast stations AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)
Bermuda Television broadcast stations 3 (1997)
Bermuda Internet country code .bm
Bermuda Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 20 (2000)
Bermuda Internet users 25,000 (2000)
Bermuda Railways 0 km
Bermuda Highways total: 450 km paved: 450 km note: public roads - 209 km; private roads - 241 km (2002) unpaved: 0 km
Bermuda Waterways none
Bermuda Ports and harbors Hamilton, Saint George's, Dockyard
Bermuda Merchant marine total: 93 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 4,993,227 GRT/7,089,760 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Croatia 5, Denmark 2, Germany 1, Greece 1, Hong Kong 9, Indonesia 1, Norway 2, Sweden 11, United Kingdom 52, United States 13 (2002 est.) ships by type: bulk 25, cargo 4, chemical tanker 1, container 14, liquefied gas 9, passenger 5, petroleum tanker 11, refrigerated cargo 13, roll on/roll off 7, short-sea passenger 4
Bermuda Airports 1 (2002)
Bermuda Airports - with paved runways total: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2002)
Bermuda Military branches no regular indigenous military forces; Bermuda Regiment, Bermuda Police Force, Bermuda Reserve Constabulary
Bermuda Military expenditures - dollar figure $4.028 million (January 2002)
Bermuda Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.11% (FY00/01)
Bermuda Military - note defense is the responsibility of the UK
Bermuda Disputes - international none
Bermuda Background Bermuda was first settled in 1609 by shipwrecked English colonists headed for Virginia. Tourism to the island to escape North American winters first developed in Victorian times. Tourism continues to be important to the island's economy, although international business has overtaken it in recent years. Bermuda has developed into a highly successful offshore financial center. A referendum on independence was soundly defeated in 1995.
Bermuda Location North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, east of North Carolina (US)
Bermuda Geographic coordinates 32 20 N, 64 45 W
Bermuda Map references North America
Bermuda Area total: 53.3 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 53.3 sq km
Bermuda Area - comparative about one-third the size of Washington, DC
Bermuda Land boundaries 0 km
Bermuda Coastline 103 km
Bermuda Maritime claims exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
Bermuda Climate subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter
Bermuda Terrain low hills separated by fertile depressions
Bermuda Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Town Hill 76 m
Bermuda Natural resources limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism
Bermuda Land use arable land: 6% permanent crops: 0% other: 94% (55% developed, 45% rural/open space) (1998 est.)
Bermuda Irrigated land NA sq km
Bermuda Natural hazards hurricanes (June to November)
Bermuda Environment - current issues asbestos disposal; water pollution; preservation of open space; sustainable development
Bermuda Geography - note consists of about 138 coral islands and islets with ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land was leased by US Government from 1941 to 1995
Bermuda Population 64,482 (July 2003 est.)
Bermuda Age structure 0-14 years: 19.2% (male 6,195; female 6,205) 15-64 years: 69.3% (male 22,110; female 22,574) 65 years and over: 11.5% (male 3,215; female 4,183) (2003 est.)
Bermuda Median age total: 38.7 years male: 37.8 years female: 39.6 years (2002)
Bermuda Population growth rate 0.72% (2003 est.)
Bermuda Birth rate 12.13 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bermuda Death rate 7.46 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bermuda Net migration rate 2.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bermuda Sex ratio at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Bermuda Infant mortality rate total: 9.05 deaths/1,000 live births female: 7.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 10.77 deaths/1,000 live births
Bermuda Life expectancy at birth total population: 77.41 years male: 75.38 years female: 79.49 years (2003 est.)
Bermuda Total fertility rate 1.9 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Bermuda HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate NA%
Bermuda HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA
Bermuda HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Bermuda Nationality noun: Bermudian(s) adjective: Bermudian
Bermuda Ethnic groups black 58%, white 36%, other 6%
Bermuda Religions non-Anglican Protestant 39%, Anglican 27%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 19%
Bermuda Languages English (official), Portuguese
Bermuda Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 98% male: 98% female: 99% (1970 est.)
Bermuda Country name conventional long form: none conventional short form: Bermuda former: Somers Islands
Bermuda Dependency status overseas territory of the UK
Bermuda Government type parliamentary British overseas territory with internal self-government
Bermuda Capital Hamilton
Bermuda Administrative divisions 9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint George's, Sandys, Smith's, Southampton, Warwick
Bermuda Independence none (overseas territory of the UK)
Bermuda National holiday Bermuda Day, 24 May
Bermuda Constitution 8 June 1968, amended 1989
Bermuda Legal system English law
Bermuda Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Bermuda Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Sir John VEREKER (since NA April 2002) head of government: Premier Alex SCOTT (since 24 July 2003) cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed premier by the governor
Bermuda Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (an 11-member body appointed by the governor, the premier, and the opposition) and the House of Assembly (36 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last general election held 24 July 2003 (next to be held NA July 2008) election results: percent of vote by party - PLP 51.7%, UBP 48%; seats by party - PLP 22, UBP 14
Bermuda Judicial branch Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrate Courts
Bermuda Political parties and leaders National Liberal Party or NLP [Dessaline WALDRON]; Progressive Labor Party or PLP [Jennifer SMITH]; United Bermuda Party or UBP [Chairman Wayne FURBERT]
Bermuda Political pressure groups and leaders Bermuda Employer's Union [Eddie SAINTS]; Bermuda Industrial Union or BIU [Derrick BURGESS]; Bermuda Public Services Association or BPSA [leader NA]; Bermuda Union of Teachers [Michael CHARLES]
Bermuda International organization participation Caricom (observer), ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), IOC, WCO
Bermuda Diplomatic representation in the US none (overseas territory of the UK)
Bermuda Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Consul General Denis Patrick COLEMAN, Jr. consulate(s) general: Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire DVO3 mailing address: P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; American Consulate General Hamilton, Department of State, 5300 Hamilton Place, Washington, DC 20520-5300 telephone: [1] (441) 295-1342 FAX: [1] (441) 295-1592, [1] (441) 296-9233
Bermuda Flag description red, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (white and green shield with a red lion holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag
Bermuda Economy - overview Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, with its economy primarily based on providing financial services for international business and luxury facilities for tourists. The effects of 11 September 2001 have had both positive and negative ramifications for Bermuda. On the positive side, a number of new reinsurance companies have located on the island, contributing to the expansion of an already robust international business sector. On the negative side, Bermuda's tourism industry - which derives over 80% of its visitors from the US - has been severely hit as American tourists have chosen not to travel. Tourism rebounded somewhat in 2002, but remains below the pre-11 September level. Most capital equipment and food must be imported. Bermuda's industrial sector is small, although construction continues to be important. Agriculture is limited, only 6% of the land being arable.
Bermuda GDP purchasing power parity - $2.25 billion (2002 est.)
Bermuda GDP - real growth rate 0.5% (2002 est.)
Bermuda GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $35,200 (2002 est.)
Bermuda GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 1% industry: 10% services: 89% (2002 est.)
Bermuda Population below poverty line NA%
Bermuda Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Bermuda Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.3% (July 2002)
Bermuda Labor force 37,472 (2000)
Bermuda Labor force - by occupation clerical 22%, services 20%, laborers 17%, professional and technical 17%, administrative and managerial 13%, sales 8%, agriculture and fishing 3% (2000 est.)
Bermuda Unemployment rate 4.5% (1993)
Bermuda Budget revenues: $609.5 million expenditures: $574.6 million, including capital expenditures of $54.8 million (FY 00/01)
Bermuda Industries tourism, international business, light manufacturing
Bermuda Industrial production growth rate NA%
Bermuda Electricity - production 643.7 million kWh (2001)
Bermuda Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Bermuda Electricity - consumption 598.6 million kWh (2001)
Bermuda Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Bermuda Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Bermuda Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bermuda Oil - consumption 4,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bermuda Oil - exports NA (2001)
Bermuda Oil - imports NA (2001)
Bermuda Agriculture - products bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy products
Bermuda Exports $51 million (2000)
Bermuda Exports - commodities reexports of pharmaceuticals
Bermuda Exports - partners France 77.4%, UK 2.8%, US 2.4% (2002)
Bermuda Imports $719 million (2000)
Bermuda Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, chemicals, food and live animals
Bermuda Imports - partners Kazakhstan 30.9%, France 24.7%, Italy 10.5%, US 9.7%, South Korea 8.4%, Mexico 4.3% (2002)
Bermuda Debt - external $145 million (FY 99/00)
Bermuda Economic aid - recipient $NA
Bermuda Currency Bermudian dollar (BMD)
Bermuda Currency code BMD
Bermuda Exchange rates Bermudian dollar per US dollar - 1.0000 (fixed rate pegged to the US dollar)
Bermuda Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Bermuda Telephones - main lines in use 52,000 (1997)
Bermuda Telephones - mobile cellular 7,980 (1996)
Bermuda Telephone system general assessment: NA domestic: modern, fully automatic telephone system international: 3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Bermuda Radio broadcast stations AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)
Bermuda Television broadcast stations 3 (1997)
Bermuda Internet country code .bm
Bermuda Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 20 (2000)
Bermuda Internet users 25,000 (2000)
Bermuda Railways 0 km
Bermuda Highways total: 450 km paved: 450 km note: public roads - 209 km; private roads - 241 km (2002) unpaved: 0 km
Bermuda Waterways none
Bermuda Ports and harbors Hamilton, Saint George's, Dockyard
Bermuda Merchant marine total: 93 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 4,993,227 GRT/7,089,760 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Croatia 5, Denmark 2, Germany 1, Greece 1, Hong Kong 9, Indonesia 1, Norway 2, Sweden 11, United Kingdom 52, United States 13 (2002 est.) ships by type: bulk 25, cargo 4, chemical tanker 1, container 14, liquefied gas 9, passenger 5, petroleum tanker 11, refrigerated cargo 13, roll on/roll off 7, short-sea passenger 4
Bermuda Airports 1 (2002)
Bermuda Airports - with paved runways total: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2002)
Bermuda Military branches no regular indigenous military forces; Bermuda Regiment, Bermuda Police Force, Bermuda Reserve Constabulary
Bermuda Military expenditures - dollar figure $4.028 million (January 2002)
Bermuda Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.11% (FY00/01)
Bermuda Military - note defense is the responsibility of the UK
Bermuda Disputes - international none
Bhutan Background In 1865, Britain and Bhutan signed the Treaty of Sinchulu, under which Bhutan would receive an annual subsidy in exchange for ceding some border land. Under British influence, a monarchy was set up in 1907; three years later, a treaty was signed whereby the British agreed not to interfere in Bhutanese internal affairs and Bhutan allowed Britain to direct its foreign affairs. This role was assumed by independent India after 1947. Two years later, a formal Indo-Bhutanese accord returned the areas of Bhutan annexed by the British, formalized the annual subsidies the country received, and defined India's responsibilities in defense and foreign relations. A refugee issue of some 100,000 Bhutanese in Nepal remains unresolved; 90% of the refugees are housed in seven United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) camps. Maoist Assamese separatists from India, who have established themselves in the southeast portion of Bhutan, have drawn Indian cross-border incursions.
Bhutan Location Southern Asia, between China and India
Bhutan Geographic coordinates 27 30 N, 90 30 E
Bhutan Map references Asia
Bhutan Area total: 47,000 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 47,000 sq km
Bhutan Area - comparative about half the size of Indiana
Bhutan Land boundaries total: 1,075 km border countries: China 470 km, India 605 km
Bhutan Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Bhutan Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Bhutan Climate varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas
Bhutan Terrain mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna
Bhutan Elevation extremes lowest point: Drangme Chhu 97 m highest point: Kula Kangri 7,553 m
Bhutan Natural resources timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide
Bhutan Land use arable land: 2.98% permanent crops: 0.43% other: 96.59% (1998 est.)
Bhutan Irrigated land 400 sq km (1998 est.)
Bhutan Natural hazards violent storms from the Himalayas are the source of the country's name which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon; frequent landslides during the rainy season
Bhutan Environment - current issues soil erosion; limited access to potable water
Bhutan Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Bhutan Geography - note landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes
Bhutan Population 2,139,549 note: other estimates range as low as 810,000 (July 2003 est.)
Bhutan Age structure 0-14 years: 39.6% (male 438,784; female 407,919) 15-64 years: 56.4% (male 621,666; female 585,550) 65 years and over: 4% (male 43,262; female 42,368) (2003 est.)
Bhutan Median age total: 20.1 years male: 19.9 years female: 20.3 years (2002)
Bhutan Population growth rate 2.14% (2003 est.)
Bhutan Birth rate 34.82 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bhutan Death rate 13.47 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bhutan Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bhutan Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.02 male(s)/female total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Bhutan Infant mortality rate total: 104.68 deaths/1,000 live births female: 106.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 102.49 deaths/1,000 live births
Bhutan Life expectancy at birth total population: 53.58 years male: 53.9 years female: 53.25 years (2003 est.)
Bhutan Total fertility rate 4.94 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Bhutan HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
Bhutan HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS less than 100 (1999 est.)
Bhutan HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Bhutan Nationality noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural) adjective: Bhutanese
Bhutan Ethnic groups Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35% (includes Lhotsampas--one of several Nepalese ethnic groups), indigenous or migrant tribes 15%
Bhutan Religions Lamaistic Buddhist 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced Hinduism 25%
Bhutan Languages Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects, Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects
Bhutan Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 42.2% male: 56.2% female: 28.1% (1995 est.)
Bhutan Country name conventional long form: Kingdom of Bhutan conventional short form: Bhutan
Bhutan Government type monarchy; special treaty relationship with India
Bhutan Capital Thimphu
Bhutan Administrative divisions 18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural); Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang, Dagana, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang, Tashigang, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang note: there may be two new districts named Gasa and Yangtse
Bhutan Independence 8 August 1949 (from India)
Bhutan National holiday National Day (Ugyen WANGCHUCK became first hereditary king), 17 December (1907)
Bhutan Constitution no written constitution or bill of rights; note - the King commissioned a committee to draft a constitution in 2001, but has yet to be approved
Bhutan Legal system based on Indian law and English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Bhutan Suffrage each family has one vote in village-level elections
Bhutan Executive branch chief of state: King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972) elections: none; the monarch is hereditary, but democratic reforms in July 1998 grant the National Assembly authority to remove the monarch with two-thirds vote head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Lyonpo Jigme Y. THINLEY (since 30 August 2003) cabinet: Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog) nominated by the monarch, approved by the National Assembly; members serve fixed, five-year terms; note - there is also a Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde), members nominated by the monarch
Bhutan Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Tshogdu (150 seats; 105 elected from village constituencies, 10 represent religious bodies, and 35 are designated by the monarch to represent government and other secular interests; members serve three-year terms) elections: local elections last held November 2002 (next to be held NA 2005) election results: NA
Bhutan Judicial branch Supreme Court of Appeal (the monarch); High Court (judges appointed by the monarch)
Bhutan Political parties and leaders no legal parties
Bhutan Political pressure groups and leaders Buddhist clergy; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading militant antigovernment campaign; Indian merchant community; United Front for Democracy (exiled)
Bhutan International organization participation AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OPCW (signatory), SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WTrO (observer)
Bhutan Diplomatic representation in the US none; note - Bhutan has a Permanent Mission to the UN; address: 2 United Nations Plaza, 27th Floor, New York, NY 10017; telephone [1] (212) 826-1919; the Bhutanese mission to the UN has consular jurisdiction in the US consulate(s) general: New York
Bhutan Diplomatic representation from the US the US and Bhutan have no formal diplomatic relations, although informal contact is maintained between the Bhutanese and US Embassy in New Delhi (India)
Bhutan Flag description divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper triangle is yellow and the lower triangle is orange; centered along the dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from the hoist side
Bhutan Economy - overview The economy, one of the world's smallest and least developed, is based on agriculture and forestry, providing the main livelihood for more than 90% of the population. Agriculture consists largely of subsistence farming and animal husbandry. Rugged mountains dominate the terrain and make the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive. The economy is closely aligned with India's through strong trade and monetary links and dependence on India's financial assistance. The industrial sector is technologically backward, with most production of the cottage industry type. Most development projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian migrant labor. Bhutan's hydropower potential and its attraction for tourists are key resources. The government has made some progress in expanding the nation's productive base and improving social welfare. Model education, social, and environment programs are underway with support from multilateral development organizations. Each economic program takes into account the government's desire to protect the country's environment and cultural traditions. Detailed controls and uncertain policies in areas like industrial licensing, trade, labor, and finance continue to hamper foreign investment.
Bhutan GDP purchasing power parity - $2.7 billion (2002 est.)
Bhutan GDP - real growth rate 7.7% (2002 est.)
Bhutan GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,300 (2002 est.)
Bhutan GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 45% industry: 10% services: 45% (2002 est.)
Bhutan Population below poverty line NA%
Bhutan Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Bhutan Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3% (2002 est.)
Bhutan Labor force NA note: massive lack of skilled labor
Bhutan Labor force - by occupation agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry and commerce 2%
Bhutan Unemployment rate NA%
Bhutan Budget revenues: $146 million expenditures: $152 million, including capital expenditures of NA note: the government of India finances nearly three-fifths of Bhutan's budget expenditures (FY95/96 est.)
Bhutan Industries cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages, calcium carbide
Bhutan Industrial production growth rate 9.3% (1996 est.)
Bhutan Electricity - production 1.896 billion kWh (2001)
Bhutan Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 0.1% hydro: 99.9% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Bhutan Electricity - consumption 379.5 million kWh (2001)
Bhutan Electricity - exports 1.4 billion kWh (2001)
Bhutan Electricity - imports 16 million kWh (2001)
Bhutan Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bhutan Oil - consumption 1,020 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bhutan Oil - exports NA (2001)
Bhutan Oil - imports NA (2001)
Bhutan Agriculture - products rice, corn, root crops, citrus, foodgrains; dairy products, eggs
Bhutan Exports $154 million f.o.b. (2000 est.)
Bhutan Exports - commodities electricity (to India), cardamom, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit, precious stones, spices
Bhutan Exports - partners US 24.1%, UK 23.9%, Pakistan 23.1%, France 13.9% (2002)
Bhutan Imports $196 million c.i.f. (2000 est.)
Bhutan Imports - commodities fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts, vehicles, fabrics, rice
Bhutan Imports - partners Japan 44.5%, Germany 12.2%, UK 8.5%, Singapore 6%, South Korea 5%, US 4.2% (2002)
Bhutan Debt - external $245 million (2000)
Bhutan Economic aid - recipient substantial aid from India and other nations
Bhutan Currency ngultrum (BTN); Indian rupee (INR)
Bhutan Currency code BTN; INR
Bhutan Exchange rates ngultrum per US dollar - 48.61 (2002), 47.19 (2001), 44.94 (2000), 43.06 (1999), 41.26 (1998)
Bhutan Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Bhutan Telephones - main lines in use 6,000 (1997)
Bhutan Telephones - mobile cellular NA
Bhutan Telephone system general assessment: NA domestic: domestic telephone service is very poor with few telephones in use international: international telephone and telegraph service is by landline through India; a satellite earth station was planned (1990)
Bhutan Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)
Bhutan Television broadcast stations 0 (1997)
Bhutan Internet country code .bt
Bhutan Internet Service Providers (ISPs) NA
Bhutan Internet users 2,500 (2002)
Bhutan Railways 0 km
Bhutan Highways total: 3,690 km paved: 2,240 km unpaved: 1,450 km (1999 est.)
Bhutan Waterways none
Bhutan Ports and harbors none
Bhutan Airports 2 (2002)
Bhutan Airports - with paved runways total: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)
Bhutan Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)
Bhutan Military branches Royal Bhutan Army, Royal Bodyguard, National Militia, Royal Bhutan Police, Forest Guards
Bhutan Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Bhutan Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 530,860 (2003 est.)
Bhutan Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 283,493 (2003 est.)
Bhutan Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 22,755 (2003 est.)
Bhutan Military expenditures - dollar figure $9.3 million (FY02)
Bhutan Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.9% (FY02)
Bhutan Disputes - international approximately 100,000 Bhutanese refugees living in Nepal, 90% of whom reside in seven UN Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees camps, place decades-long strains on Nepal
Bhutan Background In 1865, Britain and Bhutan signed the Treaty of Sinchulu, under which Bhutan would receive an annual subsidy in exchange for ceding some border land. Under British influence, a monarchy was set up in 1907; three years later, a treaty was signed whereby the British agreed not to interfere in Bhutanese internal affairs and Bhutan allowed Britain to direct its foreign affairs. This role was assumed by independent India after 1947. Two years later, a formal Indo-Bhutanese accord returned the areas of Bhutan annexed by the British, formalized the annual subsidies the country received, and defined India's responsibilities in defense and foreign relations. A refugee issue of some 100,000 Bhutanese in Nepal remains unresolved; 90% of the refugees are housed in seven United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) camps. Maoist Assamese separatists from India, who have established themselves in the southeast portion of Bhutan, have drawn Indian cross-border incursions.
Bhutan Location Southern Asia, between China and India
Bhutan Geographic coordinates 27 30 N, 90 30 E
Bhutan Map references Asia
Bhutan Area total: 47,000 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 47,000 sq km
Bhutan Area - comparative about half the size of Indiana
Bhutan Land boundaries total: 1,075 km border countries: China 470 km, India 605 km
Bhutan Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Bhutan Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Bhutan Climate varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas
Bhutan Terrain mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna
Bhutan Elevation extremes lowest point: Drangme Chhu 97 m highest point: Kula Kangri 7,553 m
Bhutan Natural resources timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide
Bhutan Land use arable land: 2.98% permanent crops: 0.43% other: 96.59% (1998 est.)
Bhutan Irrigated land 400 sq km (1998 est.)
Bhutan Natural hazards violent storms from the Himalayas are the source of the country's name which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon; frequent landslides during the rainy season
Bhutan Environment - current issues soil erosion; limited access to potable water
Bhutan Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Bhutan Geography - note landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes
Bhutan Population 2,139,549 note: other estimates range as low as 810,000 (July 2003 est.)
Bhutan Age structure 0-14 years: 39.6% (male 438,784; female 407,919) 15-64 years: 56.4% (male 621,666; female 585,550) 65 years and over: 4% (male 43,262; female 42,368) (2003 est.)
Bhutan Median age total: 20.1 years male: 19.9 years female: 20.3 years (2002)
Bhutan Population growth rate 2.14% (2003 est.)
Bhutan Birth rate 34.82 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bhutan Death rate 13.47 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bhutan Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bhutan Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.02 male(s)/female total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Bhutan Infant mortality rate total: 104.68 deaths/1,000 live births female: 106.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 102.49 deaths/1,000 live births
Bhutan Life expectancy at birth total population: 53.58 years male: 53.9 years female: 53.25 years (2003 est.)
Bhutan Total fertility rate 4.94 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Bhutan HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
Bhutan HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS less than 100 (1999 est.)
Bhutan HIV/AIDS - deaths NA
Bhutan Nationality noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural) adjective: Bhutanese
Bhutan Ethnic groups Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35% (includes Lhotsampas--one of several Nepalese ethnic groups), indigenous or migrant tribes 15%
Bhutan Religions Lamaistic Buddhist 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced Hinduism 25%
Bhutan Languages Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects, Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects
Bhutan Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 42.2% male: 56.2% female: 28.1% (1995 est.)
Bhutan Country name conventional long form: Kingdom of Bhutan conventional short form: Bhutan
Bhutan Government type monarchy; special treaty relationship with India
Bhutan Capital Thimphu
Bhutan Administrative divisions 18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural); Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang, Dagana, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang, Tashigang, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang note: there may be two new districts named Gasa and Yangtse
Bhutan Independence 8 August 1949 (from India)
Bhutan National holiday National Day (Ugyen WANGCHUCK became first hereditary king), 17 December (1907)
Bhutan Constitution no written constitution or bill of rights; note - the King commissioned a committee to draft a constitution in 2001, but has yet to be approved
Bhutan Legal system based on Indian law and English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Bhutan Suffrage each family has one vote in village-level elections
Bhutan Executive branch chief of state: King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972) elections: none; the monarch is hereditary, but democratic reforms in July 1998 grant the National Assembly authority to remove the monarch with two-thirds vote head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Lyonpo Jigme Y. THINLEY (since 30 August 2003) cabinet: Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog) nominated by the monarch, approved by the National Assembly; members serve fixed, five-year terms; note - there is also a Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde), members nominated by the monarch
Bhutan Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Tshogdu (150 seats; 105 elected from village constituencies, 10 represent religious bodies, and 35 are designated by the monarch to represent government and other secular interests; members serve three-year terms) elections: local elections last held November 2002 (next to be held NA 2005) election results: NA
Bhutan Judicial branch Supreme Court of Appeal (the monarch); High Court (judges appointed by the monarch)
Bhutan Political parties and leaders no legal parties
Bhutan Political pressure groups and leaders Buddhist clergy; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading militant antigovernment campaign; Indian merchant community; United Front for Democracy (exiled)
Bhutan International organization participation AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OPCW (signatory), SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WTrO (observer)
Bhutan Diplomatic representation in the US none; note - Bhutan has a Permanent Mission to the UN; address: 2 United Nations Plaza, 27th Floor, New York, NY 10017; telephone [1] (212) 826-1919; the Bhutanese mission to the UN has consular jurisdiction in the US consulate(s) general: New York
Bhutan Diplomatic representation from the US the US and Bhutan have no formal diplomatic relations, although informal contact is maintained between the Bhutanese and US Embassy in New Delhi (India)
Bhutan Flag description divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper triangle is yellow and the lower triangle is orange; centered along the dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from the hoist side
Bhutan Economy - overview The economy, one of the world's smallest and least developed, is based on agriculture and forestry, providing the main livelihood for more than 90% of the population. Agriculture consists largely of subsistence farming and animal husbandry. Rugged mountains dominate the terrain and make the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive. The economy is closely aligned with India's through strong trade and monetary links and dependence on India's financial assistance. The industrial sector is technologically backward, with most production of the cottage industry type. Most development projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian migrant labor. Bhutan's hydropower potential and its attraction for tourists are key resources. The government has made some progress in expanding the nation's productive base and improving social welfare. Model education, social, and environment programs are underway with support from multilateral development organizations. Each economic program takes into account the government's desire to protect the country's environment and cultural traditions. Detailed controls and uncertain policies in areas like industrial licensing, trade, labor, and finance continue to hamper foreign investment.
Bhutan GDP purchasing power parity - $2.7 billion (2002 est.)
Bhutan GDP - real growth rate 7.7% (2002 est.)
Bhutan GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,300 (2002 est.)
Bhutan GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 45% industry: 10% services: 45% (2002 est.)
Bhutan Population below poverty line NA%
Bhutan Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Bhutan Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3% (2002 est.)
Bhutan Labor force NA note: massive lack of skilled labor
Bhutan Labor force - by occupation agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry and commerce 2%
Bhutan Unemployment rate NA%
Bhutan Budget revenues: $146 million expenditures: $152 million, including capital expenditures of NA note: the government of India finances nearly three-fifths of Bhutan's budget expenditures (FY95/96 est.)
Bhutan Industries cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages, calcium carbide
Bhutan Industrial production growth rate 9.3% (1996 est.)
Bhutan Electricity - production 1.896 billion kWh (2001)
Bhutan Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 0.1% hydro: 99.9% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Bhutan Electricity - consumption 379.5 million kWh (2001)
Bhutan Electricity - exports 1.4 billion kWh (2001)
Bhutan Electricity - imports 16 million kWh (2001)
Bhutan Oil - production 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bhutan Oil - consumption 1,020 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bhutan Oil - exports NA (2001)
Bhutan Oil - imports NA (2001)
Bhutan Agriculture - products rice, corn, root crops, citrus, foodgrains; dairy products, eggs
Bhutan Exports $154 million f.o.b. (2000 est.)
Bhutan Exports - commodities electricity (to India), cardamom, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit, precious stones, spices
Bhutan Exports - partners US 24.1%, UK 23.9%, Pakistan 23.1%, France 13.9% (2002)
Bhutan Imports $196 million c.i.f. (2000 est.)
Bhutan Imports - commodities fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts, vehicles, fabrics, rice
Bhutan Imports - partners Japan 44.5%, Germany 12.2%, UK 8.5%, Singapore 6%, South Korea 5%, US 4.2% (2002)
Bhutan Debt - external $245 million (2000)
Bhutan Economic aid - recipient substantial aid from India and other nations
Bhutan Currency ngultrum (BTN); Indian rupee (INR)
Bhutan Currency code BTN; INR
Bhutan Exchange rates ngultrum per US dollar - 48.61 (2002), 47.19 (2001), 44.94 (2000), 43.06 (1999), 41.26 (1998)
Bhutan Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Bhutan Telephones - main lines in use 6,000 (1997)
Bhutan Telephones - mobile cellular NA
Bhutan Telephone system general assessment: NA domestic: domestic telephone service is very poor with few telephones in use international: international telephone and telegraph service is by landline through India; a satellite earth station was planned (1990)
Bhutan Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)
Bhutan Television broadcast stations 0 (1997)
Bhutan Internet country code .bt
Bhutan Internet Service Providers (ISPs) NA
Bhutan Internet users 2,500 (2002)
Bhutan Railways 0 km
Bhutan Highways total: 3,690 km paved: 2,240 km unpaved: 1,450 km (1999 est.)
Bhutan Waterways none
Bhutan Ports and harbors none
Bhutan Airports 2 (2002)
Bhutan Airports - with paved runways total: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)
Bhutan Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)
Bhutan Military branches Royal Bhutan Army, Royal Bodyguard, National Militia, Royal Bhutan Police, Forest Guards
Bhutan Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Bhutan Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 530,860 (2003 est.)
Bhutan Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 283,493 (2003 est.)
Bhutan Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 22,755 (2003 est.)
Bhutan Military expenditures - dollar figure $9.3 million (FY02)
Bhutan Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.9% (FY02)
Bhutan Disputes - international approximately 100,000 Bhutanese refugees living in Nepal, 90% of whom reside in seven UN Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees camps, place decades-long strains on Nepal
Bolivia Background Bolivia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR, broke away from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history has consisted of a series of nearly 200 coups and counter-coups. Comparatively democratic civilian rule was established in the 1980s, but leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty, social unrest, and drug production. Current goals include attracting foreign investment, strengthening the educational system, resolving disputes with coca growers over Bolivia's counterdrug efforts, continuing the privatization program, and waging an anticorruption campaign.
Bolivia Location Central South America, southwest of Brazil
Bolivia Geographic coordinates 17 00 S, 65 00 W
Bolivia Map references South America
Bolivia Area total: 1,098,580 sq km water: 14,190 sq km land: 1,084,390 sq km
Bolivia Area - comparative slightly less than three times the size of Montana
Bolivia Land boundaries total: 6,743 km border countries: Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km, Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km
Bolivia Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Bolivia Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Bolivia Climate varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid
Bolivia Terrain rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin
Bolivia Elevation extremes lowest point: Rio Paraguay 90 m highest point: Nevado Sajama 6,542 m
Bolivia Natural resources tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower
Bolivia Land use arable land: 1.73% permanent crops: 0.21% other: 98.06% (1998 est.)
Bolivia Irrigated land 1,280 sq km (1998 est.)
Bolivia Natural hazards flooding in the northeast (March-April)
Bolivia Environment - current issues the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used for drinking and irrigation
Bolivia Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection
Bolivia Geography - note landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru
Bolivia Population 8,586,443 (July 2003 est.)
Bolivia Age structure 0-14 years: 37.1% (male 1,624,366; female 1,562,501) 15-64 years: 58.4% (male 2,452,892; female 2,561,873) 65 years and over: 4.5% (male 172,292; female 212,519) (2003 est.)
Bolivia Median age total: 20.8 years male: 20.1 years female: 21.5 years (2002)
Bolivia Population growth rate 1.63% (2003 est.)
Bolivia Birth rate 25.53 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bolivia Death rate 7.91 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bolivia Net migration rate -1.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bolivia Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Bolivia Infant mortality rate total: 56.05 deaths/1,000 live births female: 52.16 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 59.75 deaths/1,000 live births
Bolivia Life expectancy at birth total population: 64.78 years male: 62.2 years female: 67.48 years (2003 est.)
Bolivia Total fertility rate 3.23 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Bolivia HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.1% - note: no country specific models provided (2001 est.)
Bolivia HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 4,600 (2001 est.)
Bolivia HIV/AIDS - deaths 290 (2001 est.)
Bolivia Nationality noun: Bolivian(s) adjective: Bolivian
Bolivia Ethnic groups Quechua 30%, mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) 30%, Aymara 25%, white 15%
Bolivia Religions Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist)
Bolivia Languages Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)
Bolivia Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 87.2% male: 93.1% female: 81.6% (2003 est.)
Bolivia Country name conventional long form: Republic of Bolivia conventional short form: Bolivia local short form: Bolivia local long form: Republica de Bolivia
Bolivia Government type republic
Bolivia Capital La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat of judiciary)
Bolivia Administrative divisions 9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija
Bolivia Independence 6 August 1825 (from Spain)
Bolivia National holiday Independence Day, 6 August (1825)
Bolivia Constitution 2 February 1967; revised in August 1994
Bolivia Legal system based on Spanish law and Napoleonic Code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Bolivia Suffrage 18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married); 21 years of age, universal and compulsory (single)
Bolivia Executive branch chief of state: President Carlos Diego MESA Gisbert (since 17 October 2003); Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Carlos Diego MESA Gisbert (since 17 October 2003); Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 30 June 2002 (next to be held NA June 2007) election results: as a result of no candidate winning a majority in the 30 June 2002 election, Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA Bustamante was chosen president by Congress; Congressional votes - Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA Bustamante 84, Evo MORALES 43; note - following the resignation of the elected president on 17 October 2003, Vice President Carlos Diego MESA Gisbert assumed the presidency
Bolivia Legislative branch bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (27 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms; note - some members are drawn from party lists, thus not directly elected) elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies - last held 30 June 2002 (next to be held NA June 2007) election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MNR 11, MAS 8, MIR 5, NFR 2, other 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MNR 36, MAS 27, MIR 26, NFR 25, others 16
Bolivia Judicial branch Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges appointed for 10-year terms by National Congress); District Courts (one in each department); provincial and local courts (to try minor cases)
Bolivia Political parties and leaders Bolivian Socialist Falange or FSB [Romel PANTOJA]; Civic Solidarity Union or UCS [Johnny FERNANDEZ]; Free Bolivia Movement or MBL [Franz BARRIOS]; Marshal of Ayacucho Institutional Vanguard or VIMA [Freddy ZABALA]; Movement of the Revolutionary Left or MIR [Jaime PAZ Zamora]; Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Evo MORALES]; Movement Without Fear or MSM [Juan DEL GRANADO]; Nationalist Democratic Action or ADN [Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez]; Nationalist Revolutionary Movement or MNR [Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA]; New Republican Force or NFR [Manfred REYES-VILLA]; Pachakuti Indigenous Movement or MIP [Felipe QUISPE]; Socialist Party or PS [Jeres JUSTINIANO] note: the MNR, MIR, and UCS comprise the ruling coalition
Bolivia Political pressure groups and leaders Cocalero Groups; indigenous organizations; labor unions; Sole Confederation of Campesino Workers of Bolivia or CSUTCB [Felipe QUISPE]
Bolivia International organization participation ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MONUC, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMISET, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Bolivia Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Jaime APARICIO Otero chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 consulate(s) general: Miami, New York, and San Francisco consulate(s): Washington, DC FAX: [1] (202) 328-3712 telephone: [1] (202) 483-4410
Bolivia Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador David N. GREENLEE embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, San Jorge, La Paz mailing address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032 telephone: [591] (2) 2430120, 2430251 FAX: [591] (2) 2433900
Bolivia Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band
Bolivia Economy - overview Bolivia, long one of the poorest and least developed Latin American countries, made considerable progress in the 1990s toward the development of a market-oriented economy. Successes under President SANCHEZ DE LOZADA (1993-97) included the signing of a free trade agreement with Mexico and becoming an associate member of the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur), as well as the privatization of the state airline, telephone company, railroad, electric power company, and oil company. Growth slowed in 1999, in part due to tight government budget policies, which limited needed appropriations for anti-poverty programs, and the fallout from the Asian financial crisis. In 2000, major civil disturbances held down growth to 2.5%. Bolivia's GDP failed to grow in 2001 due to the global slowdown and laggard domestic activity. Growth picked up slightly in 2002, but the first quarter of 2003 saw extensive civil riots and looting and loss of confidence in the government. Bolivia will remain highly dependent on foreign aid unless and until it can develop its substantial natural resources.
Bolivia GDP purchasing power parity - $21.15 billion (2002 est.)
Bolivia GDP - real growth rate 2.8% (2002 est.)
Bolivia GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,500 (2002 est.)
Bolivia GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 20% industry: 20% services: 60% (2002 est.)
Bolivia Population below poverty line 70% (1999 est.)
Bolivia Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1.3% highest 10%: 32% (1999)
Bolivia Distribution of family income - Gini index 58.9 (1997)
Bolivia Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2% (2001 est.)
Bolivia Labor force 2.5 million
Bolivia Labor force - by occupation agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Bolivia Unemployment rate 7.6% note: widespread underemployment (2000)
Bolivia Budget revenues: $4 billion expenditures: $4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.)
Bolivia Industries mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco, handicrafts, clothing
Bolivia Industrial production growth rate 3.9% (1998)
Bolivia Electricity - production 3.901 billion kWh (2001)
Bolivia Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 44.4% hydro: 54% other: 1.5% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Bolivia Electricity - consumption 3.634 billion kWh (2001)
Bolivia Electricity - exports 3 million kWh (2001)
Bolivia Electricity - imports 9 million kWh (2001)
Bolivia Oil - production 44,340 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bolivia Oil - consumption 49,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Bolivia Oil - exports NA (2001)
Bolivia Oil - imports NA (2001)
Bolivia Oil - proved reserves 458.8 million bbl (37257)
Bolivia Natural gas - production 4.05 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Bolivia Natural gas - consumption 1.15 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Bolivia Natural gas - exports 2.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Bolivia Natural gas - imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Bolivia Natural gas - proved reserves 727.2 billion cu m (37257)
Bolivia Agriculture - products soybeans, coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice, potatoes; timber
Bolivia Exports $1.3 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Bolivia Exports - commodities soybeans, natural gas, zinc, gold, wood (2000)
Bolivia Exports - partners Brazil 24.3%, Switzerland 15.7%, US 14.1%, Venezuela 12.8%, Colombia 10.2%, Peru 5.4% (2002)
Bolivia Imports $1.6 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Bolivia Imports - commodities capital goods, raw materials and semi-manufactures, chemicals, petroleum, food
Bolivia Imports - partners Brazil 22%, Argentina 17.4%, US 15.6%, Chile 7%, Japan 5.5%, Peru 5.4%, China 4.8% (2002)
Bolivia Debt - external $5.9 billion (2002 est.)
Bolivia Economic aid - recipient $588 million (1997)
Bolivia Currency boliviano (BOB)
Bolivia Currency code BOB
Bolivia Exchange rates bolivianos per US dollar - 7.17 (2002), 6.61 (2001), 6.18 (2000), 5.81 (1999), 5.51 (1998)
Bolivia Fiscal year calendar year
Bolivia Telephones - main lines in use 327,600 (1996)
Bolivia Telephones - mobile cellular 116,000 (1997)
Bolivia Telephone system general assessment: new subscribers face bureaucratic difficulties; most telephones are concentrated in La Paz and other cities; mobile cellular telephone use expanding rapidly domestic: primary trunk system, which is being expanded, employs digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic cable; mobile cellular systems are being expanded international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Bolivia Radio broadcast stations AM 171, FM 73, shortwave 77 (1999)
Bolivia Television broadcast stations 48 (1997)
Bolivia Internet country code .bo
Bolivia Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 9 (2000)
Bolivia Internet users 78,000 (2000)
Bolivia Railways total: 3,519 km narrow gauge: 3,519 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)
Bolivia Highways total: 53,790 km paved: 3,496 km (including 13 km of expressways) unpaved: 50,294 km (2000 est.)
Bolivia Waterways 10,000 km (commercially navigable)
Bolivia Pipelines gas 4,860 km; liquid petroleum gas 47 km; oil 2,460 km; refined products 1,589 km; unknown (oil/water) 247 km (2003)
Bolivia Ports and harbors Puerto Aguirre (on the Paraguay/Parana waterway, at the Bolivia/Brazil border); also, Bolivia has free port privileges in maritime ports in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay
Bolivia Merchant marine total: 53 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 347,535 GRT/591,113 DWT ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 25, chemical tanker 4, container 4, livestock carrier 1, petroleum tanker 12, roll on/roll off 1, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 1 note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of Belize 2, China 2, Cuba 1, Cyprus 1, Egypt 1, Honduras 1, Latvia 2, Liberia 2, Panama 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Saudi Arabia 1, Singapore 1, South Korea 3, Switzerland 1, Ukraine 1, UAE 5, US 1 (2002 est.)
Bolivia Airports 1,081 (2002)
Bolivia Airports - with paved runways total: 12 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)
Bolivia Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1,069 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 64 914 to 1,523 m: 225 under 914 m: 776 (2002)
Bolivia Military branches Army (Ejercito Boliviano), Navy (Fuerza Naval, includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana), National Police Force (Policia Nacional de Bolivia)
Bolivia Military manpower - military age 19 years of age (2003 est.)
Bolivia Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,118,908 (2003 est.)
Bolivia Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,380,883 (2003 est.)
Bolivia Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 96,003 (2003 est.)
Bolivia Military expenditures - dollar figure $147 million (FY99)
Bolivia Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.8% (FY99)
Bolivia Disputes - international continues to press Chile and Peru to restore the Atacama corridor ceded to Chile in 1884; Chile demands water rights to Bolivia's Rio Lauca and Silala Spring
Bolivia Illicit drugs world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Colombia and Peru) with an estimated 24,400 hectares under cultivation in June 2002, a 23% increase from June 2001; intermediate coca products and cocaine exported to or through Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile to the US and other international drug markets; eradication and alternative crop programs under the SANCHEZ DE LOZADA administration have been unable to keep pace with farmers' attempts to increase cultivation after significant reductions in 1998 and 1999; money-laundering activity related to narcotics trade, especially along the borders with Brazil and Paraguay
Bolivia Background Bolivia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR, broke away from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history has consisted of a series of nearly 200 coups and counter-coups. Comparatively democratic civilian rule was established in the 1980s, but leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty, social unrest, and drug production. Current goals include attracting foreign investment, strengthening the educational system, resolving disputes with coca growers over Bolivia's counterdrug efforts, continuing the privatization program, and waging an anticorruption campaign.
Bolivia Location Central South America, southwest of Brazil
Bolivia Geographic coordinates 17 00 S, 65 00 W
Bolivia Map references South America
Bolivia Area total: 1,098,580 sq km water: 14,190 sq km land: 1,084,390 sq km
Bolivia Area - comparative slightly less than three times the size of Montana
Bolivia Land boundaries total: 6,743 km border countries: Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km, Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km
Bolivia Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Bolivia Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Bolivia Climate varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid
Bolivia Terrain rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin
Bolivia Elevation extremes lowest point: Rio Paraguay 90 m highest point: Nevado Sajama 6,542 m
Bolivia Natural resources tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower
Bolivia Land use arable land: 1.73% permanent crops: 0.21% other: 98.06% (1998 est.)
Bolivia Irrigated land 1,280 sq km (1998 est.)
Bolivia Natural hazards flooding in the northeast (March-April)
Bolivia Environment - current issues the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used for drinking and irrigation
Bolivia Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection
Bolivia Geography - note landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru
Bolivia Population 8,586,443 (July 2003 est.)
Bolivia Age structure 0-14 years: 37.1% (male 1,624,366; female 1,562,501) 15-64 years: 58.4% (male 2,452,892; female 2,561,873) 65 years and over: 4.5% (male 172,292; female 212,519) (2003 est.)
Bolivia Median age total: 20.8 years male: 20.1 years female: 21.5 years (2002)
Bolivia Population growth rate 1.63% (2003 est.)
Bolivia Birth rate 25.53 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bolivia Death rate 7.91 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bolivia Net migration rate -1.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Bolivia Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Bolivia Infant mortality rate total: 56.05 deaths/1,000 live births female: 52.16 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 59.75 deaths/1,000 live births
Bolivia Life expectancy at birth total population: 64.78 years male: 62.2 years female: 67.48 years (2003 est.)
Bolivia Total fertility rate 3.23 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Bolivia HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.1% - note: no country specific models provided (2001 est.)
Bolivia HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 4,600 (2001 est.)
Bolivia HIV/AIDS - deaths 290 (2001 est.)
Bolivia Nationality noun: Bolivian(s) adjective: Bolivian
Bolivia Ethnic groups Quechua 30%, mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) 30%, Aymara 25%, white 15%
Bolivia Religions Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist)
Bolivia Languages Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)
Bolivia Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 87.2% male: 93.1% female: 81.6% (2003 est.)
Bolivia Country name conventional long form: Republic of Bolivia conventional short form: Bolivia local short form: Bolivia local long form: Republica de Bolivia
Bolivia Government type republic
Bolivia Capital La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat of judiciary)
Bolivia Administrative divisions 9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija
Bolivia Independence 6 August 1825 (from Spain)
Bolivia National holiday Independence Day, 6 August (1825)
Bolivia Constitution 2 February 1967; revised in August 1994
Bolivia Legal system based on Spanish law and Napoleonic Code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Bolivia Suffrage 18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married); 21 years of age, universal and compulsory (single)
Bolivia Executive branch chief of state: President Carlos Diego MESA Gisbert (since 17 October 2003); Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Carlos Diego MESA Gisbert (since 17 October 2003); Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 30 June 2002 (next to be held NA June 2007) election results: as a result of no candidate winning a majority in the 30 June 2002 election, Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA Bustamante was chosen president by Congress; Congressional votes - Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA Bustamante 84, Evo MORALES 43; note - following the resignation of the elected president on 17 October 2003, Vice President Carlos Diego MESA Gisbert assumed the presidency
Bolivia Legislative branch bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (27 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms; note - some members are drawn from party lists, thus not directly elected) elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies - last held 30 June 2002 (next to be held NA June 2007) election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MNR 11, MAS 8, MIR 5, NFR 2, other 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MNR 36, MAS 27, MIR 26, NFR 25, others 16
Bolivia Judicial branch Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges appointed for 10-year terms by National Congress); District Courts (one in each department); provincial and local courts (to try minor cases)
Bolivia Political parties and leaders Bolivian Socialist Falange or FSB [Romel PANTOJA]; Civic Solidarity Union or UCS [Johnny FERNANDEZ]; Free Bolivia Movement or MBL [Franz BARRIOS]; Marshal of Ayacucho Institutional Vanguard or VIMA [Freddy ZABALA]; Movement of the Revolutionary Left or MIR [Jaime PAZ Zamora]; Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Evo MORALES]; Movement Without Fear or MSM [Juan DEL GRANADO]; Nationalist Democratic Action or ADN [Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez]; Nationalist Revolutionary Movement or MNR [Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA]; New Republican Force or NFR [Manfred REYES-VILLA]; Pachakuti Indigenous Movement or MIP [Felipe QUISPE]; Socialist Party or PS [Jeres JUSTINIANO] note: the MNR, MIR, and UCS comprise the ruling coalition
Bolivia Political pressure groups and leaders Cocalero Groups; indigenous organizations; labor unions; Sole Confederation of Campesino Workers of Bolivia or CSUTCB [Felipe QUISPE]
Bolivia International organization participation ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MONUC, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMISET, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Bolivia Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Jaime APARICIO Otero chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 consulate(s) general: Miami, New York, and San Francisco consulate(s): Washington, DC FAX: [1] (202) 328-3712 telephone: [1] (202) 483-4410
Bolivia Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador David N. GREENLEE embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, San Jorge, La Paz mailing address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032 telephone: [591] (2) 2430120, 2430251 FAX: [591] (2) 2433900
Bolivia Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band
Bolivia Economy - overview Bolivia, long one of the poorest and least developed Latin American countries, made considerable progress in the 1990s toward the development of a market-oriented economy. Successes under President SANCHEZ DE LOZADA (1993-97) included the signing of a free trade agreement with Mexico and becoming an associate member of the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur), as well as the privatization of the state airline, telephone company, railroad, electric power company, and oil company. Growth slowed in 1999, in part due to tight government budget policies, which limited needed appropriations for anti-poverty programs, and the fallout from the Asian financial crisis. In 2000, major civil disturbances held down growth to 2.5%. Bolivia's GDP failed to grow in 2001 due to the global slowdown and laggard domestic activity. Growth picked up slightly in 2002, but the first quarter of 2003 saw extensive civil riots and looting and loss of confidence in the government. Bolivia will remain highly dependent on foreign aid unless and until it can develop its substantial natural resources.
Bolivia GDP purchasing power parity - $21.15 billion (2002 est.)
Bolivia GDP - real growth rate 2.8% (2002 est.)
Bolivia GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,500 (2002 est.)
Bolivia GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 20% industry: 20% services: 60% (2002 est.)
Bolivia Population below poverty line 70% (1999 est.)
Bolivia Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1.3% highest 10%: 32% (1999)
Bolivia Distribution of family income - Gini index 58.9 (1997)
Bolivia Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2% (2001 est.)
Bolivia Labor force 2.5 million
Bolivia Labor force - by occupation agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Bolivia Unemployment rate 7.6% note: widespread underemployment (2000)
Bolivia Budget revenues: $4 billion expenditures: $4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.)
Bolivia Industries mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco, handicrafts, clothing
Bolivia Industrial production growth rate 3.9% (1998)
Bolivia Electricity - production 3.901 billion kWh (2001)
Bolivia Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 44.4% hydro: 54% other: 1.5% (2001) nuclear: 0%
Bolivia Electricity - consumption 3.634 billion kWh (2001)
Bolivia Electricity - exports 3 mill